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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 61 through 75 of 86 found.


Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > New Earth

Packard, Norman, et al. Open-Ended Evolution and Open-Endedness. Artificial Life. 25/1, 2019. Veteran systems futurists NP, Mark Bedau, Alastair Channon, Takashi Ikegami, Steen Rasmussen, Kenneth Stanley, and Tim Taylor introduce an Open-Ended Evolution I special issue to scope out how this aware, intentional second evolutionary new genesis creation can become a salutary, proactive, fruitful movement. By these lights and capabilities, it seems that phenomenal cosmic nature intends, and need us to proceed to carry forth. Some issue entries, along with other papers are available in full on the website for the 2018 conference noted in the Abstract.

Nature's spectacular inventiveness, reflected in the enormous diversity of form and function displayed by the biosphere, is a feature of life that distinguishes living most strongly from nonliving. It is, therefore, not surprising that this aspect of life should become a central focus of artificial life. We have known since Darwin that the diversity is produced dynamically, through the process of evolution; this has led life's creative productivity to be called Open-Ended Evolution (OEE) in the field. This article introduces the first of two special issues on current research on OEE and on the more general concept of open-endedness. Most of the papers presented in these special issues are elaborations of work presented at the Third Workshop on Open-Ended Evolution, held in Tokyo as part of the 2018 Conference on Artificial Life. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Alberi, Kirstin, et al. The 2019 Materials by Design Roadmap. Journal of Physics D. 52/013001, 2019. Thirty-four coauthors from across the USA, Switzerland, the UK, Korea, Canada, Germany, and China gather some 17 two page entries such as Computational infrastructures for data generation, Materials informatics, Organic semiconductors, Lithium ion batteries, Peroskite photovoltaics and Multifunctional metallic alloys. We cite as a good example of humankinder’s rapidly expansive project of local and global mind over stochastic matter so as to take up, enhance and advance a cosmic creativity.

Advances in renewable and sustainable energy technologies depend on our ability to design and realize materials with optimal properties. The increased use of computational tools, the generation of materials databases, and advances in experimental methods continue to accelerate these activities. This Roadmap presents an overview of the current state of computational materials prediction, synthesis and characterization approaches, materials design needs for various technologies, and future challenges and opportunities. The brief papers cover computational techniques, validation, materials databases, materials informatics, high-throughput combinatorial methods, advanced characterization approaches, and materials design issues in thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, solid state lighting, catalysts, batteries, metal alloys, complex oxides and transparent conducting materials. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Giuliani, Sameul, et al. Superheavy Elements: Oganesson and Beyond. Reviews of Modern Physics. 91/011001, 2019. Nine physicists from the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, USA, University of Erlangen and Technical University Darmstadt, Germany, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, India, and Massey University, New Zealand review the state of past, present and future art as human ingenuity, now of a global scale, has been able to discover, arrange, and begin to draw forth atomic elements. See also a special Periodic Table sections in Nature for January 31, 2019, and Science for February 1, 2019.

During the last decade, six new superheavy elements were added into the seventh row of the periodic table. This milestone was followed by proclaiming 2019 the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by the United Nations General Assembly. According to theory, due to their large atomic numbers, the new arrivals are expected to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from lighter species. The questions pertaining to superheavy atoms and nuclei are in the forefront of research in nuclear and atomic physics and chemistry. This Colloquium survey offers a broad perspective on the field and outlines future challenges. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Haba, Hiromitsu. A New Period in Superheavy Element Hunting. Nature Chemistry. 11/1, 2019. In a special issue for the 150th anniversary of the Periodic Table, a RIKEN Materials Research Group scientist considers how human ingenuity might proceed to expand nature’s iconic array of 118 elements via “islands of stability” all the way to atomic number 172. In regard, we emergent Earthlings seem to have reached some kind of “second singularity” whence cosmic material creation may pass to our respective human intention. See also Making the Heaviest Elements in the Universe: A Review of the Rapid Neutron Capture Process by John Cowen, et al at arXiv:1901.01410.

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Moeini, Samaneh and Tie Jun Cui. Reflective Metasurfaces: Fractal Coding Metamaterials. Annalen der Physik. 531/2, 2019. University of Aveiro, Portugal and Southeast University, Nanking, China informatic engineers (a global team posts in a German periodical) discern and deftly apply nature’s self-similar mathematics to create a novel realm of visionary surfaces.

