Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 1 through 15 of 115 found.
The Genesis Vision > Historic Precedents
Buvet, Rene and Cyril Ponnamperuma, eds.
Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life.
Amsterdam: North Holland,
These proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Paris with both American and Russian presenters, is a good capsule of this quest some half century ago. From General and Theoretical Problems to Oligomers and Polymers, Photochemistry, Biological Structures to Exobiology and more, an initial, rudimentary scope was established. We note an opening address by the eminent pioneer Alexander Oparin who professes an innately fertile natural cosmos, see quote. Some other speakers, early in their stellar careers, were Harold Morowitz, Howard Pattee, Ilya Prigogine, Carl Sagan, Sidney Fox, Lynn Margulis and Stanley Miller. But circa 2019, as we review again, the western mindset now concludes and rules out any innate, vivifying source or orthogenesis.
It has now become quite clear that the origin of life was not the result of some “happy chance” as was thought till quite recently, but a necessary stage in the evolution of matter. The origin of life is an inalienable part of the general process of development of the Universe and, in particular, the development of our earth. Hence, the phenomenon is accessible to science. (3)
The Genesis Vision > Historic Precedents
Is Life Worth Living?
International Journal of Ethics.
This entry is cited in a special Multiverse issue (Ann Alonso) on the Universe online site as the first time the word was used, see quote below. The philosophical psychologist (1842-1910) who thought and taught at Harvard University was an eminent scholar of his day. But as we read it, the paper also alludes to the fin de siècle closing of a scientific quest for a meaningful reality. James went on to profess a “pluralistic” model sans any inherent sense, a view which holds, and daunts to this day. And for another aside, some 125 years later we note that one can now draw upon a global cognitive repository and via Google retrieve this journal and full paper in a few seconds.
There were times when Leibnitzes could compose Theodicies, and when an established church could prove the existence of a "Moral and Intelligent Contriver of the World." But those times are past, and we of the nineteenth century, with our evolutionary theories and our mechanical philosophies, already know nature too impartially and too well to worship unreservedly any god. Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a multiverse, as one might call it, and not a universe. (10) These, then, are my last words to you: Be not afraid of life. Believe that life is worth living, and your belief will help create the fact. The "scientific proof" that you are right may not be clear before the day of judgment is Reached. (24)
A Learning Planet > Original Wisdom > An Anthropocosmic Code
Toward an Integral Ecopsychology: In Service of Earth, Psyche, and Spirit.
The author has a doctorate in ecopsychology from the California Institute of Integral Studies, and is presently at the University of York concerned with the effects of inequality and deprivation on health, education and human development, especially in Mexico. This paper is a fine synthesis of natural, indigenous respects, broadly conceived, so as to guide 21st century sustainable and communal habitations. In regard, the richest resource may be the Anthropocosmic Vision of Confucian and Asian wisdom by way of an immanent and transcendent trinity of human, Earth and Heaven. Villasenor goes on to note cross-cultural affinities such as Vedic and Judaic teachings. The core concept is then a creative reciprocity between humanity and Heaven so as to advance both self and cosmic realization within an Earthly abide.
In this paper, I advance a proposal for an integral ecopsychology, defining it as the study of the multileveled connection between humans and Earth. The initial section expounds the critical moment we as a species find ourselves at. I then explore ways in which ecopsychology can dialogue with spiritual and religious wisdom, thus expanding the scope within integral philosophy. By way of aware consciousness, religious and spiritual wisdom can especially advise the anthropocosmic or “cosmic human” perspective. This contact is necessary for the study of the multileveled connection between humans and Earth. (Abstract excerpt)
A Learning Planet > Original Wisdom > The Book of Nature
Although I am aware of the several strands of integral philosophy (i.e., Aurobindonian, Wilberian, Gebserian), the integral approach advanced in this paper is mostly based on the work of Thomas Berry. In a way, the present research constitutes an extension of Berry’s integral ecology with the explicit inclusion of the psychological dimensions of our relation to the Earth. The confluence of Berry’s anthropocosmic or “cosmic human” perspective with current advances in ecopsychology conform the basis for my initial proposal of an integral ecopsychology, a formulation that would further equip us to face the challenges and gifts of the ecological crisis. (28)
Shankweiler, Donald and Carol Fowler.
