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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 39 of 39 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Sinhuber, Raphael, et al. Self-organization in Natural Swarms od Synchronous Fireflies. Science Advances. 7/28, 2021. Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado biobehavior researchers including Orit Peleg provide a further sophisticated analysis via 3D perceptions of this coordinated phenomena which natural mathematic interactive rules organize. See also An Equation of State for Insect Swarms by Michael Sinhuber, et al in Nature Scientific Reports (11/3773, 2021.)

Fireflies flashing is a sure sign of animal collective behavior and biological synchrony. To elucidate synchronization mechanisms and inform theoretical models, we recorded the collective display of thousands of Photinus carolinus fireflies in natural swarms. At low firefly density, flashes appear uncorrelated. At high density, the swarm produces synchronous flashes within periodic bursts. Our results suggest that fireflies interact through a dynamic network of visual connections defined by terrain and vegetation. This model illuminates how a certain environment shapes self-organization and collective behavior. (Sarfati abstract excerpt)

Collective behaviour in flocks, crowds, and swarms occurs throughout the biological world. Animal groups are generally assumed to be adapted by evolution to achieve vital functions, so there is much interest for bio-inspired usages. Here we show that collective groups can be described by a thermodynamic framework and define a set of state variables and an equation of state for midge swarms. Our findings provide a new way of quantifying collective groups so to serve future bio-engineering design. (Sinhuber abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

Bohdalkova, Eliska, et al. Universality in Biodiversity Patterns: Variation in Species Temperature and Species-Productivity Relationships. Ecography. 44/9, 2021. Into the 2020s, Charles University, Prague ecologists describe a sophisticated survey across near and far diverse flora and fauna environs which is now able to discern such a common recurrence of spatial and temporal patterns.

Temperature and productivity appear as universal positive large-scale correlates of species richness. However, the strength and the shape of species–temperature (STR) and species–productivity (SPR) relationships vary widely, and are insufficiently studies. We analysed species richness data for multiple taxa in various regions and different clades within global vertebrate classes to test the effects of spatial scale and taxa character on the strength and direction of STRs and SPRs. The effect of temperature on species richness is complex and context-dependent, while productivity is a more universal driver of species richness, largely independent of given region or taxon. Productivity thus appears as the main proximate driver of species richness patterns, probably due to its effect on the limits of the number of viable populations which can coexist in a given environment. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

Zelnik, Yuval, et al. High-Integrity Human Intervention in Ecosystems: Tracking Self-Organization Modes. PLoS Computational Biology. September, 2021. Into the 2020s, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Ben-Gurion University ecological theorists including Ehud Meron contend that a full appreciation and application of nature’s dynamic spontaneities complexities (the river bank is finally untangled and explained) can well inform and guide future mitigations (droughts, fires) and improvements (biodiversity, etc.)

Humans play major roles in shaping and transforming the ecology of Earth. Unlike natural drivers of ecosystem change, human interventions may involve planning and management, but often with detrimental results. Using model studies and aerial-image analysis, we argue that a successful management calls for an understanding of the dynamic self-organization modes that drive ecosystem change. We demonstrate this approach with two examples: grazing control in drought-prone ecosystems, and the rehabilitation of degraded vegetation by water harvesting. We show that spatially non-uniform grazing can aid a resilience to droughts, and that fragmental restoration along contour bands is better than vegetation stripes. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Sentience > Brain Anatomy

Tosches, Maria. From Cell Types to an Integrated Understanding of Brain Evolution: The Case of the Cerebral Cortex.. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. Vol. 37, 2021. A Columbia University neurobiologist provides a summary survey to date of her collegial project to conceptually and experimentally reconstruct how neural net faculties formed and emerged with regard to Vertebrate phylogeny, forebrain neuroanatomy, tetrapartite palliams and more across invertebrates, fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals onto curious, brilliant sapient selves.

