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The Genesis Vision > Historic Precedents
Turing Patterns, 70 Years Later.
This is an editorial notice in August 2022 issue of Nature Computational Science about the 1952 paper, The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis. By our late retrospect it could be seen to presciently initiate the long, welling revolution to an ecosmic procreation that we may just now be able document and fulfill.
The Genesis Vision > News
The Romance of Reality: How the Universe Organizes Itself to Create Life, Consciousness and Cosmic Complexity.
Dallas, TX: BenBella Books,
The author is a science journalist with a neuroscience PhD from George Mason University, where he was a member of Harold Morowitz’s discussion group. His acknowledgements close with a quote (see below) from Harold’s The Emergence of Everything (2002) as an early glimpse of an epic 21st century revolution. In this prescient edition, Dr. Azarian provides a rare, insightful, wide-ranging survey to date. Three main sections, Origins, Evolution, and Transcendence, have chapters such as Our Cohesive Cosmic Story, Poetic Meta-Naturalism, the Biosphere is an Autocatalytic Set, Evolution is a Knowledge Creation Process, An Evolutionary Synthesis, A Unifying Theory of Reality and We are a Way for the Cosmos to Know Itself. A central theme is an animate presence of a universal self-organization which proceeds engender fractal-like scales of an emergent intricacy, organic beingness, and cognitive awareness. Here is a good glimpse so far which we seek to report and document. But a work remains to get on with it in this decade.
According to the prevailing scientific paradigm, the universe tends toward randomness; it functions according to laws without purpose, and the emergence of life is an accident devoid of meaning. But this bleak interpretation of nature is currently being challenged by novel findings at the intersection of physics, biology, neuroscience, and information theory. Generally known as “complexity science, it has led to new understandings of an oriented, emergent evolution. A revolutionary cosmic narrative is taking shape whereby simplest “parts” come together to form ever-greater “wholes” in a process that has no end in sight. (Publisher)
The Genesis Vision > News
We are clearly at the beginning of viewing science from the new perspective of emergence. I believe that it will provide insights into the evolutionary unfolding of our universe, our solar system, our biota and our humanity. This essay will introduce some of the concepts that are coming into focus. The outlook is largely scientific, but certain philosophical and theological elements keep appearing. I offer no apology. (Harold Morowitz, The Emergence of Everything 2002)
(For myself, I first heard Harold in NYC in 1972 when his title was Biology as a Cosmological Imperative. I next met him at the Santa Fe Institute in 1987 where I asked if he would speak at an annual meeting of the American Teilhard Association, which he did in 1991. His 2016 opus with Eric Smith is The Origin and Nature of Life on Earth.)
So, the inevitable growth of knowledge and spread of adaptive complexity in the cosmos can be seen as a learning process that keeps life out of thermodynamic equilibrium. It arises from an evolutionary process that involves constant inferences and better iterations. (133) Our unifying theory of reality has made progress in understanding life’s origin, evolution and destiny. Now we are ready to ask what comes next in the grand process of cosmic self-organization. (243)
Because the universe has a built-in tendency to self-organize to an increasingly complex state, a collective purpose for intelligent life emerges from fundamental laws of nature. It is the teleological nature of the universe that creates a cosmic context that instills life with meaning and purpose, which is to suffuse the cosmos with intelligence. (275) The tendency to disorder by the second law is offset as life gains knowledge forever, giving us all an individual and collective purpose. As a result, we can aspire to live more meaningful lives, in harmony with one another and with the aspirations of nature. You are not a cosmic accident. You are a cosmic imperative. (279)
Barzon, Giacomo, et al.
Criticality and Network Structure Drive Emergent Oscillations in a Stochastic Whole-Brain Model.
Journal of Physics: Complexity.
After some years into the 21st century, and original notices in the 1980s and before, by these 2020s University of Padova systems theorists including Samir Suweis can now reach a deep theoretical and empirical quantification of a critically-poised universality across the ecosmos to cerebral capacities so to provide a dynamic middle-way optimum poise between more or less, closed and open coherence. See Heterogeneity Extends Criticality by Fernanda Sanchez-Puig, et al herein for another 2022 instance.