Relations between Reading and Speech Manifest Universal Phonological Principle.
Annual Review of Linguistics.
Phonology is concerned with the systematic organizations of sounds in spoken languages. Senior University of Connecticut psycholinguists cite recent recognitions of a common, recurrent pattern across all manner of dialects and alphabets which is then seen to take on letter detail and contextual image complements. See also Computational Modeling of Phonological Learning by Gaja Jarosz in the same volume.
All writing systems represent speech, and a way to record each word of a message. This is achieved by symbolizing the phonological forms of spoken words as well as information conveying grammar and meaning. Alphabetic systems represent the segmental phonology by providing symbols for individual consonants and vowels. In all cases, learning to read requires a discovery of the forms of language that writing encodes, drawing on metalinguistic abilities not needed for the acquisition of speech. Therefore, learning to read is harder and rarer than acquiring speech. Research reveals that skilled readers of every orthography access phonological language forms automatically and early in word reading. Although reading processes differ according to the cognitive demands of specific orthographic forms, the differences are subservient to the universal phonologic principle that all readers access. (Abstract)
A Learning Planet > Original Wisdom > Rosetta Cosmos
Takahashi, Shuntaro and Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii.
Evaluating Computational Language Models with Scaling Properties of Natural Language.
University of Tokyo researchers contribute novel perceptions of how corpora and discourse can be seen to exhibit and be treated by the latest complexity sciences. See also Modeling Language Variation and Universals: A Survey on Typological Linguistics for Natural Language Processing by Edoardo Ponti, et al in this journal, June, 2019.
In this article, we evaluate computational models of natural language with respect to the universal statistical behaviors of natural language. Statistical mechanical analyses have revealed that natural language text is characterized by scaling properties, which quantify the global structure in the vocabulary population and the long memory of a text. We study whether five scaling properties (given by Zipf’s law, Heaps’ law, Ebeling’s method, Taylor’s law, and long-range correlation analysis) can serve for evaluation of computational models. Our analysis reveals that language models based on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) with a gating mechanism are the only computational models that can reproduce the long memory behavior of natural language. (Abstract excerpt)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep
The scaling properties of natural language are the universal statistical behaviors observed in natural language text. For example, Zipf’s law characterizes the vocabulary population with a power-law function for the rank-frequency distribution. Recent statistical mechanical studies revealed another statistical aspect of natural language, long memory. This refers to the way that sequences of characters or words in natural language universally exhibit clustering, bursty behavior. (2)
Carleo, Giuseppe, et al.
Machine Learning and the Physical Sciences.
An eight member international teamwith postings such as Flatiron Institute Center for Computational Quantum Physics (GC), MPI Quantum Optics (Ignacio Cirac) and Maria Schuld (University of KwaZulu-Natal) consider applications of novel deep neural net methods, broadly conceived, across statistical, particle, cosmic, many-body quantum matter, and onto chemical phases. See also NetKet: A Machine Learning Toolkit for Many-Body Quantum Systems at 1904.00031, and Neural Networks take on Open Quantum Systems in Physics Review Letters (122/25, 2019) by this extended group. As the project flourishes, by ready cross-transfers, one gets an inkling of a naturally cerebral ecosmos, just now trying to achieve via reinforcement learnings its own self-description, literacy, realization, and affirmative action going forward.
Machine learning encompasses a broad range of algorithms and modeling tools used for a vast array of data processing tasks, which has entered most scientific disciplines in recent years. We review in a selective way the recent research on the interface between machine learning and physical sciences. This includes conceptual developments in machine learning (ML) motivated by physical insights, applications of machine learning techniques to several domains in physics, and cross-fertilization between the two fields. After giving basic notion of machine learning methods and principles, we describe examples of how statistical physics is used to understand methods in ML. We then move to describe applications of ML methods in particle physics and cosmology, quantum many body physics, quantum computing, and chemical and material physics. We also highlight research and development into novel computing architectures aimed at accelerating ML. In each of the sections we describe recent successes as well as domain-specific methodology and challenges. (Abstract)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep
Maheswaranathan, Niru, et al.