With the discovery of the incredible diversity of neurons, Ramon y Cajal and coworkers laid the foundation of modern neuroscience. Neuron types are not only structural elements of nervous systems but evolutionary units, because their identities are encoded in genomes. With the advent of high-throughput cellular transcriptomics, neurons can be compared systematically across species. Research results now indicate that the mammalian cerebral cortex is a mosaic of deeply conserved and recently evolved neuron types. This review illustrates how various neuron types is key to observations on neural development, neuroanatomy, circuit wiring, and physiology for an integrated understanding of brain evolution. (Abstract excerpt)

Our Earthuman Moment: A Major Evolutionary Transition in Individuality

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Symbiotic Self

Comfort, Nathaniel. How Science Has Shifted our Sense of Identity. Nature. 574/167, 2019. A Johns Hopkins University historian of medicine surveys some 150 years of an array of constantly modified, relative opinions, in step with academic schools and sensory techniques.

Pedia Sapiens: A New Genesis Future

Future > Self-Selection

Ballmer, Maxim and Lena Noack. The Diversity of Exoplanets: From Interior Dynamics to Surface Expressions. arXiv:2108.08385. The paper also appears in a special issue Geoscience Beyond the Solar System issue of Elements magazine (17/4, 2021). University College London and Free University of Berlin astroscientists extend exoworld studies so as to factor in effects of variable internal compositions upon relative habitability. Indeed it is found that over eons and eras their core to crust fluctuations could play a major role. See also Starting Life and Searching for Life on Rocky Planets by Paul Rimmer, et al (2108.04.08388) in the same edition.

The coupled interior-atmosphere system of terrestrial exoplanets remains poorly understood. Exoplanets show a wide variety of sizes, densities, surface temperatures, and interior structures, which all effect this coupled system. Many exoplanets could have a "stagnant lid" at the surface, with a rigid stationary crust, sluggish mantle convection, and minor volcanism. However, if exoplanets have Earth-like plate tectonics and tectono-magmatic activity, then these features may be critical for planetary habitability and have implications for the development (and evolution) of life in the galaxy. (Abstract)

Future > Self-Selection

Bi, Jiaqing, et al. GW Ori: Interactions Between a Triple-star System and its Circumtriple Disk in Action. Astrophysical Journal Letters. May, 2020. (arXiv:2004.03135.) Twenty astronomers with postings in Canada, Japan, and the USA describe the first experimental presence of a three sun array along with signs of dynamic movements. This finding of multiple stellar formations that may act in unison then implies many more out there, with additional features. Our interest is in further evidence of how vicarious celestial phenomena can be so to show how special our home solar system with a habitable bioworld able to learn all this appears to be.

Future > Self-Selection

Erdmann, Weronika, et al. How the Geomagnetic Field Influences Life on Earth. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 51/231, 2021. Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland, biophysicists cite and quantify still another global and celestial factor which could have had a significant influence on life’s evolutionary course.

Earth is a rarity the Solar System because it has an oxidizing atmosphere, moderate temperatures, and a constant geomagnetic field (GMF). The GMF also protects life against the solar wind and cosmic rays which then led to stable environmental conditions. Organisms from archaea to plants and animals may have used the GMF as a source of spatial information. This review thus covers the latest findings about these many influences. In conclusion, a conducive GMF has a positive impact on living organisms, while a weak GMF has a negative affect. (Article excerpt)

Future > Self-Selection

Macdonald, Evelyn, et al. Climate Uncertainties Caused by Unknown Land Distribution on Habitable M-Earths. arXiv:2110.04310. (M-Earth denotes an exoplanet with a Mass similar to our own) University of Toronto astrophysicists find the wide range of possible land and ocean ratios, as they vary over time, to contribute still another contingent factor with regard to the presence of living, evolutionary systems.

A planet's surface conditions can significantly impact its environmental habitability. In this study, we use the 3D general circulation model ExoPlaSim to vary dayside land cover on a rotating, temperate rocky planet under two opposite continent extremes whence all the land or all the ocean is centred at the substellar point. We identify water vapour and sea ice as climate drivers, and isolate land-dependent regimes under which case rules. We find that the amount and configuration of land can change a planet’s average surface temperature by up to 20K, and its atmospheric water content by orders of magnitude. (Abstract excerpt)

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