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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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III. An Organic, Genomic, Conducive UniVerse

3. Novel ExoUniverse Studies

    This is one of the current, imaginative "multiverse images" that can be found on Google. It is attributed to Florida State University. As viewers know, at the same time an infinite light age future beckons, just being found by Earthkind acumen, civilizations rife with weapons are headed back to a barbaric dark age. However might we ask about and learn the purpose of universe and humanverse?


I began these musings in the early 1960s when even a point of cosmic origin was not known, starry galaxies were just found a few decades before. In the mid 2010s, a sign of worldwide scientific progress is a nascent ability to begin to quantify an infinite constellation of stochastic cosmoses. This new December 2015 section will collect and report upon novel theoretical entries to consider other universes in the most part for parameters and propensities to contain living entities like us. We include some lengthy Abstracts for a sense of the expertise and technical vernacular.

Adams, Fred. Constraints on Alternative Universes: Stars and Habitable Planets with Different Fundamental Constants. arXiv:1511.06958. The University of Michigan astronomer and author has been a leader of these frontier journeys to distant cosmic spacescapes.

This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant α and the gravitational structure constant αG, and find the region in the α-αG plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforced: [A] long-lived stable nuclear burning stars exist, [B] planetary surface temperatures are hot enough to support chemical reactions, [C] stellar lifetimes are long enough to allow biological evolution, [D] planets are massive enough to maintain atmospheres, [E] planets are small enough in mass to remain non-degenerate, [F] planets are massive enough to support sufficiently complex biospheres, [G] planets are smaller in mass than their host stars, and [H] stars are smaller in mass than their host galaxies. This paper delineates the portion of the α-αG plane that satisfies all of these constraints. The results indicate that viable universes --- with working stars and habitable planets --- can exist within a parameter space where the structure constants α and αG vary by several orders of magnitude. (Abstract)

Adams, Fred and Evan Grohs. On the Habitability of Universes without Stable Deuterium. Astroparticale Physics. 91/90, 2017. We added this new section to report entries like this which show how it has now become possible for human beings to contemplate entire cosmoses. Also posted at arXiv:1612.04741, here University of Michigan astrophysicists consider if a deficit of deuterium, one of two hydrogen isotopes, would affect an ability to form a modicum of living entities. Upon a natural philosophy reflection, incredulous to a Newton or Galileo, there must be some grand significance and purpose for our collaborative humankinder acumen to be able to quantify such multiUniVerse reaches.

In both stars and in the early universe, the production of deuterium is the first step on the way to producing heavier nuclei. If the strong force were slightly weaker, deuterium would not be stable, and many authors have noted that nuclesynthesis would be compromised so that helium production could not proceed through standard reaction chains. Motivated by the possibility that other regions of space-time could have different values for the fundamental constants, this paper considers stellar evolution in universes without stable deuterium and argues that such universes can remain habitable. With stars evolving through gravitational contraction, explosive nucleosynthesis, the triple-nucleon reaction, and the CNO cycle, universes with no stable deuterium are thus potentially habitable, contrary to many previous claims. (Abstract excerpts)

Adams, Fred and Evan Grohs. Stellar Helium Burning in Other Universes: A Solution to the Triple Alpha Fine-Tuning Problem. arXiv:1608.04690. Reviewed more in Anthropic Principle, a University of Michigan physicist and an astronomer enlist a new parameter by which a relative cosmic, life-bearing habitability can be quantified. See also by the authors On the Habitability of Universes without Stable Deuterium at 1612.04741.

Adams, Fred, et al. Planets in Other Universes: Habitability Constraints on Density Fluctuations and Galactic Structure. arXiv:1505.06158. As a worldwide cerebral collaboration takes leave of our own cosmos, a University of Michigan team of astronomer Adams, physicist Katherine Coppess, and mathematician Anthony Bloch theorize generic modes of galaxy formation, structure, and habitable zones. A celestial propensity or inhibition to form stable, conducive planetary solar systems can then be entertained. It is noted that our home Earth, whereupon life has evolved to a worldwide sapience capable of such imaginations, might be an optimum biosphere, worthy of “superhabitable” status. This is an inaugural posting for this section, along with Constraints on Alternative Universes, Simulating the Universe(s), and On Separate Universes.