Editor’s Note In article number 1800134, Samaneh Moeini and Tie Jun Cui propose a concept of fractal coding metamaterials, which can be used to design reflective metasurfaces with self‐similar pseudo‐random phase responses. The introduced coding strategy utilizes fractal interpolation functions. An analytical relation between the reflection phase distribution and the far‐field radiation pattern is derived.

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Windsor, Colin. Can the Development of Fusion Energy be Accelerated? Philosophical Transactions A. 377/20170446, 2019. A Tokamak Energy, UK engineer introduces the proceedings from a March 2018 Royal Society meeting on this issue of how to foster the research and construction of safer atomic fusion sources beyond calamity-prone fission reactors. Some papers are The European Roadmap towards Fusion Electricity, Towards a Compact Spherical Tokamak Pilot Plant, and Engineering Challenges for Accelerated Fusion.

This introduction reviews the unique opportunity of fusion power to deliver safe, carbon-free, abundant, base-load power. The differences from fission power are considered: especially why a Chernobyl, Three Mile Island or Fukushima accident could not happen with a fusion reactor. The Lawson triple product is introduced, along with tokamaks, or magnetic bottles, whose ability to approach close to fusion burn conditions has so far put them above their competitors. The question posed is whether the two developments of spherical tokamaks and high-temperature superconductors could lead to more economical fusion power plants and faster development than the current route. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Bhasin, Devesh and Daniel McAdams. The Characterization of Biological Organization, Abstraction and Novelty in Biomimetic Design. Design. 2/4, 2018. In this new MDPI online journal, in a topical Advances in Biologically Inspired Design issue, Texas A&M University engineers at once review prior creativities and solutions of evolutionary nature, so as to intentionally avail and carry forth to a better futurity. See also the MDPI journal Biomimetics which emphasizes more specific examples.

Through a billion year evolution, a latent record of successful and detailed design practices has developed in nature. The endeavors to exploit this resource have resulted in successful products in various fields including, but not limited to, networking, propulsion, surface engineering, and robotics. In this work, a study of existing biomimetic designs has been carried out according to the biological organizational level, the abstraction level, and a novelty measure. Through this review and categorization, we recognize patterns in existing biomimetic and bio-inspired products by analyzing their cross-categorical distribution. Using the distribution, we identify the categories which yield novel bio-inspired designs. (Abstract excerpt)

Biologically-inspired design is a design philosophy that encourages us to learn from nature, and results in the discovery of non-conventional solutions to problems that are often more efficient, economic, and elegant. Taking inspiration from nature has made (and can make) valuable contributions to engineering. In the last few decades, there has been increased attention on the significant technical innovations that can result from biological inspiration. This Special Issue is focused on the techniques, approaches and theories that facilitate biologically inspired design for engineering applications. Manuscript submissions on original research and literature reviews in the areas mentioned as keywords below are highly encouraged. (Issue Proposal)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Biondi, Elisa and Steven Benner. Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies. Biomedicines. 6/2, 2018. It is now known that life’s four letter G A T C code, while universally in effect and enough to get us here, is an arbitrary sufficiency. In this MDPI online journal, in an Engineering Aptamers for Biomedical Applications issue, Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Florida bioresearchers (search SB) consider ways to read, expand, enhance and begin to rewrite anew. From our 2020 vista, it might seem that a family genesis ecosmos wants our homo to Anthropo sapience to move from an inefficient stochastic (tinkered) past to an intentional, respectfully guided procreation. See also Aptamer Cell-Based Selection by Silvia Catuogno and Carla Esposito in this issue. A popular review of this work, along with F. Romesberg below, is Life, Rewritten by James Crow in the New Scientist (December 8, 2018).

Directed evolution was first applied to diverse libraries of DNA and RNA molecules a quarter century ago in the hope of gaining technology that would allow the creation of receptors, ligands, and catalysts on demand. Despite isolated successes, the outputs of this technology have been somewhat disappointing, perhaps because the four building blocks of standard DNA and RNA have too little functionality to have versatile binding properties, and offer too little information density to fold unambiguously. This review covers the recent literature that seeks to create an improved platform to support laboratory Darwinism, one based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS) that adds independently replicating nucleotide “letters” to the evolving “alphabet”

Aptamers are high affinity single-stranded DNA/RNA molecules, produced by a combinatorial procedure named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment), that are emerging as promising diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Design, Jai and Chaitanya Gokhale.. Synthetic Mutualism and the Intervention Dilemma. Life. 9/1, 2019. Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Genomics and Regulatory Systems Unit, and MPI Evolutionary Biology, Theoretical Models of Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics Group researchers extend this nascent endeavor to both gain a better understanding of how life has naturally evolved, developed and emerged, and how our human sapience might begin a intentional procreation by respectful, informed continuance. A working phrase herein is a Synthetic Symbiosis, which could also inspire better human communities.

