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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 16 through 30 of 139 found.


Planetary Prodigy: A Global Sapiensphere Learns by Her/His Own Self

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science

Wolchover, Natalie. New Wrinkle Added to Cosmology’s Hubble Crisis. Quanta. February 26, 2020. A news report on a current. hotly disputed, split over two ways to calibrate, quantify and interpret the rate of cosmic expansion. One camp led by Nobel laureate Adam Reiss (Johns Hopkins) uses pulsating stars called cepheids as their standard candle. The other view by Wendy Freeman and Barry Madore (University of Chicago) relies on the dusty Large Magellanic Cloud. For entry technical papers see The Megamaser Cosmology Project at 2001.09213 (AR) and Calibration of the Red Giant Branch at 2002.01550 (WF & BM). A popular discussion is The Cosmic Crisis by Richard Panek in Scientific American (March 2020).

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Bahri, Yasaman, et al. Statistical Mechanics of Deep Learning. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. 11/501, 2020. Google Brain and Stanford University researchers scope out ways to root neural-like networks as they come pervade and apply everywhere into an increasingly conducive physical phenomena. We add that an implication might be a nascent sense of a cerebral cosmos trying to achieve its self-witness and re-presentation via our globally capacious intellect.

The recent success of deep neural networks in machine learning raises deep questions about underlying theoretical principles. We methods of interactive physical analysis rooted in statistical mechanics which have begun to yield conceptual connections between deep learning and diverse physical and mathematical topics, including random landscapes, spin glasses, jamming, dynamical phase transitions, chaos, Riemannian geometry, random matrix theory, free probability, and nonequilibrium phases. (Abstract excerpt)

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Bausch, Johannes and Felix Leditsky. Quantum Codes from Neural Networks. New Journal of Physics. 22/023005, 2020. We cite this paper by Cambridge University and University of Colorado computational physicists as a gppd instance of how readily cerebral architectures can be effectively applied acrpss far-removed domains. These common transfers open another window upon a universal, iconic bipartite (node/link) and triune (whole brain, genome, etc.) nature.

We examine the usefulness of applying neural networks as a variational state ansatz (approach) for many-body quantum systems for quantum information-processing tasks. In the neural network state, the complex amplitude function of a quantum state is computed. The resulting multipartite entanglement structure can describe the unitary dynamics of physical systems of interest. Here we show that neural networks can efficiently represent quantum codes for information transmission. Our main points are: a) Neural networks yield quantum codes with high coherent information for two important quantum channels, b) For the depolarizing channel, they find the best repetition codes and, c) Neural networks cam represent a special type of quantum error-correcting codes. (Abstract excerpt)

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Beer, Kerstin, et al. Efficient Learning for Deep Quantum Neural Networks. arXiv:1902.10445. Leibniz University Hannover physicists describe how readily our own analytic cerebral topologies can be adapted to and availed in this basic physical realm, especially for computational methods. Google the above institute to learn about the authors and how their Light and Matter at the Quantum Frontier project is auguring to begin a new natural creation (let there be light a second time).

Neural networks enjoy widespread success in both research and industry and, with the imminent advent of quantum technology, it is now a crucial challenge to design neural networks for fully quantum learning tasks. Here we propose the use of neurons as a building block for quantum feed-forward networks capable of universal computation. We describe the efficient training of these networks using fidelity as a cost function and provide both classical and efficient quantum implementations. Our method allows for fast optimisation with reduced memory requirements such that the number of qudits required scales with only the width. (Abstract edits)

In this paper we have introduced natural quantum generalisations of perceptrons and (deep) neural networks, and proposed an efficient quantum training algorithm. The resulting QML (Quantum Machine Learning) algorithm, when applied to our QNNs, they demonstrate remarkable capabilities, including, the ability to generalise, tolerance to noisy training data, and an absence of a barren plateau in the cost function landscape. (4)

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Senior, Andrew, et al. Improved Protein Structure Prediction using Potentials from Deep Learning. Nature. 577/706, 2020. Nineteen DeepMind London and University College London researchers including Demis Hassabis describe novel algorithms which are able to study, predict, and create life’s primary, variegated, multi-purpose biomolecule. Dubbed AlphaFold, the advance is touted as a good example of how Artificial Intelligence AL can be of increasing value and utility. A commentary in the same issue is Protein Structure Prediction Gets Real by Mohammed AlQuraraishi (627).