Overall, here we have shown in detail how network structure plays a fundamental, yet sometimes poorly understood, role. Therefore, we believe that our work will serve as a baseline for future analytical efforts in explaining the nature of the observed transition under more relaxed assumptions, e.g., in the presence of a non-trivial distribution of weights and different topologies, to further understand the influence of both in the emergence of critical features in the human brain. Possible approaches may include the use of heterogeneous mean-field methods as done in the study of epidemic spreading or annealed network approximations. All in all, we believe that our findings are a further contribution to the still puzzling ‘critical brain hypothesis’. (11)
The Genesis Vision > News
Garcia-Sanchez, Miguel, et al.
The Emergence of Interstellar Molecular Complexity Explained by Interacting Networks.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC/INTA), Torrejon de Ardoz, Spain and Swedish University of Agricultural Science researchers including Jacobo Aguirre contribute a frontier synthesis by adding and applying such equally real and vitally present interlinking webworks to nature’s intrinsic formation of nodal biomolecules. This integration is achieved and demonstrated by through novel NetWorld algorithmic computations. As the quote says, an especial value accrues by virtue of a quantified perception of commonly recurrent processes and vivifying anatomies.
The road to life is punctuated by transitions toward complexity, from astrochemistry to biomolecules and eventually, to living organisms. But studies of these original phases remain a challenge to which complexity and network theory has not been much applied. We introduce a computational framework whereby simple networks simulate the most basic elements of life as they interact to form complex structures. We observe a resultant explosion of diversity when the parameter representing the environment reaches a critical value. While this model is abstract, its predictions well mimic the molecular evolution in the interstellar medium during the emergence of chemical complexity. Altogether our work suggests that the rules leading to biological complexity may be relatively simple as they engender universal patterns. (Abstract/Significance)
The Genesis Vision > News
All in all, we believe that (i) the similarities between the results in , based on models that are firmly rooted in classical ecological theory and checked with real data, (ii) those obtained from molecular abundances in interstellar clouds, and (iii) the ones introduced by our computational environment, derived from a simple framework with no a priori ecological or chemical assumptions, are not coincidental. They instead hint that the long path from the creation of the basic prebiotic compounds in the interstellar medium to the origin of life and its evolution on the early Earth could show universal patterns and common phenomena at all scales and across all stages. (8)
Hsieh, Shannon, et al..
The Phanerozoic Aftermath of the Cambrian Information Revolution.
Akin to Cellular Self-Organization: An Overdrive in Cambrian Diversity by Filip Vujovic, et al in BioEssays (July 2022), University of Illinois, Chicago and University of Connecticut paleoecologists including Roy Plotnick achieve a similar perception of rapid, wide-spread cerebral and cognitive advances as organic forms suddenly leapt forward from simpler stages. Many studies from the Burgess Shale to Devonian phases of “nervous system complexities” provided an empirical basis. As a result, a graphic radiation can be sketched from no CNS to ganglia onto a relative brain. In their rare purview, soma and sensory together are seen to constitute life’s radical emergent, quicker transition (on its way to our late planetary reconstruction). (See V. Evolution for more)
The Genesis Vision > News
Kocoglu, Cemile, et al.
How Network-based Approaches can Complement Identification Studies in Frontotemporal Dementia.
Trends in Genetics.
We cite this entry by University of Antwerp neurologists to notably record an integral turn beyond 20th century point gene - malady attributions. In this way medical diagnoses can include all the equally real interinking topologies (maybe GRN-like) as a causal factor for these cerebral deficits. An initial review of this overdue movement is Network Medicine: Complex Systems in Human Disease and Therapeutics by Joseph Loscalso, Albert-Laszlo Baribasi and Edwin Silverman (Harvard UP, 2017) which introduces this vital advance but its content has not been availed for brains until now.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a primary cause of dementia over a broad range of clinical phenotypes and cellular pathologies. Genetic discoveries in FTD have occurred in well-known extended families. In the context of complex diseases, it is hypothesized that mutations with reduced penetrance or a combination of low-effect size variants with environmental factors drive disease. In this review, we examine gene discovery approaches in FTD and introduce network biology concepts as tools to assist gene identification studies in genetically complex disease. (Abstract)
The Genesis Vision > News
Nonacs, Peter, et al.