Universality and Individuality in Neural Dynamics across Large Populations of Recurrent Networks.
By virtue of the latest sophistications, Google Brain and Stanford University AI researchers are able to discern and report “representational similarities” between “biological and artificial networks.” These qualities are then seen in effect across an array of personal and communal affinities.
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology
A science writer (search) gathers and reports on a florescence of physical theories in the literature that appear to presage revolutionary cosmologies. A working image of a Swampland (search arXiv), coined by Harvard physicist Cumrun Vafa, contains mix or miasma of string theories, quantum gravity, relativity, de Sitter vacuum, covariant entropy, black holes, and more conjectures. The article is based on interviews with Vafa, Andrei Linde, Eran Palti, Catherine Heymans, and others, along with Anil’s familiar experience (search). Something deeply vital seems to be brewing, which may lead to novel understandings, or wind up at a new square one. See, for example, The Swampland: Introduction and Review by Palti at arXiv:1903.06239, and Towards a Unified View of Swampland Conjectures by Cesar Gomez (1907.13386).
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS
Chitambar, Eric and Gilad Gour.
Quantum Resource Theories.
Reviews of Modern Physics.
This paper by University of Illinois and University of Calgary physicists was first posted at arXiv:1806.06107 and has since been often referred to along with its title phrase as an insightful, frontier advance.
Quantum resource theories (QRTs) offer a versatile framework for studying phenomena in quantum physics. From quantum entanglement to computation, resource theories can quantify a desirable effect, develop protocols for its detection, and optimize its use. A general QRT partitions quantum states into groups of free states and of resource states. Free states are quantum operations arising from natural restrictions placed on the physical system that force its operations to act invariantly. As a result, objects that appear distinct on the surface, such as entanglement and quantum reference frames, appear to have much similarity on a deeper structural level. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS
Norman, Andreas and Lukasz Rudnicki.
Quantum Correlations and Complementarity of Vectorial Light Fields.
MPI Science of Light researchers advance the 2019 frontier of quantum comprehensions by way of adding, as the quotes say, a third, integral aspect to the standard particle-wave pairing. This unifying quality is dubbed a “triality,” a novel word which well serves. Our interest is to see natural light and vision gain a correspondent wholeness and affinity, for example, with the perennial yang-yin Tao image.
We explore quantum correlations of general vector-light fields in multi-slit interference and show that the nth-order field-coherence matrix is directly linked with the reduced n-photon density matrix. The connection is utilized to examine photon wave-particle duality in the double-slit configuration, revealing that there is a hidden information-theoretic contribution that complements the standard inequality associated with such duality by transforming it into a strict equality, a triality identity. We also establish a general quantum complementarity relation among the field correlations and the particle correlations which holds for any number of slits, correlation orders, and vector-light states. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS
The quantum theory of optical coherence, dealing with field correlations of light, is ubiquitous in the physical sciences; it is widely exploited in quantum optics, atomic physics, optomechanics, quantum simulation, quantum electronics, and cosmology, among other research areas. Recently quantum coherence of genuine vector-light fields was examined in double-slit interference, revealing a new fundamental aspect of photon wave-particle duality. The rapid progress in quantum information science has at the same time led to an ever-growing interest towards nonclassical correlations that may prevail in multipartite quantum compositions of diverse physical nature. (1)
In this Letter, we investigate the relationship between field correlations and particle correlations of true vectorial light of any quantum state in multi-slit interference. We show that the nth-order field correlations are directly connected to the particle correlations among n photons. This relationship is especially employed to explore quantum complementarity in the celebrated double-slit setup, resulting in the discovery of a tight equality which may be interpreted as describing photon wave-particle triality (1)
Schuld, Maria, et al.
Viewpoint: Neural Networks take on Open Quantum Systems.
Physics Review Letters.