A Learning Planet > Mindkind Knowledge

Kozlowski, Wojciech and Stephanie Wehner. Towards Large-Scale Quantum Networks. arXiv:1909.08396. QuTech, Delft University of Technology physicists continue to scope out the growing possibility by way of rapid advances in quantum computation of a local and global webworks with meta-capabilities.

The vision of a quantum internet is to fundamentally enhance Internet technology by enabling quantum communication between any two points on Earth. While the first realisations of small scale quantum networks are expected in the near future, scaling such networks presents immense challenges to physics, computer science and engineering. Here, we provide a gentle introduction to quantum networking targeted at computer scientists, and survey the state of the art. We proceed to discuss key challenges for computer science in order to make such networks a reality. (Abstract)

A Learning Planet > Mindkind Knowledge

Shafik, Rishad and Alex Yakovlev. Harmonizing Energy-Autonomous Computing and Intelligence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 378/0594, 2019. Newcastle University scientists introduce a special issue about an Internet of Things whence all manner of digital devices, networks, data flow, identifiers, watchers become hyper-connected. For example, see Boolean Satisfiability in Quantum Compilation by Mathias Soeken, et al, Energy-driven Computing by Sivert Sliper, et al, A Semi-Holographic Hyperdimensional Representation System for Cognitive Computing by A. Serb, et al, and Markov Blankets, Information Geometry and Stochastic Thermodynamics by Thomas Parr, et al (Abstract below). As readers know, this AI transition is fraught with issues – how to balance better connectivity, computational resources, smart cities with worse dangers of surveillance and control, and so on.

The dramatic spread of computing systems at the scale of trillions leads to their pervasive penetration into the real world. As such, the way they are designed and maintained requires not only inventing new methodologies but rethinking the philosophy behind the creative processes employed by engineers and theoreticians. Autonomous sourcing and managing energy in electronic circuits and harmonizing them for reliable and maintenance-free operation are central to enable this ICT revolution. This theme issue covers a wide spectrum of challenges and opportunities for the theory and practices of design, modelling and validation of new generation computing systems. (Synopsis)

A Learning Planet > Mindkind Knowledge > News

Frontiers in Computational Methods for Active Matter. www.cecam.org/workshop1797. This is a workshop organized by the European Center for Atomic and Molecular Calculations CECAM and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology held in Lausanne in mid February, 2020. Typical presentations are Collective Behavior and Self-Organization of Active Granular Particles and Active Matter Driven by Growth, with a book of abstract available from this site. We cite this event for itself and to record the annual series run by these agencies. Altogether they convey the multiversal scientific considerations going forth locally and worldwide. Some other workshop titles are Atomistic Simulations in Prebiotic Chemistry, Active Matter and Artificial Intelligence, Network analysis to elucidate natural system dynamics, Deep Learning in Materials Science, and Software Development in Quantum Dynamics.