Social Evolution and the Major Evolutionary Transition in the History of Life.
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.
The editors for this special section are Peter Nonacs UCLA (Center for Behavior, Evolution & Culture,) Karen Kapheim, Utah State University (comparative genomics) and Heikki Helantera, University of Helsinki, (evolutionary ecology) are deeply engaged in field and conceptual studies which could be well served by an endemic structural arrangement and emergent orientation (Brief capsules in their own words below.) As an observation, just as a teleologic course could no longer be ignored (section herein), so this nested scale from 1995 is now similarly gaining a full, revelant acceptance. Its inclusion then describes a revolutionary (EarthWin) appreciation of life’s true developmental gestation. A further merit is a strongest case to date for an ascendant personsphere sapience learning on her/his own.
Among the ten entries are an overview survey: Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations by Amanda Robin, et al, What Do We Mean by Multicellularity? The Evolutionary Transitions Framework Provides Answers by Caroline Rose and Katrin Hammerschmidt, The Evolution of Microbial Facilitation: Sociogenesis, Symbiogenesis, and Transition in Individuality by Istvan Zachar, Gergely Boza The Major Transitions in Evolution: A Philosophy of Science Perspective by Samir Okasha and notably Design for an Individual: Connectionist Approaches to the Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality by Richard, Watson, et al (search)
In their classic 1995 book, John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmáry sketched the evident presence of eight major evolutionary transitions (METs) in the long history of life on earth. But 27 years since, optional views, and detail debates about defining features and qualities still persist. Attempts to find deep, constant patterns and processes also go on, but have not yet integrated this entire sweep of evolution and ecology from replicating molecules to loquacious humans. It seemed appropriate to post a topical issue which could gather, assimilate and enjoin these many aspects, air specific issues and consider a common, nested sequence. To wit, METs are seen to occur as fusions of independent individuals into a higher order entity, along with a novel way that information is stored and transmitted. In addition, the ecological context where this ascendant course goes on is rarely considered. Into these 2020s, new findings and novel ideas about life’s developmental stirrings, genetic bases and consequent course to our consummate global retrospective could provide a salutary synthesis. (Nonacs, et al, Introduction excerpt)
The Genesis Vision > News
I view my research program as the intersection of Evolutionary and Behavioral Ecology explores why questions and how issues. My students and I use several approaches from mathematical theories to empirical methods and field work in Panama. Although most of my work is with social insects, we are open to any system or species depending on how well suited they are to learn about vital evolutionary phenomena. (P. Nonacs)
I began my scientific life in Kay Holekamp's lab as at Michigan State University. After a stint as a zookeeper, I went to grad school at UCLA where my PhD was co-advised by Peter Nonacs and Bob Wayne as a shift from carnivores to bees. A post-doc followed in Gene Robinson's lab at UIUC, where I got into genomic aspects. I started my own lab at Utah State University in 2014. (K. Kapheim)
I see sociality, cooperation, conflict and communication everywhere. I work on genomics and transcriptomics, behaviour, chemical ecology and conceptual approaches to evolution. Beyond social insects, another necessary topic I study is the major transitions in evolution. In regard, I carry out theoretical and empirical analyses on similarities and differences between in complex multicellularity and superorganisms. (H. Helantera)
Beyond Chaos and Rigidity, Flexstability.
New Ideas in Psychology.
As peoples and cultures world over become so polarized between such dual archetypal opposites, persuasions or fixations, a senior Aarhus University, Danish School of Education psychologist proposes an evident (once and future) middle way integrative unity. See also similar suggestions such as tradition and innovation by Jagiello, Heyes and Whitehouse, and participants and socialism by Thomas Piketty. In our regard, an active balance of conserve/create, regress/progress, particle/wave, war/peace, me individual/We society on every scale and instance can viably ensue. mitigate and resolve.
But in the USA, a new phase of violent conflict now looms. On a global scale, nuclear weapons are rattled between America (individualist) and Russia/China (communal). Yet it boggles that no one can see the fierce split is obviously between nature’s ecsomic, gender-like complements. The US senate vote on the climate bill was 50/50 as Republicans to a man went against. The South Korea flag is graced with a yin/yang Tao symbol as war games go on against the North. We are cutting it too close, how can this perennial family image ever be realized.
