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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 16 through 30 of 131 found.


An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS

Rispoli, Matthew, et al. Quantum Critical Behavior at the Many-Body-Localization Transition. arXiv:1812.06959. While equilibrium quantum systems are said to be well quantified, non-equilibrium phenomena have not yet been. Here seven Harvard University physicists describe how these active phases can be explained by better measurements of their entanglement properties. We cite to record how the arcane quantum realm is being parsed by the same critically poised systems theory as everywhere else. And from the Abstract: Our results unify the system's microscopic structure with its macroscopic quantum critical behavior, and they provide an essential step towards understanding criticality and universality in non-equilibrium systems.

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS

Tran, Minh, et al. Locality and Digital Quantum Simulation of Power-Law Interactions. Physical Review X. 9/031006, 2019. This entry by an eight person team based at the University of Maryland Joint Center for Quantum Information including Alexey Gorshkov is one more instance of how quantum nature, long seen as strangely off-putting, has lately been brought into a common systems fold.

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > physics

Drossel, Barbara. Strong Emergence in Condensed Matter Physics. arXiv:1909.01134. In a contribution to appear in a Synthese issue on Top-Down Causation, the Technical University Darmstadt theoretical physicist (search) contends that from a 2019 vista this basic field, aka many-body physics, by virtue of integrative summations of myriad particles (entities), does inherently give rise to macroscopic formations. See also How Downwards Causation Occurs in Digital Computers by George Ellis and the author at 1908.10186 and Emergent Quasiparticles by Alexandre Guay and Olivier Sartenaer in Individuation, Process, and Scientific Practices by Otavio Bueno, et al, eds. (Oxford UP, 2018).

This paper argues that the physics of condensed matter cannot be reduced to the supposedly fundamental quantum mechanical theory for all the atoms of which the system consists. In fact, there are many reasons to reject the idea that the world of physics is causally closed with everything being determined by bottom-up by microscopic laws. In actual practice condensed-matter theory does not start with atomic interactions. Instead, plausible assumptions, intuitive models, and phenomena are used to mathematically describe the properties of systems that consist of a macroscopic number of particles. The paper thus includes a list of arguments in favor of strong emergence and top-down causation within the realm of physics. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > exouniverse

Alonso-Serrano, Ana and Gil Jannes. Conceptual Challenges on the Road to the Multiverse. Universe. 5/10, 2019. MPI Gravitational Physics and Complutense University of Madrid astrophysicists provide an historic, philosophical, cosmological and anthropic survey of this expansive frontier

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > exouniverse

Drabrowski, Mariusz. Anthropic Selection of Physical Constants, Quantum Entanglement, and the Multiverse Falsifiability.. v:1910.09073. The Director of the University of Szczecin Cosmology Group provides a latest, insightful survey of many ways this dawning perception seems to be coming to fruition.

This paper evaluates some important aspects of the multiverse concept. Firstly, the most realistic opportunity for it which is the spacetime variability of the physical constants and may deliver worlds with different physics, hopefully fulfilling the conditions of the anthropic principles. Then, more esoteric versions of the multiverse being the realisation of some abstract mathematics or even logic. Finally, it evaluates the big challenge of getting any signal from "other universes" using recent achievements of the quantum theory. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > exouniverse

Siegfried, Tom. The Number of the Heavens: A History of the Multiverse and the Quest to Understand the Cosmos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2019. The senior science writer about physics and information (search) here provides a detailed recount of man’s (some 275 male names in the index, one primary woman Lisa Randell) historic wonderments about our starry raiment. Its compass runs from Aristotle and Atomists to Robert Grosseteste in the 13th century onto Copernicus, Nicholas of Cusa, Newton, Galileo, and company as horizons expanded from a sun and moon. Circa 1900, Alfred Wallace’s cosmos had our solar system at its center. The 20th century went on to reveal a galactic universe, its inflationary origin, temporal nucleosynthesis. By 2000, via quantum, string, and other theories, a wider presence became implied and/or required of multiple cosmoses with widely different, contingent properties. Anthropic explanations whence such parameters can be explained because they permit life and intelligence to appear are duly chronicled. As 2020 nears, if one might turn and reflect, how fantastic is this scenario which aware human beings upon a minute ovoworld have at last come to realize.