In view of the broad range of active matter systems, various numerical approaches have been developed to model such systems. Some of the major challenges arising in modeling active systems are: (i) Active matter is a multiscale material similar to other complex fluids such as milk or blood, (ii) Active fluids are intrinsically out of equilibrium due to energy consumption on microscopic scale, (iii) The interactions between active particles can be highly nonlinear and are often of multibody character (e.g. hydrodynamic interactions or interactions due to chemical stimuli), (iv) Active particles are mostly not simple geometrical objects, such as hard spheres, but rather of complex shape due to propulsion and other functional units. The goal of this workshop is to bring together the experts in modeling soft condensed matter and biological systems to tie recent advances in computational techniques and the most recent ideas and concepts of active matter theory. (Summary)

An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Coley, Alan and George Ellis. Theoretical Cosmology. Classial and Quantum Gravity. 37/1, 2020. Dalhousie University and University of Cape Town physicists inaugurate the 2020s decade with a 50 page survey the past, present and future of salient mathematical, computational, spatial form, temporal course, philosophical aspects. Staying within our own universe, black holes, gravitational waves, singularities, dark energy, nonlinearities, string inflation and more are considered. But again it would seem that there must be some innate, eternal cosmic purpose for valiant participatory human beings whom altogether are capable of observing, quantifying, recording such depths and reaches.

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Erhard, Manuel, et al. Advances in High Dimensional Quantum Entanglement. 1911.10006. University of Vienna Center for Quantum Science polyphysicists ME, Mario Krenn and Anton Zeilinger (search) provide another avocation that physical studies are in the midst of a second, 21st century reinvention of what constitutes this fundamental realm. In addition to radical reconceptions akin to other natural and social stages, as if opening a new frontier these foundational abilities will lead to all sorts of novel utilizations. The article’s 217 references are a good resource going forward.

Since its discovery in the last century, quantum entanglement has challenged some of our most cherished classical views, such as locality and reality. Today, the second quantum revolution is in full swing and promises to revolutionize areas such as computation, communication, and imaging. Here, we review conceptual and experimental advances in complex entangled systems involving many multilevel quantum particles. We also show how academic curiosity and fundamental research has led to new technological applications such as a quantum internet or teleportation of all information stored in a quantum system. (Abstract excerpt)

If the system size in terms of number and dimensionality grows to extensive numbers, exotic phenomena arise. Examples are superconductivity, super-fluids or Bose-Einstein condensates. These systems still pose significant theoretical as well as experimental challenges. A deeper understanding of these extremely large and highly correlated quantum systems might very well reveal new physics. (3)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Loll, Renata. Quantum Gravity from Causal Dynamical Triangulations: A Review. arXiv:1905.08669. The Radboud University and Perimeter Institute theorist continues her collegial studies of a fantastic cosmos which we peoples evolve and emerge and awaken from with our phenomenal abilities to explore and learn. A natural philoSophia might then be that we are the very microcosmic selves who are made and meant to so quantify, realize, affirm and take forward a procreative genesis universe.

We give a topical, comprehensive overview and assessment of recent results in Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT), a modern formulation of lattice and quantum gravity nonperturbatively from a scaling limit of the lattice-regularized theory. In this manifestly diffeomorphism-invariant approach one has computational access to a Planckian spacetime regime, which is explored with the help of invariant quantum observables. During the last few years, there have been numerous new and important developments and insights concerning the theory's phase structure, the roles of time, causality, diffeomorphisms and global topology, and renormalization group methods. We will focus on these new results, primarily in four spacetime dimensions, and their geometric and physical implications. (Abstract edit)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Mastichiadis, Apostolos, et al. A Roadmap to Hadronic Supercriticalities. arXiv:2003.06956. A Roadmap to Hadronic Supercriticalities. arXiv:2003.06956. We cite this entry by National University of Athens astrophysicists for itself and for wider implications. When this site went online in the early 2000s there was little if any notice of such complexities across the celestial raiment. Today it is readily accepted that nonlinear phenomena like critical phase transitions occur in this widest realm, just as everywhere else. Once again a natural universality is found which well implies an independent, mathematical source. A philoSophia glimpse would be how grand it is that collaborative persons from this ancient land are now able to travel to and quantify this cosmic breadth and depth.