Chaos and rigidity are often used to describe problematic psychological states. If they are to be avoided, how does one conceive of a normative alternative? This paper proposes that underlying chaos and rigidity are two dimensions of healthy human experience, those of stability (focus, routine, unity) and flexibility (exploration, novelty, diversity). This essay proposes an optimal, unified state of “flexstability” in which individuals experience both flexibility and stability at the same moment. Chaos can be now understood as flexibility without stability, and rigidity as stability without flexibility. We apply this option to seven research areas in psychology: parenting styles, identity formation, development of mind, flow, creativity, emotional regulation and self-determination. (Abstract)
The Genesis Vision > News
The main contribution offered here is the point that chaos and rigidity may be seen as expressions of a deeper dynamic, that of forms guiding human activity in ways more or less flexible and stable, producing more or less chaos and rigidity. The alternative that suggests itself, the state of flexstability, is proposed as a way of characterizing and envisioning a more appropriate alternative than any half-way house between rigidity and chaos. Viable human development efforts should not succumb to the logics of either-or or more-or-less when a logic of both-and is so readily available. (8)
Sanchez-Puig, Fernanda, et al.
Heterogeneity Extends Criticality.
In August 2022, a five person team with postings at the Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México, Microsoft, Redmond, Aalto University, Finland and far afield including Carlos Gershenson achieve a significant advance toward identifying how and why a middle way poise between a relative more or less order seems to be nature’s optimum preference. As the quotes cite, while equilibrium, homogeneous conditions are widespread, many animate, cerebral and environmental situations exist in and benefit from a dynamic, non-equilibrium or heterogeneous mode. In technical terms, these tendencies are dubbed a self-organized criticality, aka chimera states. The paper makes a major point that such a phenomenal distinction, along with other reasons, can well explain this “sweet spot” universality that complex network systems from galactic clusters to communal groupings tend to seek and at best achieve.
But as we enter Autumn 2022, while these scientific findings converge as an epochal Earthuman synthesis, world political cultures, especially the USA, are a tragic aberration as the dual modes remain in polar, violent, opposition. By what cognitive imagination, say a Sophia, whole brain/mind sapiens, could ever these academic and public segments come together as me + We + US and turn to a better, hopeful future? See also Temporal Heterogeneity Improves Speed and Convergence in Genetic Algorithms at (2203.13194) and Temporal, Structural and Functional Heterogeneities Extend Criticality and Antifragility in Random Boolean Networks by this team at 2209.07505 by this collegial team.
Criticality states have been proposed as vital for the emergence of complexity, life, and computation, as it exhibits a balance between order and chaos. In classic models of complex systems where structure and dynamics are considered homogeneous, criticality is restricted to phase transitions. Many real-world complex systems, however, are not homogeneous as elements change in time faster than others, with slower main elements providing robustness, and faster ones being adaptive. Connectivity patterns are likely heterogeneous with few elements and many interactions. Our studies well support this distinction and the ubiquitous presence of heterogeneity across physical, biological, social and technological systems. (Abstract)
The Genesis Vision > News
Phase transitions have been studied to describe changes in states of physical matte. They have also been more widely studied in dynamical systems such as vehicular traffic and are associated with scale invariance and complexity. Several examples of criticality in biological systems are neural activity, genetic regulatory networks, and collective motion. It is often argued that they are prevalent or desirable because they offer a balance between robustness and adaptability. If dynamics are too ordered, then information and functionality can be preserved, but it is difficult to adapt. The opposite occurs with more chaos: change allows for adaptability, but also leads to fragility and information loss. Thus, altogether for life, computation, and complex systems in general, critical dynamics should be favored by evolutionary processes. (1-2)
Vujovic, Filip, et al.
Cellular Self-Organization: An Overdrive in Cambrian Diversity?
