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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 1 through 15 of 177 found.


Family Ecosmos: A MultiUniVerse to HumanVerse Procreative Spacescape

The Genesis Vision > Historic Precedents

Toliver, Harold. Mythic Worlds and the One You Can Believe In. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2017. We cite this essay by an emeritus British professor of comparative literature because it takes a long, deep view of the historic course of hominid to human stirrings, evocations, imaginations and inquiries as they may or may not close upon viable knowledge. We would presently wish that the late 21st century occasion of a worldwide collective intelligence might at last be reaching a true, vital discovery and salutary wisdom which we familial peoples seem meant to achieve.

Combining philosophy, science, and literature, Mythic Worlds and the One You Can Believe In examines lingering misconceptions of world history as a continuing source of international tension. Awareness of the natural continuum, currently gauged at some 13.8 billion years overall, disarms sectarian zealotry and, in retrospect, explains some of the difficulties the literary and philosophical traditions have had in accommodating their beliefs to what undeniably exists. To this day, beliefs incompatible with natural history continue to intensify nationalism and support terrorist movements. As a work mainly in natural philosophy, this book uses the consensus natural continuum to critique the more prominent and durable misconceptions. (Summary)

When ideas expressed in words became possible, probably some 50 to 40 millennia age, Homo sapiens gained in capacity to disseminate ideas in detail. That is what enable groupthink and allowed the invention of fables. Discourse became the great enabler. It was free eventually to conjure angels from the clouds and devils from underground caverns as well as demons in enemy camps. Because it is just as willing to serve imagination as logic, distinguishing facts from myths became one of the more arduous and frequent things the brain is assigned to do. (x)

The Genesis Vision > Current Vistas

Adams, Alyssa, et al. Physical Universality, State-Dependent Dynamical Laws and Open-Ended Novelty. Entropy. 19/9, 2017. Arizona State University theorists Adams, Angelica Berner, Paul Davies and Sara Walker continue their endeavor to identify vital propensities which ought to be there because we latecomers are here. With colleagues Chiara Marletto, David Deutsch, and others, the task is to discern a generative mathematics to which life’s procreative emergence can be traced to and explained by. The issue is not so much whether this innate source exists, but much about how can it be drawn out and synoptically perceived from technical abstractions to real understandings (cosmic elephant) of an animate evolutionary creativity going forward.

A major conceptual step forward in understanding the logical architecture of living systems was advanced by von Neumann with his universal constructor, a physical device capable of self-reproduction. A necessary condition for a universal constructor to exist is that the laws of physics permit physical universality, such that any transformation can be caused to occur. Current examples of physical universality rely on reversible dynamical laws, whereas it is well-known that living processes are dissipative. Here we show that physical universality and open-ended dynamics should both be possible in irreversible dynamical systems if one entertains the possibility of state-dependent laws. We discuss implications for physical universality, or an approximation to it, as a foundational framework for developing a physics for life. (Abstract)

We do not know whether a universal constructor is itself physically possible in our universe, or if such an entity is necessary for open-ended evolution in a dynamical system. One necessary condition for a universal constructor to be possible is physical universality, defined as the property that any possible physical transformation can be performed on a given system, provided sufficient resources are available to do so and subject to the requirement the transformation(s) do(es) not violate any laws of physics. The key distinction between physical universality and the related, more widely discussed concept of computational universality, is that for the former computation (more aptly construction) is performed directly on the physical system, such that transformations are on states rather than on emergent patterns. If physical universality can be cast as a principle of nature it could provide a promising candidate framework for arriving at the “other laws” Schrödinger hoped might one day be uncovered. (2)

The Genesis Vision > Current Vistas

Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana. Computational Dynamics of Natural Information Morphology, Discretely Continuous. Philosophies. Online October 12, 2017. In a paper for a special Natural Computation: Attempts in Reconciliation of Dialectic Oppositions issue, the Chalmers University of Technology, Stockholm, information theorist continues her insightful project (search) with attention to this crucially significant feature of dual phase program (bit) and phenomena (it) realms. But these remain abstractions because that is what passes for all writings of this kind. After listing some 100 dichotomies, along with their notice from G. Leibniz to J. A. Wheeler, a general theme is a particulate digital, and holistic analog contrast, within a both/and, diversity/unity synthesis. Universal and human nature is again distinguished by a once and future archetypal complementarity, as wisdom surely centers, which is seen as a process of “self-individualization.” Her work is dubbed a “pancomputationalism” whence life evolves and emerges from universe to us via an informative source and its overt, sentient, learned manifestation. See also a posting for the IS4SI 2017 Summit DIGITALISATION FOR A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY in the MDPI journal Proceedings (1/3, 2017) for over 160 mini-papers from this June conference held at Chalmers (search).