Motivated by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes, this paper delineates the galactic parameters that allow for habitable planets and revisits constraints on the amplitude Q of the primordial density fluctuations. Previous work indicates that large values of Q lead to galaxies so dense that planetary orbits cannot survive long enough for life to develop. Small values of Q lead to delayed star formation, loosely bound galaxies, and compromised heavy element retention. This work generalizes previous treatments: [A] We consider models for the internal structure of galaxies and find the fraction of galactic real estate that allows stable, long-lived planetary orbits. [B] We perform a large ensemble of numerical simulations to estimate cross sections for the disruption of planetary orbits due to interactions with passing stars. [C] We consider disruption due to the background radiation fields produced by the galaxies. [D] One consequence of intense galactic background radiation fields is that some portion of the galaxy, denoted as the Galactic Habitable Zone, will provide the right flux levels to support habitable planets for essentially any planetary orbit. (Abstract)

The results of this work indicate that habitable planets can survive in galaxies with a wide range of properties, and hence in a wide range of universes. In this current generalized treatment, however, more planets can survive for several reasons: [A] Galactic structures naturally include a wide range of stellar densities, with lower densities in the outer regimes that allow for habitable orbits to survive. [B] With the consideration of internal galactic structure, we can determine the fraction of solar systems that avoid disruption (rather than using an all-or-nothing approach). Because planets are thought to be common, and galaxies contain many solar systems, a galaxy (universe) can remain habitable with only a small fraction of its solar systems surviving (note that Figures. [C] Even planets that are stripped from their host stars can remain habitable if they reside within the Galactic Habitable Zone, i.e., the region of the galaxy where the galactic background radiation has the proper intensity to heat planets. (23)

Finally, we note that most considerations of alternate universes use the properties of our own universe as the baseline for comparison, often with an implicit assumption that our universe provides the best possible environment for the development of life. The results of
this paper call this assumption into question: With the right parameters, galaxies can support extensive Galactic Habitable Zones, where up to 20% of the stars, and hence up to 20% of all planets, reside within a radiation field comparable to the one the Earth receives from our Sun. Such galaxies – residing in universes with the right properties – could support more habitable planets than our own. Within our universe, Earth is often considered as the optimal planet for supporting a biosphere, but other planets could be even more favorable. This issue, which could be called superhabitability, should also be explored further. (24)

Barnes, Luke, et al. Galaxy Formation Efficiency and the Multiverse Explanation of the Cosmological Constant with EAGLE Simulations. arXiv:1801.08781. A nine member Australian, British, and Dutch group including Geraint Lewis and Jaime Salcido can now proceed to quantify, and contemplate entire cosmoses by way of certain variable physical properties. Might we then wonder how special could our collective Earthly witness on an infinitesimal orb actually be, as we forthwith begin to consider an infinity of potentially viable cosmoses?

Models of the very early universe, including inflationary models, are argued to produce varying universe domains with different values of fundamental constants and cosmic parameters. Using the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation code from the EAGLE collaboration, we investigate the effect of the cosmological constant on the formation of galaxies and stars. We simulate universes with values of the cosmological constant ranging from Λ=0 to Λ0×300, where Λ0 is the value of the cosmological constant in our Universe. We use our simulations to predict the observed value of the cosmological constant, given a measure of the multiverse. (Abstract excerpt)

We conclude that the impact of the cosmological constant on the formation of structure in the universe is not sufficient to explain the small observed value of Λ. The prediction depends crucially on the measure. If the observer creation rate had been sufficiently sharply peaked at values near Λ0, the measure would not much matter. But in fact, in the absence of a multiverse model that can convincingly justify a measure, it is not clear whether the anthropic prediction Λ is successful. Future work will consider varying more cosmological and fundamental parameters, to shed more light on which kind of universe is to be expected from a multiverse. (15-16)

Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam, et al. The Interacting Multiverse and its Effect on the Cosmic Microwave Background. arXiv:1809.09133. University of the Basque, University of Szczecin, Poland, and Ecological Station for Biocosmology, Spain move on to consider how whole cosmoses might intersect with each other in a way that might be amenable to theoretical study, along with their experimental detection. And it amazes that human beings can suddenly join on an infinitesimal bioworld to imagine and explore an entire dynamic multiverse.

