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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 61 through 70 of 70 found.


Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Atzori, Matteo and Roberta Sessoli. The Second Quantum Revolution: Role and Challenges of Molecular Chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141/29, 2019. Materials scientists posted in France and Italy cite this title phrase to designate present progress in the actual applications of quantum phenomena such as coherence, sensing, optics, entanglement and more. In this title regime, they are used to form hierarchical super-structures in biomaterials. See also A Chemical Path to Quantum Information by Stephen von Kugelgen and Danna Freedman in Science (366/1107, 2019).

An implementation of modern Quantum Technologies might benefit from the remarkable properties shown by molecular spin systems. In this Perspective, we highlight the role that molecular chemistry can have in the current second quantum revolution, i.e., the use of quantum principles to create novel advanced technologies. We review the current status of the field by identifying recent advances made by the molecular chemistry community, such as the design of molecular spin qubits with long spin coherence and multiqubit architectures. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Canfield, Paul. New Materials Physics. Reports on Progress in Physics. 83/016001, 2020. The DOE Ames (Iowa) Laboratory senior condensed matter physicist introduces and surveys this open frontier of the historic transfiguration of cosmic substance from its long, contingent phase to a radically intentional, informed, sustainable, biocreative futurity. As a spokesperson for this national and global research community, a new era of material recreation and enhancement beckons whence all manner of formulations can be beneficially made anew.

This review presents a survey of, and guide to, New Materials Physics research. It begins with an overview of the goals of New Materials Physics and then presents important ideas and techniques for the design and growth of new materials. An emphasis is placed on the use of compositional phase diagrams to inform and motivate solution growth of single crystals. The second half of this review focuses on the vital process of generating actionable ideas for the growth and discovery of new materials and ground states. Motivations ranging from (1) wanting a specific compound, to (2) wanting a specific ground state to (3) wanting to explore for known and unknown unknowns, will be discussed and illustrated with abundant examples. The goal of this review is to inform, inspire, an even entertain, as many practitioners of this field as possible. (Abstract)

Humanity needs to find the materials that will ease is growing needs for reliable, renewable, clean, energy and/or will allow for greater insight into the mysteries of collective and, in some cases, emergent states. In this talk I will present a broad overview of New Materials Physics and discuss the three basic motivations for making n advance: wanting a specific compound; wanting a specific ground state; searching for known and unknown unknowns. Materials discussed will span superconductors, quasicrystals, heavy fermions, fragile magnets, topological electronic systems, local moment magnets and more. (PC 2017 APS talk)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Khajetoorians, Alexander, et al. Designer Quantum States of Matter Created Atom-by-Atom. arXiv:1904.11680. In an article to appear in Nature Reviews Physics, Radboud University, Delft University of Technology and Utrecht University scientists including Ingmar Swart review this future frontier as our globally collaborative human agency begins a second, intentional material creation. An Integrated Nanolab will then avail tunneling, spin lattices, topography, atomic resolution, quasiparticles, magnetism, spectroscopy qualities and much more.

With the advances in high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy as well as atomic-scale manipulation, it has become possible to create and characterize quantum states of matter bottom-up, atom-by-atom. We review recent advances in creating artificial electronic and spin lattices that lead to exotic quantum phases of matter from topological Dirac dispersion to complex magnetic order. We also project future perspectives in non-equilibrium dynamics, prototype technologies, engineered quantum phase transitions and topology, as well as the evolution of complexity from simplicity in this newly developing field. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Ornes, Stephen. Quantum Effects Enter the Macroworld. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116/22413, 2019. A science writer describes how the 2010s quantum revolution whence this arcane depth became treatable as a complex network system, in addition to its special characteristics, which has then opened a new frontier for all manner of devices and communications.