This paper presents a theoretical study of the binary oppositions underlying the mechanisms of natural computation understood as dynamical processes on natural information morphologies. Of special interest are the oppositions of discrete vs. continuous, structure vs. process, and differentiation vs. integration. The framework used is that of computing nature, where all natural processes at different levels of organisation are computations over informational structures. The interactions at different levels of granularity/organisation in nature, and the character of the phenomena that unfold through those interactions, are modeled from the perspective of an observing agent. This brings us to the movement from binary oppositions to dynamic networks built upon mutually related binary oppositions, where each node has several properties. (Abstract)

Our understanding of nature, including ourselves as natural beings, is increasingly based on computational models, with simulations and visualizations of the domains inaccessible to our everyday experience. Epistemologically, this requires connecting the domains directly accessible to our cognition with those we reach via tools—instruments and theories. It is therefore instructive to examine the conceptual basis of our contemporary understanding of nature, with an emphasis on the view of computing nature known as info-computation, where cognizing agents construct their reality (their view of the world) as information (structured data), with information dynamics understood as computation. The process of reality construction starts with the most fundamental idea of a difference (distinction) and its opposite; similarity, via processes of differentiation and integration. (1)

A Planetary Prodigy: HumanKinder's Geonome Knowledge

A Learning Planet > Original Wisdom > Rosetta Cosmos

Reagan, Andrew, et al. The Emotional Arcs of Stories are Dominated by Six Basic Shapes. EPJ Data Science. 5:31, 2016. By way of the latest computational prowess, University of Vermont complex system theorists including Peter Dobbs and Christopher Danforth are able to distill a small set of archetypal storyline themes: rags to riches (rise), tragedy (fall), fall to rise, Icarus (rise-fall), Cinderella (rise-fall-rise) and Oedipus (fall-rise-fall). By virtue of such fascinating findings, this posting has become the most accessed for the online journal. A sample of methods includes self-organizing maps, principle component analysis SVD, and hierarchical clustering. See also Sentiment Analysis Methods for Understanding Large-Scale Texts by this team herein (6:28, 2017). For much more see A. Reagan’s UV doctoral thesis Towards a Science of Human Stories at arXiv:1712.06163.

Advances in computing power, natural language processing, and digitization of text now make it possible to study a culture’s evolution through its texts using a ‘big data’ lens. Our ability to communicate relies in part upon a shared emotional experience, with stories often following distinct emotional trajectories and forming patterns that are meaningful to us. Here, by classifying the emotional arcs for a filtered subset of 1,327 stories from Project Gutenberg’s fiction collection, we find a set of six core emotional arcs which form the essential building blocks of complex emotional trajectories. We strengthen our findings by separately applying matrix decomposition, supervised learning, and unsupervised learning. For each of these six core emotional arcs, we examine the closest characteristic stories in publication today and find that particular emotional arcs enjoy greater success, as measured by downloads. (Abstract)

A Learning Planet > Original Wisdom > World Philosophy

MacDowell, Marsha, et al, eds. Ubuntutu: Tributes to Archbishop Desmond and Leah Tutu by Quilt Artists from South Africa and the United States. East Lansing: Michigan State University Museum, 2017. A luminous illustrated volume to accompany an exhibit of quilts at this museum in October 2016 to honor the Tutu’s lifetime mission for tolerant sanity and peace in their native land across the fraught world. The clever title by a quilter lady draws upon Desmond Tutu’s writings (search), along with Nelson Mandela and Barack Obama, for Ubuntu conveys an organic African wisdom we so desperately need. Its essence is a reciprocity of me + We to achieve a viable, peaceful community, search the word for more on this site. In regard our great America could not be further removed, polarized, or dysfunctional as me versus We political parties fight each other.

Ubuntutu: Life Legacies of Love and Action features quilts that pay tribute to the indelible contributions that Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the first black Archbishop of Cape Town, and his wife Leah, have made in addressing human rights, advancing social justice issues, and advocating for peace in South Africa and around the world. Archbishop Tutu is one of the most well-known champions of antiapartheid in South Africa and is a vigorous campaigner for many human rights causes. Leah, a founder of the South African Domestic Workers Association, has worked alongside her husband to advocate for peace and social justice. These art pieces also honor the Tutus’ faith and the enduring love they have for each other. The word ubuntutu, coined by one of the quilt artists, combines the name Tutu with the Nguni word ubuntu, which can be translated as "human kindness." In the spirit of ubuntu, the quilts featured in this catalog remind us we are all interconnected. (Abstract)

The word ubuntutu used as the title of this book and the exhibition was the creative invention of quilt artist Diana Vandeyar and it combines the name Tutu with the word ubuntu, a Nguni word that roughly means “human kindness.” In more contemporary times it has become an oft used word in South Africa that means roughly I am what I am because of who we all are” or more simply “I am because of us.” Through his published writing and speeches Desmond Tutu helped spread the concept of ubuntu to those outsid South Afric as in this oft-published statement: Ubuntu speaks particularly about the fact that you con’t exist as a human being in isolation. It speaks about our interconnected ness. You can’t be human all by yourself and when you have this quality – Ubuntu – you are known for your generosity. (2)