Ecosystems are complex networks of interacting individuals co-evolving with their environment. As such, changes to an interaction can influence the whole ecosystem. However, to predict the outcome of these changes, considerable understanding of processes driving the system is required. Synthetic biology provides tools to aid this understanding, which then may allow us to change specific interactions. Of particular interest is the ecological importance of mutualism, a subset of cooperative interactions. Mutualism occurs when individuals of different species provide a reciprocal fitness benefit. We review available experimental techniques from the stability of microbial communities in extreme environments to the collapse of ecosystems due to high levels of human intervention. We evaluate the promise of synthetic biology by way of ethics and laws regarding biological alterations, whether on Earth or beyond. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Gilbert, Charles and Tom Ellis. Biological Engineered Living Materials: Growing Functional Materials with Genetically Programmable Properties. ACS Synthetic Biology. 8/1, 2019. As collective human ingenuity initiates a second intentional evolutionary co-creation, Imperial College London bioengineers scope out ways to join microbial, cellular, morphogenetic and more phases into novel, palliative, beneficial ways living systems.

Natural biological materials exhibit remarkable properties: self-assembly from simple raw materials, precise control of morphology, diverse physical and chemical properties, self-repair, and to sense-and-respond to environmental stimuli. But, could it be possible to genetically program microbes to create entirely new and useful biological materials? At the intersection of microbiology, material science, and synthetic biology, an emerging field of biological engineered living materials (ELMs) is underway. Here we review recent efforts to program cells to produce living materials with novel functional properties, focusing on microbial systems that can be engineered to grow materials and on new genetic circuits for pattern formation. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Hoshika, Shuichi, et al. Hachinoji DNA and RNA: A Genetic System with Eight Building Blocks. Science. 363/884, 2019. A sixteen person collaboration from co-author Steven Benner’s Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Florida, Indiana University, UT Austin, DNA Software, Ann Arbor, and the University of Chicago reports this doubling of the genetic alphabet to show how facile it can be done. The work merited a review DNA Gets a New – Bigger – Genetic Alphabet by Carl Zimmer in the New York Times for February 21, 2019.

We report DNA- and RNA- like systems built from eight nucleotide “letters” (hence the name “hachimoji”) that form four orthogonal pairs. These synthetic systems meet the structural requirements needed to support Darwinian evolution, including a polyelectrolyte backbone, predictable thermodynamic stability, and stereoregular building blocks that fit a Schrödinger aperiodic crystal. Measured thermodynamic parameters predict the stability of hachimoji duplexes, allowing hachimoji DNA to increase the information density of natural terran DNA. These results expand the scope of molecular structures that might support life, including life throughout the cosmos. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > democracy

Abele, Andrea, et al. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions: Agency with Competence and Assertiveness – Communion with Warmth and Morality. Frontiers in Psychology. November, 2016. A. Abele, University of Erlangen (search 2014), Nicole Hauke, University of Queensland, Kim Peters, University of Strasbourg, Eva Louvet, University of Strasbourg, Aleksandra Szymkow, University of Social Sciences, Warsaw, and Yanping Duan, Hong Kong Baptist University contribute to this overdue shift in psychological studies from olden Big Five personality traits to more distinctive Big Two qualities. Their occasion may be traced to Abele, Oscar Ybarra, et al in the 2000s on to Susan Fiske circa 2018, as its validity gains a growing number of colleagues and usages. But it is so curious that as the titles well states, this ultimate pairing is still not realized to be complementary gender archetypes.

Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. The findings support the model's validity by positioning the traits within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors. In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, and C to interdependent self-construal and communal values. Our research shows that (a) the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b) that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > New Earth > democracy

Durante, Federica, et al. Ambivalent Stereotypes Link to Peace, Conflict, and Inequality across 38 Nations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114/669, 2017. Nineteen scholars from the USA, Italy, Turkey, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Jordan, Switzerland, Egypt, Finland and France including Susan Fiske consider how the new Big Two personality model (search SF) might be beneficially applied onto national and cultural phases. It is suggested that the general, malleable agency and communion aspects can contribute vital insights which if appreciated could help mitigate internecine social strife here and everywhere (such as our own polar two party debacle).