University of Sydney system biophysicians contribute another frontier perception of life’s evolutionary motive occasion as more primarily due to these mathematic procreative agencies, rather than post-selection alone. Their certain subject area is this profuse emergence some 540 mys ago. Some sections are Self-Organization: A Decentralized Algorithm to Transform Chaos into Predictability, Self-Organization and Emergence of Morphological Patterns and Emergence of Form and Function in Cellular Self-Organization. Along with 135 references, graphic displays show how this deep drive (natural genesis) provides a formative, organismic effect prior to selection.
The Genesis Vision > News
See also The Phanerozoic Aftermath of the Cambrian Information Revolution by Shannon Hsieh, et al in Paleobiology, (48/3, 2022) about a concurrent cerebral and cognitive florescence within this expansive era and Self-Organization as a New Paradigm in Evolutionary Biology, Anne Malasse, ed., for a 2022 book-length report of life’s innate creative source. (See V. Evolution for more.)
Yang, Vicky Chuqiao, et al.
Scaling and the Universality of Function Diversity across Human Organizations.
Senior system theorists VCY, MIT, Christopher Kempes, Geoffrey West, Sidney Redner, Santa Fe Institute and Hyejin Youn, Northwestern University (search each) continue to study and quantify our diverse array of social modern institutions from companies to colleges so as here to make a strong case for a commonly recurrent patterns and processes, an urban universality. A constant theme is that these diverse groupings can have cognitive abilities and achievements beyond individual members. In regard, the basic Natural Genesis premise from its early 2000s origins is that a emergent personsphere transition has become able to learn, think and gain revolutionary knowledge on her/his own. See also Worldwide Scaling of Waste Generation in Urban Systems by this team at 2208.07917.
Function diversity, namely the range of tasks individuals can perform, is essential to productive organizations. This concept has often been studied, but general patterns and mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we analyze over five thousand organizations such as US federal agencies, Norwegian companies, and US universities, and find that the number of distinct functions scales with their size as a power law with an exponent of 1/2. Further, we find common patterns in the distribution of function abundance within organizations. Thus we can observe and report an evident universality whereby human organizations share common features. for creating specializations. (Excerpt)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science
Human organizations allow a group of individuals to accomplish what disconnected individuals cannot. Function diversity reflects the skills and abilities that are brought together in these groups. Our finding suggests that for top-down organizations, often governed by specified goals and objectives, such as government agencies, companies, and universities, there is a common scaling relationship between the function diversity and organization size, namely, a power law with exponent close to 1/2. This empirical observation implies that a critical size is required to sustain a given level of function diversity in an organization. (9)
Huertan-Company, M. and F. Lanusse.
The Dawes Review 10: The Impact of Deep Learning for the Analysis of Galaxy Surveys.
Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain astronomers post an extensive review as these collaborative, computational studies presently spiral on up to an Earthropo sapience. Some 500 references indicate how much our intrinsic endeavors to quantify and describe a celestial spacescape have a planetary cast. See also Gravothermal Collapse of Self-Interacting Dark Matter Halos as the Origin of Black Holes in Milky Way Satellites by Tamar Meshveliani, et al (University of Iceland) at arXiv:2210.01817 as another transitional example.
As these data flows grow, here we review the main applications of deep learning for galaxy surveys so far. We report that the applications are becoming more diverse and deep learning is used for computer vision estimates of galaxy properties, along with cosmological models.. Some common challenges are cited before moving to the next phase of deployment in the processing of future surveys; e.g. uncertainty quantification, interpretability, data labeling, and so on as the endeavor shifts from training and simulations, so to become a common practice in astronomy. (Excerpt)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep
Gomez-Vargas, Isidro, et al.
Neural Networks Optimized by Genetic Algorithms in Cosmology.
We cite this entry by Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México astronomers to illustrate how collaborative scientific frontiers are now turning to and can readily apply a deep computational intelligence to study and quantify, so it seems, every sidereal breadth and depth. As the quotes say, the authors here meld ANNs with GA (aka evolutionary) capabilities to achieve more insightful synthesis.
Artificial neural networks have been successfully applied in cosmological studies over the the past decade, due to their ability of modeling large datasets and complex nonlinear functions. However, their full use needs hyperparameters to be carefully selected, which is a problem. In this paper, we propose to take further advantage of genetic algorithms (GA) to help get to optimum values.. As a proof, we analyze Type Ia Supernovae, dynamic cosmic content, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and found that GAs provide a considerable improvement. (Excerpt)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep
Genetic algorithms, by themselves, have been investigated in cosmology for quasar parameterisation, nonparametric reconstructions, string theory analysis, to name just a few. In other research areas, there are various cases in which artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms have been applied together; for example, in medicin, seismology and in string theory, among others. (2)
Ohler, Simon, et al.