University of KwaZulu-Natal, RSA physicists MS, Ilya Sinayskify and Francesco Peruccione comment on articles in this issue such as Neural Network Approach to Dissipative Quantum Many-Body Physics and Quantum Monte Carlo Method with a Neural Network Ansatz for Open Quantum Systems which report ways that this brain-based problem-solving method can similarly apply to nature’s deepest realm. By way of its physical affinity, quantum phenomena can actually possess classical dynamic complexities. See also Machine Learning and the Physical Sciences by Giuseppe Carleo, et al. at arXiv:1903.10563 and The Quest for a Quantum Neural Network by the authors in Quantum Information Processing (13/11, 2014).
Simulating a quantum system that exchanges energy with the outside world is difficult, but the necessary computations might be easier with the help of neural networks. These general problem solvers reach their solutions by being adapted or “trained” to capture correlations in real-world data. Physicists are asking if the tools might also be useful in areas ranging from high-energy physics to quantum computing. Four research groups now report on using neural networks to tackle computationally challenging problems such as simulating the behavior of an open many-body quantum system. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > exouniverse
Alonso-Serrano, Ana, et al, eds.
Co-editors A A-S, MPI Gravitational Physics, Mariusz Dabrowski, University of Szczecin, Poland, and Thomas Naumann, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Germany introduce a special place for studies about a relatively infinite scenario, some 400 years after Galileo’s moon, which is filled with all manner of spatial and temporal cosmoses. Among the entries are Multiverse – Too Much or Not Enough? by Michael Heller, Possible Origins and Properties of an Expanding, Dark Energy Providing a Dark Multiverse by Eckhard Rebhan, and four McCullen Sandora Papers (search) about factoring habitability estimates for our home planet and cosmos within this vast milieu. While still another (Copernican) devaluation is alluded to, in our worldwide organic genesis, human/Earth beings can be returned to a central significance.
The idea of the Multiverse, as a collection of possible universes, has entered the area of physics and cosmology for good. The term 'Multiverse' was first suggested by the philosopher William James in 1895 (see Historic Prescience). The diversity of possible physical shapes of a universe within the multiverse can be interpreted in terms of diversity of possible ways to choose physical parameters and can be related to the issue of varying physical constants and varying physical laws. One approach is superstring theory which led to an idea of superstring landscape or many ways to choose the vacua after the symmetry breaking. Anyway, one can consider the studies related to the concept of the Multiverse as a new revolution or paradigm in cosmology. It can be understood as the next step in the Copernican transit, where our habitat has lost relevance gradually as unique or special. The notion of the multiverse emerges naturally from some developments in cosmology and particle physics. (Issue Proposal excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Organic
Wandel, Wandel, Amri and Joseph Gale.
The Biohabitable Zone and Atmospheric Properties for Planets of Red Dwarfs.
We cite this entry by Hebrew University of Jerusalem life scientists in An Organic Universe as a good example, if of a mind to perceive, of how vitally biochemical and evolutionary an ecosmic nature actually is. By this study and many others, every kind of stellar system may be deeply conducive for life to complexity and develop. Might we worldwise peoples at last be able to realize that the universe is not a mechanism or computation, rather by its own inherency possesses an innate biological fertility. For a popular, illustrated article on Red Dwarfs see Life as We Don’t Know It by Igor Palubski and Aomana Shields in Sky & Telescope for August 2019.
The Kepler data show that habitable small planets orbiting Red Dwarf stars (RDs) are abundant, and hence might be promising targets to look at for biomarkers and life. It is shown that temperatures suitable for liquid water and even organic molecules may exist on tidally locked planets of RDs. We chart the surface temperature distribution as a function of the irradiation, greenhouse factor and heat circulation. We find that tidally locked as well as not locked planets of RDs and K-type stars may support life for a wider range of orbital distance and atmospheric conditions than previously thought. We show that when the effect of continuous radiation is taken into account, the Photo-synthetically Active Radiation (PAR) available on tidally locked planets, even of RDs, could produce a high Potential Plant Productivity, in analogy to mid-summer growth at high latitudes on Earth. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics
Eckmann, Jean-Pierre, et al.
Proteins: The Physics of Amorphous Evolving Matter.
Reviews of Modern Physics.