Stereotypes reflect a society’s inequality and conflict, providing a diagnostic map of intergroup relations. This map depicts the prime, relative warmth (friendly, sincere) and competence (capable, skilled) behavioral cast of each group. Some societal clusters are high on both (positive “us”) vs. low on both (negative “them”). Other societies, including the United States, have us-them clusters with variance (high on one dimension, low on the other). This cross-national study shows peace-conflict predicts ambivalence. Extremely peaceful and conflictual nations both display unambivalent us-them patterns, whereas intermediate peace-conflict predicts high ambivalence. Inequality and intermediate peace-conflict each use ambivalent stereotypes, explaining complicated intergroup relations and maintaining social system stability. (Significance)

Future > New Earth > democracy

Feng, Michelle and Mason Porter. Persistent Homology of Geospatial Data: A Case Study with Voting. arXiv:1902.05911. UCLA mathematicians first show how this topological method along with simplicial complexes (see below) can help distinguish network phenomena. They proceed to apply this view to actual election patterns and find even such social intensity to take on a typical dynamic network formation.

A crucial step in the analysis of persistent homology is transformation of data into a simplicial complex. We present two new methods for constructing simplicial complexes from two-dimensional geospatial data (such as maps). We apply these methods to a California precinct-level voting data set to show that our new version can capture geometric characteristics that are missed by distance-based constructions and yield more interpretable persistence modules. In particular, they are able to distinguish short-persistence features that occur only for a narrow range of distance scales (local voting behaviors) from short-persistence noise by incorporating information about other spatial relationships between precincts. (Abstract edit)

Although we tailored our methods to yield improvements for the particular problem of detecting voting patterns from Shapefile data, one can use an adjacency construction on data sets with a network structure, and the level-set construction is appropriate for any type of 2D manifold data. More generally, given the ubiquity of 2D spatial data, the insights that we highlighted with the voting application are relevant for a broad range of problems, including transportation networks, spatial demography, granular materials, many structures in biology, and others. (19)

Persistent homology is a method for computing topological features of a space at different spatial resolutions. More persistent features are detected over a wide range of spatial scales and are deemed more likely to represent true features of the underlying space. In mathematics, a simplicial complex is a set composed of points, line segments, triangles, and their n-dimensional counterparts. (Wikipedia)

Future > New Earth > democracy

Fiske, Susan. Political Cognition Helps Explain Social Class Divides: Two Dimensions of Candidate Impressions, Group Stereotypes, and Meritocracy Beliefs. Cognition. Online November, 2018. The Princeton University psychologist and prolific, collegial author and editor contributes to this 21st century shift from Five to Two prime agency/communion personality traits. Indeed, new names and definitions are a work in progress for this major advance, as the first Abstract alludes. See also her companion paper Stereo Content: Warmth and Competence Endure in Current Directions in Psychological Science (27/2, 2018, second Abstract). But as this Organic Democracy section tries to document (Abele, Ybarra, et al), a salutary distinction of complementary bigender archetypes still awaits. See for example Geert Hofstede, et al (2010) for glimpses of a me individual and We group reciprocity.

As a commentary, within our universe to human website compass, similar versions are in current ascent across a wide range such as particle/wave in physics, matter/symbol in neuroscience (Gazzaniga 2018 for both), conserve/create, more/less order cerebral chimeras, self-organized criticalities (Chialvo, Kauffman, et al) and so on. Might our nascent sapiensphere which learns on her/his bicameral own, closing on truth and a hopefully clearer 2020 vision, be at last able to realize nature’s own familial genetic DNA/AND code?

Political cognitions as impressions and stereotypes along two fundamental dimensions of social evaluations play a role in explaining social class divides and resentments. First, the Big Two dimensions (warmth/communion and competence/agency) describe candidate, personal, and group perception. Various evidence from social psychology, political science, and sociology indicates common beliefs that support cross-class dichotomies. Anticipated by systematic theories, these cognitions (impressions, stereotypes, beliefs) help explain the populist and nativist antagonisms in current political discourse which result in polarized, dysfunctional politics. (first Abstract excerpt)

Two dimensions persist in social cognition when people are making sense of individuals or groups. The stereotype content model (SCM) perceives these two basic dimensions as warmth (trustworthiness, friendliness) and competence (capability, assertiveness). Measured reliably and validly, these Big Two modes converge across survey, cultural, laboratory, and biobehavioral approaches. The SCM proposes and tests a comprehensive causal theory: Evident social structure (cooperation, status) predicts stereotypes (warmth, competence), which in turn base emotional prejudices (pride, pity, contempt, envy), and finally, the emotions cast discrimination (active and passive help and harm). (second Abstract)

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