We study a toy model of a multiverse consisting of canonically quantized universes that interact with each other on a quantum level based on a field-theoretical formulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. This interaction leads to the appearance of a pre-inflationary phase in the evolution of the individual universes. We analyze scalar perturbations within the model and calculate the influence of the pre-inflationary phase onto the power spectrum of these perturbations. The result is that there is a suppression of power on large scales, which can describe well the Planck 2018 data for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and could thus indicate a possible solution to the observed quadrupole discrepancy. (Abstract)

Carlisle, Camille. Cosmic Collisions. Sky & Telescope. December, 2012. Into this 21st century what vistas have earthlings come to, what are we risen mortals altogether capable of. This article suggests that it may amazingly be possible to detect signs of other, intermeshing universes by finessing data findings from the CMB and WMAP satellites. Might we then imagine that valiant human beings have something to do with the success or failure of the entire cosmos, if by common vision, we could so witness and self-select?

Carrasco, John, et al. Cosmological Attractors and Initial Conditions for Inflation. arXiv:1506.00936. With co-authors Renata Kallosh and Andrei Linde, June 2015 post-BICEPS project theories about how a singular cosmic origin might have taken place. In regard see also The Hyperbolic Geometry of Cosmological Attractors (1504.05557) by these authors and Diederik Roest, Escher in the Sky (1503.06785) by Kallosh and Linde, and The Unity of Cosmological Attractors (1412.3797) by this team with Mario Galante. For the record, I attended Linde’s first lecture in the US at Harvard in 1983 on bubbly fractal cosmoses. For an entry by his 1980s co-founder Alan Guth see Quantum Fluctuations in Cosmology and How They Lead to a Multiverse (1312.7340). After years of conjecture and contest, aided by international collaborations and experiments along with computer analysis, by these mid 2010s a new convergent phase is underway. Companion takes could be Universality Classes of Scale Invariant Inflation by Roest and Mehmet Ozkan (1507.03603), and The Anamorphic Universe by Anna Ijjas and Paul Steinhardt (1507.03875, search). But as this website seeks to document the worldwide discovery of a creative organic universe, it ever amazes that human beings can fathom such vistas at all, yet never include themselves in this capacity as having a cosmological significance.

During the last two years, a new class of inflationary theories have been discovered: “cosmological attractors." This class is very broad, including conformal attractors [1], universal attractors with non-minimal coupling to gravity [2], and alpha-attractors [3{6], and it also incorporates many previously existing models such as Starobinsky model [7], GL model [8, 9], and Higgs inflation model [10]. Despite very different origins, all of these models make very similar cosmological predictions providing an excellent match to the latest cosmological data [11, 12]. Moreover, these models can be further extended to describe not only inflation, but also the theory of dark energy/cosmological constant and supersymmetry breaking [13]. (1506.00936, 1)

During the last 35 years inflationary theory evolved from something that could look like a beautiful science fiction story to the well established scientific paradigm describing the origin of the universe and its large scale structure. Many of its predictions have been already confirmed by observational data, see e.g. [1, 2]. And yet the development of this branch of science is not over. In this paper we will briefly remember the first steps of its development, and then relate them to a broad set of inflationary models which seem to fit observational data particularly well, and which make predictions nearly independent on the shape of their inflationary potentials. We called these theories “cosmological attractors." As we will show, this class of models is closely related to some of the pioneering in ationary models such as the simplest versions of the chaotic inflation scenario [3, 4] and the Starobinsky model [5]. But what makes these theories especially interesting is their geometric nature and super-gravity realization, bringing us back to the discussion of the Poincare disk and Escher's paintings. (1503.06785, 1)

Courtois, Helene. Finding Our Place in the Universe How We Discovered Laniakea – the Milky Way’s Home. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018. The University of Lyon cosmic cartographer and author describes this latest epic survey (April) of our once and future galactic environs. See also for example a recent collaboration The Quasi-Linear Nearby Universe at arXiv:1807.03724. And we wonder what cosmic function are phenomenal peoples accomplishing by deeply and widely learning this?

You are here on Earth, in the solar system, in the Milky Way galaxy which itself is within the extragalactic supercluster Laniakea. How can we pinpoint our location so precisely? For twenty years, astrophysicist Hélène Courtois surfed the cosmos with an international team of researchers to map our local universe. In this book, Courtois describes this quest and the discovery of our home supercluster. She explains that Laniakea (“immeasurable heaven” in Hawaiian) contains about 100,000 large galaxies like our own, and a million smaller ones. The French edition was named the Best Astronomy Book of 2017. This MIT Press edition describes new discoveries such as the cosmic velocity web and the Dipole and Cold Spot repellers.