J-P E and Jacques Rougemont, University of Geneva and Tsvi Tlusty, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, post a tutorial paper which traces a pathway by which to join and root life’s biochemical processes within fundamental condensed matter principles. In this computational view, proteins arise from collective many-body interactions in amino acid matter as the outcome of an evolutionary search in a high-dimensional space of gene sequences. In regard, an evolutionary learning process is seen to act as a combinatorial search within an optimization process. See also Physical Model of the Genotype to Phenotype Map of Proteins by the authors with Albert Libchaber in Physical Review X (7/021037, 2017). These and many other insightful efforts are presently revealing a unified, lively ovoGenesis uniVerse.
Proteins are a matter of dual nature. As a physical object, a protein molecule is a folded chain of amino acids with multifarious biochemistry. But it is also an instantiation along an evolutionary trajectory determined by the function performed by the protein within a hierarchy of interwoven interaction networks of the cell, the organism and the population. A physical theory of proteins therefore needs to unify both the biophysical and the evolutionary. We review physical approaches by way of a mechanical framework which treats proteins as evolvable condensed matter: Mutations introduce localized perturbations in the gene, which are similarly translated into the protein matter. A natural tool seems to be Green's functions (Wikipedia)as they map the evolutionary linkage among mutations in the gene to cooperative physical interactions among the amino acids. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics
Le Bihan, Denis.
Is the Brain Relativistic?.
The senior French philosophical neuroscientist is posted at NEUROSPIN: From Physics to the Human Brain, a CEA Parisian research and clinical project, especially for autism studies, by way of novel intense field imaging techniques. In search of a broader natural context of service to cerebral research, the author notes that while cosmic physics has a conceptual basis, a global theory of the working brain to account for cognition, behavior, and consciousness does not exist. A sense of a deep affinity between our human faculty and the extant universe informs the text, as the second and third quotes allude. Neural network theories are engaged, along with genetic (alphabetic) factors in a connectome mode, along with synaptic pruning and visual capacities. As this imaginative rooting goes forward, we visit quantum phenomena, Minkowski diagrams, hyperspace geodesics, and more to show how akin a vital universe and our microcosmic human acumen might actually be. Thus the paper closes with the thought:To paraphrase (physicist) J. A. Wheeler one may conclude that brain spacetime tells activity how to flow while activity tells brain spacetime how to curve. (29)
Due to the large body of knowledge which neuroimaging has achieved over the last three decades, we have gained a fresh view of the brain which could help us make predictions for new imaging instruments to come, such as ultra high field MRI. By doing so, switching back and forth between physics and neurobiology, we come to a sense that time and space in the brain, as in the Universe, are, indeed, tightly mingled, and could be unified through a brain 'spacetime'. Thinking about a speed limit for action potentials flowing along myelinated axons led us to envision a 4-dimensional brain spacetime which holds to a relativistic pseudo-diffusion principle and functional curvature governed by brain activity, in a similar way gravitational masses give our 4-dimensional Universe spacetime its curvature. (Abstract excerpts, edits).
In consideration of neuroimaging achievements over the last 3 decades we thought that we could perhaps look at the brain with a fresh view which could unveil those “old” things in a new framework. By doing so, switching back and forth between physics and neurobiology, we came across the view that time and space in the brain, as in the Universe, were, indeed, tightly mingled, and might fade away to be unified through a brain “spacetime”. Further thinking led us to realize that this 4-dimensional brain spacetime would obey a kind of relativistic principle and present a functional curvature generated by brain activity, in a similar way gravitational masses give our 4-dimensional Universe spacetime its curvature. We then looked at how this whole-brain framework may shed light on clinical observations of dysfunctions and disorders. (2, edits)
Following the arguments developed above one should not find it objectionable, we hope, that the brain may be viewed in some way as a physical “object” embedded in a 4D enclosure. As such, the brain which is part of the Universe must obey Universephysical laws. After all, the perceptionwe have of the external world, the Universe, comes from our internal world, that is our mind in our brain, and it should not come as a surprise that our understanding of the Universe and our brain are irremediably connected. Hence, considering that the brain represents a kind of Universe itself one may envision how physical laws could be revisited, directly or through analogical derivations to provide a framework useful to better represent and perhaps understand how the brain works as a whole system. (10)