Entanglement is the counterintuitive idea that particles can have an intrinsic connection that endures no matter the distance between them. The phenomenon remains one of the most curious and least understood consequences of quantum mechanics. Measure the quantum properties of one of a pair of entangled particles, and the other changes instantaneously. But recently, physicists have taken entanglement and other quantum effects to new extremes by observing them in large systems such as clouds of atoms, quantum drums, wires, and etched silicon chips. Device by device, they are bringing the quantum world into a new territory — the macroscopic, classical world. (22413)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Emani, Prashant, et al. Quantum Computing at the Frontiers of Biological Sciences. arXiv:1911.07127. Eighteen system geneticists from across the USA and onto the UK, including Marc Gerstein and Alan Aspuru-Guzik, scope out how the latest informational processing abilities by the unique properties of this physical realm can foster a new speedy phase of decipherment, discovery and biocreativity. Case examples are then drawn from an organismic span of genomes (GWAS) to cells, organic systems, brains, consequent behaviors and onto integrations across disciplines.

The search for meaningful structure in biological data is aided by advances in computational technology and data science. However, challenges arise as we push the limits of scale and complexity in biological problems. Classical computing hardware and algorithms continue to progress, but new paradigms to circumvent current barriers to processing speed are needed. Here we seek to innovate quantum computation and quantum information methods with polynomial and exponential speedups by way of machine learning. In regard, we explore the potential for quantum computing to aid in the merging of insights from genetics, genomics, neuroimaging and behavioral phenotyping. We highlight the need for a common language between biological data analysis and quantum computing algorithms across the biological sciences. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Lawson, Christopher, et al. Common Principles and Best Practices for Engineering Microbiomes. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 17/725, 2019. In a Tractability and Translation section, a thirteen member team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Montana, Tennessee, Minnesota, Purdue, UC Santa Barbara, Michigan, Delft, and Lawrence Berkeley Labs scope out procedures as our composite human intellect begins to manage and make anew our microbial inhabitants. Some are symbiotic, but others are viral invasive. Thus, an historic phase of palliative and beneficial apply, with all due respects, is in commencement. See also Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: Microorganisms and Climate Change by Ricardo Cavicchioli, et al in this journal (June 18, 2019).

In a Tractability and Translation section, a thirteen member team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Montana, Tennessee, Minnesota, Purdue, UC Santa Barbara, Michigan, Delft, and Lawrence Berkeley Labs scope out procedures as our composite human intellect begins to manage and make anew our microbial inhabitants. Some are symbiotic, but others are viral invasive. Thus, an historic phase of palliative and beneficial apply, with all due respects, is in commencement. See also Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: Microorganisms and Climate Change by Ricardo Cavicchioli, et al in this journal (June 18, 2019).

Future > Self-Selection

Kopparapu,, Ravi, et al. Characterizing Exoplanet Habitability. arXiv:1911.04441. A chapter to appear in Planetary Astrobiology (University of Arizona Press, February 2020) by RK, Goddard Space Center, Eric Wolf, University of Colorado, and Victoria Meadows, University of Washington. As stellar, galactic, and universal frontiers open up to satellite, atmospheric, spectroscopy, geologic, computational prowess and other survey, our home ovoworld embarks upon a cosmic neighbor census. But as explorations go forth they are finding stochastic, vicarious environs which winnow down habitation via a train of conducive conditions that must be met. A Factors Affecting Habitability graphic depicts some 50 issues such as sun type, spectral energy, solar orbits, metallicity, UV rays, watery basins, a mediating moon. As this section records, it should soon dawn upon us that a population of one Earthropic optimum may only exist. See also How to Characterize Habitable Worlds and Signs of Life by Lisa Kaltenegger in the Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics (55/433, 2017).

Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life, which means liquid water on its surface. This condition depends on a complex set of interactions between planetary, stellar, planetary system and even galactic features and processes. We describe the latest way to test which exoplanets are likely to be terrestrial, and how to define the habitable zone under different assumptions. We are now entering an exciting era of exoplanet atmospheric studies, with more powerful observing capabilities planned for the near and far future. Understanding the processes that affect the habitability of a planet will guide us in discovering habitable, and potentially inhabited, planets. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > Self-Selection

Provenzale, Murante, et al. Climate Bistability of Earth-like Planets. arXiv:1912.05392. Eleven astroscientists from Torino to Trieste report that our own world seems to have passed through both colder, icy states and warmer, watery times. By these findings, this prior occasion appears as dual climatic options, depending on relative levels of energetic forcings. And as noted, such dynamic shiftings may play a serious role as evolutionary organisms may proceed on their course.

About 500 million years ago, our planet seems to have experienced snowball conditions, with continental and sea ices covering a large fraction of its surface. This situation points to a potential bistability of Earth's climate, that can have at least two equilibrium states for the same external solar radiation forcing. Here we explore the probability of bistable climates in earth-like exoplanets, and the properties of planetary climates obtained by varying the semi-major orbital axis, eccentricity, obliquity, and atmospheric pressure. To this goal, we use the Earth-like surface temperature model (ESTM) to provide a climate estimator for parameter sensitivity and long climatic simulations. An intriguing result of the present work is that the planetary conditions that support climate bistability are remarkably similar to those required for the sustenance of complex, multicellular life on the planetary surface. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > Self-Selection

Quarles, Billy, et al. Obliquity Evolution of Circumstellar Planets in Sun-like Stellar Binaries. arXiv:1911.08431. We add this report by Georgia Tech and NASA astronomic researchers including Jack Lissauer because it broaches another vicarious variable which could influence for better or worse life’s chances to evolve and reach global abilities to retrospectively perceive realize this reality.

Changes in planetary obliquity, or axial tilt, influence the climates on Earth-like planets. In the solar system, the Earth's obliquity is stabilized due to our moon which causes small amplitude variations beneficial for advanced life. Most Sun-like stars have at least one stellar companion and the habitability of their exoplanets is shaped by these pairings. We show that a stellar companion dramatically effects whether an Earth-like obliquity stability is possible. We present a new formalism for the planetary spin precession that accounts for orbital misalignments between the planet and binary. Thus, Earth-like planets likely experience much larger obliquity variations, with more extreme climates, unless they are in specific favorable states. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > Self-Selection

Secco, Luigi, et al. Habitability of Local, Galactic and Cosmological Scales. arXiv:1912:01569. University of Padova astroscientists consider these near and far domains by way of the latest exoplanet and exosolar findings and again reach an auspicious conclusion. An “Earth peculiarity” appears due to features such as an optimum orbit around the sun, benign solar system, magnetic field strength, good nitrogen to oxygen ratio, ocean to land plate tectonics, an ideally placed large moon, obliquity tilt, and more. Akin to Planetary Astrobiology by Victoria Meadows, et al (2019, 2020 herein), as the second quotes alludes out of a concatenation of some 1020 candidate worlds, our emergent person/sapiensphere progeny could very well be its first, best, or last universal opportunity to observe, read, affirm self-select and begin a new creation.

The aim of this paper is to underline conditions necessary for the emergence and development of life. They are placed at a local planetary scale, a Galactic scale and within cosmic evolution. We will consider the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), a Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ), and also a set of strong cosmological constraints to allow Anthropic life. Some requirements are specific to a single scale and their physical phenomena, while others are due to cumulative effects across scales. A surmise is that all the habitability conditions here so detailed must at least be met. Thus, some sixty years later a human-like presence may appear as "a monstrous sequence of accidents" as (Fred) Hoyle (1959) thought, or as a providential collaboration which can imply how finely tuned is the architecture within which precious Life is embedded. (Abstract edits)

Starting from the local scale, life leads to connect us with the largest scale, that of Universe. From this analysis a possible scenario arises in which links among the different scales are advanced. Even if possibly partial, a large set of minimum conditions has been identified which must be met for allowing life. The consequence of these conditions is that if we look at life from the probability point of view and then regard it as a complex phenomenon composed, by compatible and independent events, the probability to get it tends drastically to zero. But here we are! (24)

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