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Geyer, Delphine, et al. Freezing a Flock: Motility-Induced Phase Separation in Polar Active Liquids. Physical Review X.. 9/031043, 2019. University of Lyon and University of Paris researchers including Denis Bartolo deftly perceive in their experimental setup how particulate densities in a flowing stream seem to exhibit their an inherent propensity to transform into more organized groupings. The work merited an editorial Viewpoint: A Crowd Freezes Up which highlights deep affinities between physics and people.

Combining experiments and theory, we investigate the dense phases of polar active matter beyond the conventional flocking picture. We show that above a critical density flocks assembled from self-propelled colloids arrest their collective motion, lose their orientational order, and form solids that actively rearrange their local structure while continuously melting and freezing at their boundaries. We argue that the suppression of collective motion in the form of solid jams is a generic feature of flocks assembled from motile units that reduce their speed as density increases, a feature common to a broad class of active bodies, from synthetic colloids to living creatures. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Jarvis, Peter and Jeremy Sumner. Systematics and Symmetry in Molecular Phylogenetic Modeling: Perspectives from Physics. Journal of Physics A. 54/45, 2019. University of Tasmania physicists scope out a broad and deep affinity between entanglement, Markov invariance and other phenomena with life’s mathematically rooted course as the extended Abstract explains. See also Quantum Channel Simulation of Phylogenetic Branching Models by Jarvis and D. Ellinas in this journal (52/11, 2019).

Phylogenetics is the suite of mathematical and computational methods by which biologists infer past evolutionary relationships between observed species. Here we wish to emphasize the many features of multipartite entanglement which are shared between descriptions of quantum states on the physics side, and the multi-way tensor probability arrays arising in phylogenetics. In some instances, well-known objects such as the Cayley hyperdeterminant can be directly imported into the formalism. In other cases new objects appear, such as the remarkable 'squangle' invariants for quartet tree discrimination, which for DNA data are of quintic degree, with their own unique interpretation in the phylogenetic modelling context. All this hints strongly at the natural and universal presence of entanglement as a phenomenon which reaches across disciplines. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Wills, Peter. Reflexivity, Coding and Quantum Biology. Biosystems. Online September, 2019. The University of Auckland philosophical biologist continues his frontier studies beyond a constrained Darwinian selection to include self-organizion, epigenetics, autocatalysis, symbolic information with Harold Pattee and Paul Davies, cooperative groupings and more. An active, codified development with a computational guise and a “reflexive” spontaneity thus becomes evident. With this in place, it is mused that evolutionary theories might at last be fulfilling Erwin Schrodinger’s view of an intrinsic physical fertility. Wills is often joined by University of North Carolina biochemist Charles Carter (search both) for papers such as Interdependence, Reflexivity, Fidelity, Impedance Matching, and the Evolution of Genetic Coding in Molecular Biology and Evolution (35/2, 2018).

Biological systems are fundamentally computational in that they process information in a purposeful fashion rather than just transferring bits of it in a syntactical manner. It carries meaning defined by the molecular context of its cellular environment. Information processing in biological systems displays an inherent reflexivity, a tendency for the information-processing to be “about” the behaviour of the molecules that participate in the computational process. This is most evident in the operation of the genetic code, where the specificity of the reactions catalysed by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) enzymes is required to be self-sustaining. A cell’s suite of aaRS enzymes completes a reflexively autocatalytic set of molecular components capable of making themselves by way of reflexive information stored in an organism’s genome. The genetic code is a reflexively self-organised, evolved symbolic system of chemical self-description. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Wright, Katherine. Life is Physics. Physics Magazine. January 11, 2019. Physicists are on the hunt for a “theory of life” that explains why life can exist. A senior editor reviews this historic re-convergence and theoretical closure underway in our midst as biology and physics, life and land become one again.

(Ramin) Golestanian and (Nigel) Goldenfeld both believe that the traits of life, such as replication, evolution, and using energy to move, are examples of what condensed-matter physicists call “emergent phenomena”—complex properties that arise from the interactions of a large number of simpler components. For example, superconductivity is a macroscopic property that arises in metals from attractive interactions among its electrons, which lead to a state with zero electrical resistance. In the case of life, the emergent behaviors arise from interactions among molecules and from how the molecules group together to form structures or carry out functions.

Animate Cosmos > Information > Quant Info

Haken, Hermann and Juval Portugali, eds. Special Issue “Information and Self-Organization II.”. Entropy. Online September, 2019. The lead Stuttgart University physicist, now in his 93rd year, is a premier pioneer of complex system theories since the 1970s. He again joins with the Tel Aviv University geographer to provide a space for these vital studies. The closing date for entries is January 31, 2021.