Towards Learning Self-Organized Criticality of Rydberg Atoms using Graph Neural Networks.
University of Kaiserslautern, Germany and Merantix Momentum, AI Campus, Berlin researchers including Johannes Otterbach at once testify to nature’s universal preference for this optimum state and describe an avail of deep machine algorithmic methods by which to advance their latest studies.
Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) is a ubiquitous dynamical phenomenon believed to be responsible for the emergence of universal scale-invariant behavior in many disparate systems such as forest fires, viral epidemics or atomic excitation. SOC is found across large-scale and long-range spatio-temporal correlations as a result of local interactions. We investigate Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) as an effective way to model a physical system of driven Rydberg atoms as a typical SOC occasion. While inspired by active Rydberg atoms, the approach could readily be applied to many other cases. (Abstract excerpt)
A Learning Planet > Mindkind Knowledge
Deep Learning methods deliver impact for many applications ranging from Computer Vision, Natural Language, Processing, Audio and Speech Processing to Optimal Control. In recent years we also see these methods drive innovation in areas of scientific interest, such as drug discovery, protein folding, molecule dynamics, as well as classic multi-particle systems and many more. In the context of particle dynamics the class of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are particularly successful. We build up on this success and investigate the application of GNNs to learn the time-evolution of a complex many-body system in the regime of so-called self-organized criticality (SOC). (1)
A Rydberg atom is an excited atom with one or more electrons that have a very high principal quantum number. The higher the value of n, the farther the electron is from the nucleus, on average. Rydberg atoms have certain properties including a response to electric and magnetic fields, long decay periods and electron wavefunctions.
Robin, Amanda, et al..
Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations..
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.
A contribution by UCLA and Stanford University biologists to a special Social Evolution and the Major Evolutionary Transition in the History of Life issue (see Peter Nonacs for review) which provides a rare, latest extension of this emergent scale onto its global fulfillment. Such a obvious but unfamiliar perception likely had to hold off until a 2020s retrospect to admit and appreciate this evident domain which has long been the basis for our EarthWise attribution. In regard, we offer an array of quotes.
Into the 21st century, the presence of “Major Evolutionary Transitions” (METs) with novel forms of organismal complexity, information and individuality have gained increasing notice among biologists. Into these 2020s, we introduce this special collection meant to gather many findings into an overdue full scale, explanatory recognition of life’s main ascendant course. We also seek to provide this evolutionary sequence within an ecological basis, aka Major System Transitions (MSTs). In regard, important morphological adaptations are noted that spread through populations because of direct-fitness advantages for individuals. We elucidate the role of information across five levels: (I) Encoded; (II) Epigenomic; (III) Learned; (IV) Inscribed; and (V) Dark, newly due to abiotic entities rather than organisms. Level IV is then seen to engender a worldwide human phase emergence. (Abstract excerpt)
The Levels of Information: Instructional: Information is transformed into physical, symbolic formats that have vast storage capacity. An instructional corpus can far exceed the combined encoded, epigenetic, learned and iconic content previously available to any single individual. Across the tree of life, only humans are known to have ever extensively created and used instructional information. Dark: Information produced by abiotic computer programs which are so complicated that biological organisms cannot replicate or derive. Examples are: internet search engines; global climate models; bioinformatic analyses of genetic data sets; neural network simulations and genetic algorithm models. The potential reach of this information may exceed that of the species that creates it, to the extent that it may become a new ‘living species’ in and of itself. (4)
The capacity for symbolic representation of language is critical for the emergence of technological innovations that expanded the realized niche for humans exponentially and paved the path to a global MST. We proliferated across every continent and environment on Earth while substantially impacting these ecosystems. One example of inscribed language producing global-altering information and technology is the very existence of the discipline of evolutionary science and the systematic study of life itself. Humans are uniquely able
to understand how evolution works. (15)