Hadronic supercriticalities are radiative instabilities that appear when large amounts of energy are stored in relativistic protons. When the proton energy density exceeds some critical value, a runaway process is initiated resulting in the explosive transfer of the proton energy into electron-positron pairs and radiation and the increase of the photon-to-proton efficiency. We show that supercriticalities are possible for the whole range of source parameters related to compact astrophysical sources. We also provide an in-depth look at the physical mechanisms of hadronic supercriticalities and show that magnetized relativistic plasmas are excellent examples of non-linear dynamical systems. (Abstract)

The basic premise of a hadronic scenario as applied to the compact high-energy emitting region(s) of an astrophysical source can be summarised as follows. The model assumes the presence of a relativistic proton population that interacts with its environment in two main ways. First, the gyromotion of protons in the magnetic fields of the source produces synchrotron emission, and secondly, the photohadronic interactions with low-energy photons lead to the production of many secondary particles. (1)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Sabchez, Norma. New Quantum Phase of the Universe before Inflation and its Cosmological and Dark Energy Implications. International Journal of Modern Physics A. 34/27, 2020. A Sorbonne University, CNRS Observatory of Paris, astrophysicist posts a mathematical treatise with sections such as Classical-Quantum Duality through the Planck Scale and Total de Sitter Universe and its Dual Symmetry. These theories as displayed in a Fig. 1 become The Universe Completed by Quantum Physics in Terms of Gravity History (second quote). So by a natural philoSophia view, human women and men seem to be innately capable, whoever and wherever possible, of achieving cosmic quantifications across any depth and reach. By a further stretch, all spatial and temporal creation seems trying pass to and through our sapient acumen. See also New Quantum Structure of the Space Time by NS in Gravitation and Cosmology (25/2, 2019) and Predictive Physics of Inflation and Grand Unification at arXiv:2001.04795.

The physical history of the Universe is completed by including the quantum planckian and trans-planckian phase before Inflation in the Standard Model of the Universe in agreement with observations. A new quantum precursor phase appears beyond the Planck scale. We extend de Sitter universe to the quantum domain: classical-quantum de Sitter duality. As a result, the classical and quantum dual de Sitter temperatures and entropies are naturally included, and the de Sitter regimes characterized in a precise and unifying way. Relevant cosmological phenomena then allow us to describe Quantum spectra and their CMB observables, including the classical Inflation spectra. A unifying picture for the Universe epochs and their quantum precursors emerges with the cosmological constant as the vacuum energy, entropy and temperature. (Abridged Abstract)

The Whole History. An Unifying Picture: We see that going back in time along the Universe evolution from the present era to the early stages where the Universe becames more and more quantum, the classical temperature TΛ decreases, as it must be, the quantum temperature TQ becomes higher and the values of the Classical and Quantum temperatures TΛ and TQ become closer of each other, the difference disappearing at the Planck scale, which is the crossing scale between the classical/semiclassical and quantum gravity regimes or eras. (40)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Aerts, Conny. Probing the Interior Physics of Stars through Asteroseimology. arXiv:1912.12300. Asteroseismology, the interpretation of the characteristics of oscillation modes in terms of the physical properties of the stellar interior, brought entirely new insights in how stars rotate and how they build up their chemistry throughout their evolution. The KU Leuven, Belgium astrophysicist and Radboud University, Netherlands Institute of Astronomy director posts a 70 page popular review of this new cosmic field

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Stanway, Elizabeth. Applications of Stellar Population Synthesis in the Distant Universe. /galaxies. 8/1, 2020. A University of Warwick astrophysicist provides another example of the 21st century reach and depth of scientific explorations still in thier initial development via Earth and space sensory instrumentation, along with computational methods. By a natural philoSophia going forward, our collaborative humankinder, as able to instantly post, communicate, iterate and advance, seems poised to carry out a self-quantitative description of the whole animate ecosmos.

This review discusses both our current state of understanding of galaxies in the distant Universe, and how that understanding is informed by the stellar population synthesis models we use. Key examples and uncertainties are highlighted, and a holistic approach, in which all possible diagnostic indicators of a stellar population are considered, is advocated. (2)

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