Hélène Courtois is a French astrophysicist specializing in cosmography. She is Professor and Vice President at the University of Lyon 1 and the director of a research team at the Lyon Institute of Nuclear Physics. She received the 2018 Scientist of the Year Award from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs for her international influence. She is featured in the 2019 Nova documentary Cosmic Flows: The Cartographers of the Universe.

Cunningham, William, et al. Navigability of the Universe. arXiv:1703.09057. We enter in this section as an example of novel human abilities to theoretically consider an entire whole scale cosmos. Physicists WC and Dmitri Krioukov, Northeastern University, with Konstantin Zuev, Caltech proceed with a technical conception (search DK, Albert Barabasi) of intricate cosmic structures by way of geometric graphs and network topologies. A discernment of physiological and neural-like anatomies across the universe (search the Beatles) then becomes increasingly evident.

Random geometric graphs in hyperbolic spaces explain many common structural and dynamical properties of real networks, yet they fail to predict the correct values of the exponents of power-law degree distributions observed in real networks. In that respect, random geometric graphs in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes, such as the Lorentzian spacetime of our accelerating universe, are more attractive as their predictions are more consistent with observations in real networks. Here we study the navigability of random geometric graphs in three Lorentzian manifolds corresponding to universes filled only with dark energy (de Sitter spacetime), only with matter, and with a mixture of dark energy and matter as in our universe. We find that these graphs are navigable only in the manifolds with dark energy. This result implies that random geometric graphs in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes are as good as random hyperbolic graphs. (Abstract)

In network science and applied mathematics, random geometric graphs have attracted increasing attention over recent years, since it was shown that if the space defining these graphs is not Euclidean but negatively curved, i.e., hyperbolic, then these graphs provide a geometric explanation of many common structural and dynamical properties of many real networks, including scale-free degree distributions, strong clustering, community structure, and network growth dynamics. Yet more interestingly, these graphs also explain the optimality of many network functions related to finding paths in the network without global knowledge of the network structure.(1)

Dai, Liang, et al. On Separate Universes. arXiv:1504.00351. Liang Dai, Johns Hopkins University, Enrico Pajer, Utrecht University, and Fabian Schmidt, MPI Astrophysics enter another example of novel 2015 theoretical engagements with an evident presence of myriad other cosmoses.

The separate universe conjecture states that in General Relativity a density perturbation behaves locally (i.e. on scales much smaller than the wavelength of the mode) as a separate universe with different background density and curvature. We prove this conjecture for a spherical compensated tophat density perturbation of arbitrary amplitude and radius in ΛCDM. We then use Conformal Fermi Coordinates to generalize this result to scalar perturbations of arbitrary configuration and scale. In this case, the separate universe conjecture holds for the isotropic part of the perturbations. The anisotropic part on the other hand is exactly captured by a tidal field in the Newtonian form. We show that the separate universe picture is restricted to scales larger than the sound horizons of all fluid components. (Abstract excerpt)

Dayal, Pratika, et al. The Habitability of the Universe Through 13 Billion Years of Cosmic Time. arXiv:1606.09224. As an example of the expansive frontiers of our human quest, astrophysicists Dayal and Martin Ward, Durham University, UK, and Charles Cockell, University of Edinburgh offer considerations, as the Abstract details, of an innately conducive cosmos for fecund bioworlds and sentient Earthlings whom are just now capable of such imaginations.

The field of astrobiology has made tremendous progress in modelling galactic-scale habitable zones which offer a stable environment for life to form and evolve in complexity. Recently, this idea has been extended to cosmological scales by studies modelling the habitability of the local Universe in its entirety. However, all of these studies have focused on estimating the potentially detrimental effects of either Type II supernovae or Gamma Ray Bursts, ignoring the contributions from Type Ia supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In this study we follow different approaches, based on (i) the amplitude of deleterious radiation and (ii) the total planet-hosting volume irradiated by deleterious radiation. We simultaneously track the contributions from the key astrophysical sources for the entire Universe, for both scenarios, to determine its habitability through 13.8 billion years of cosmic time. As result of the total mass in stars (or the total number of planets) slowly building-up with time and the total deleterious radiation density, and volume affected, falling-off after the first 3 billion years, we find that the Universe has steadily increased in habitability through cosmic time. We find that, depending on the exact model assumptions, the Universe is 2.5 to 20 times more habitable today compared to when life first appeared on the Earth 4 billion years ago. We find that this increase in habitability will persist until the final stars die out over the next hundreds of billions of years. (Abstract excerpts)

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