In the first Special Issue — “Information and Self-Organization” — (Haken and Portugali 2016), the aim was to deal with the different ways processes of self-organization are linked with the various forms of information. In the present Special Issue — “Information and Self-Organization II” — the aim is to extend the discussion by adding studies exploring further aspects and domains of information and self-organization, such as principles of self-organization based on information theory, social neurology, and coordination dynamics, the ‘free energy principle’, or their conjunction, and special topics such as cities, language, economy, culture, and society as self-organizing systems, etc.

Animate Cosmos > Information > Quant Info

Lewis-Swan, Robert, et al. Dynamics of Quantum Information. Nature Reviews Physics. 1/8, 2019. We cite this entry by University of Colorado, Center for Theory of Quantum Matter physicists in coauthor Ana Maria Rey’s group (second quote) as one more good example of these revolutionary quantum frontiers. As entries herein note, referrals to strange intractability are gone, rather this phenomena with its special properties is can lately be treated and availed as another accessible, macro complex realm, similar to everywhere else.

The ability to harness the dynamics of quantum information and entanglement is vital to the development of quantum technologies and the study of complex quantum systems. On the theoretical side, this is a topical field helping us to unify and confront common problems in physics, quantum statistical mechanics and cosmology. Experimentally, an ability to now manipulate neutral atoms and trapped ions help reveal their quantum dynamics. Here, we discuss progress in characterizing quantum entanglement and information scrambling in quantum many-body systems. The level of control over both the internal and external degrees of freedom of individual particles in these systems serves to join entanglement and thermodynamics, and the information transport and computational complexity of interacting systems. (Abstract)

My research interests are in the scientific interface between atomic, molecular and optical physics, condensed matter physics and quantum information science. Specifically, I seek to develop new techniques for controlling quantum systems and then using them in applications ranging from quantum simulations/information to time and frequency standards. My group wants to engineer controllable quantum systems capable to mimic desired real materials as well as to create advanced and novel measurement techniques to probe atomic quantum systems at the fundamental level. (Ana Maria Rey)

Animate Cosmos > Intelligence

Chittka, Lars and Catherine Wilson. Expanding Consciousness. American Scientist. November-December, 2019. As current realizations proceed apace that a universal sentience indeed graces by degree all evolutionary creatures and further afield, a Queen Mary University London behaviorial ecologist and a CCNY philosopher weigh in that even social insects (bees) have complex member and hive behaviors which implies they must be aware of what they are doing. See also Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon by CW in the Harvard Review of Philosophy<.i> (Vol. 25, 2019).

If, as we have argued, consciousness is an evolutionary invention—akin to wings or lungs—that is useful to us, it is most likely useful to other organisms with traits deeply homologous to ours. They share with us the difficulties of moving, probing the environment, remembering, predicting the future, and coping with unforeseen challenges. If the same behavioral and cognitive criteria are applied as to much larger-brained vertebrates, then some insects qualify as conscious agents, with no less certainty than dogs or cats. (369)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Matsoukas, Themis. Thermodynamics Beyond Molecules: Statistical Thermodynamics of Probability Distributions. Entropy. 21/9, 2019. The Penn State chemical engineering professor and author of Generalized Statistical Thermodynamics (Springer, 2018) describes a variational calculus which can lead to mathematical network relationships. A statistical mechanics thus accrues via a foray into information theories and Bayesian inference.

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat

Palyi, Gyula, et al, eds. Advances in Asymmetric Autocatalysis. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press, 2017. University of Modena, Italy and University of Pannonia, Hungary editors gather chapters about life’s deep propensity to catalyze, activate, organize itself by way of intrinsic, recurrent drives, structures and processes all the way from universe to us. A typical chapter is The Importance of Parachirality in Life Science by Noriko Fujii, et al.

Asymmetric autocatalysis is a chemical reaction which leads from achiral starting materials to chiral products, and in which the product accelerates its own formation reaction (conventional catalysis) and promotes the prevalence of its own chiral configuration (asymmetric induction). The book contains expert-contributed chapters that describe the most exciting recent developments in the field of the Soai reaction and in related topics, ranging from mechanistic studies and theoretical research, to practical problems in chiral syntheses and products.

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