Quilting Imitates Ubuntu: Each piece of a quilt is dependent on each other piece for its structural integrity and legibility. Each layer fulfils its own function, and each section of the jigsaw puzzle making up the top layer contributes to telling its story. In these characteristics, quilts reflect the essence of human life: our interdependence. Without each other, without love, we become unstitched and inarticulate. (Excerpt from a Preface by Desmond Tutu)

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science

Casadevall, Arturo and Ferric Fang. Revolutionary Science. mBio. 7/2, 2016. In this American Society for Microbiology journal, a Johns Hopkins immunologist and a University of Washington microbiologist post their latest exploratory essay about the many facets of this most human endeavor. Its references will guide to prior essays from 2007 on descriptive, mechanistic, important, competitive, historical, and field aspects.

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science

Zeng, An, et al. The Science of Science: From the Perspective of Complex Systems. Physics Reports. Online November, 2017. Beijing Normal University systems scientists are joined by a founder of this nonlinear revolution, H. Eugene Stanley, Boston University, to achieve this 77 page, 464 reference entry. In so doing, a most comprehensive study to date shows how, as everywhere else, natural network dynamics equally distinguish and guide worldwide research endeavors. Just an inkling in 2004, here it is robustly quantified and exemplified across many aspects from collaborative teams to citation rankings and knowledge creation. A further significance then accrues, which is the deep basis of this sourcebook. By an ability to apply universal network complexities to human cognitive advances, they well validate an emergent global brain, a biosphere unto a noosphere presently learning on her/his own. While efforts broach this nascent phase, a perception that an actual planetary prodigy is attaining her/his own revolutionary discovery still eludes. Contributions like this about an affinity with how a brain is made and thinks, and complex, self-organizing systems applied to science studies, give credence to a worldwise sapiensphere realm we desperately need.

The science of science (SOS) is a rapidly developing field which aims to understand, quantify and predict scientific research and the resulting outcomes. The problem is essentially related to almost all scientific disciplines and thus has attracted attention of scholars from different backgrounds. While different measurements have been designed to evaluate the scientific impact of scholars, journals and academic institutions, the multiplex structure, dynamics and evolution mechanisms of the whole system have been much less studied until recently. In this article, we review the recent advances in SOS, aiming to cover the topics from empirical study, network analysis, mechanistic models, ranking, prediction, and many important related issues. The results summarized in this review significantly deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and statistical rules governing the science system. (Abstract)

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Information-Theoretic Approaches in Deep Learning. www.mdpi.com/journal/entropy/special_issues/deep_learning. This page is an announcement about a special issue planned for the popular online MDPI Entropy site, which is open for manuscripts until December 2018. It is conceived and edited by Deniz Gencaga, a Antalya Bilim University, Turkey, professor of electrical engineering.

Deep Learning (DL) has revolutionized machine learning especially in the last decade. As a benefit of this unprecedented development, we are capable of working with very large Neural Networks (NNs), composed of multiple layers (Deep Neural Networks), in many applications, such as object recognition-detection, speech recognition and natural language processing. Although many Convolutive Neural Network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based algorithms have been proposed, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of DNNs remains to be a major research area. Recently, we have seen an increase in the number of approaches that are based on information-theoretic concepts, such as Mutual Information. In this Special Issue, we would like to collect papers focusing on both the theory and applications of information-theoretic approaches for Deep Learning. The application areas are diverse and some of them include object tracking/detection, speech recognition, natural language processing, neuroscience, bioinformatics, engineering, finance, astronomy, and Earth and space sciences.

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Power and Limits of Artificial Intelligence. www.pas.va/content/accademia/en/publications/scriptavaria/artificial_intelligence. A site for the Proceedings of a Pontifical Academy of Sciences workshop held in late 2016 on this advance and concern. A premier array of neuroscience and computer scientists such as Stanislas Dehaene, Wolf Singer, Yann LeCun, Patricia Churchland, Demis Hassabis, and Elizabeth Spelke spoke, whose presentations both in video and text are available on this site. Search also Dehaene 2017 for a major paper in Science (358/486) as a follow up on his talk and this event.

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Dufourq, Emmanuel and Bruce Bassett. EDEN: Evolutionary Deep Networks for Efficient Machine Learning. arXiv:1709.09161. University of Cape Town, African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, theorists add a temporal depth to neural net computations by informing and integrating them with evolutionary phenomena. By turns, life’s quickening emergence might be likened to a grand educative endeavor. See also Evolving Deep Neural Networks at 1703.00548 for a companion effort.

Deep neural networks continue to show improved performance with increasing depth, an encouraging trend that implies an explosion in the possible permutations of network architectures and hyperparameters for which there is little intuitive guidance. To address this increasing complexity, we propose Evolutionary DEep Networks (EDEN), a computationally efficient neuro-evolutionary algorithm which interfaces to any deep neural network platform, such as TensorFlow. Evaluation of EDEN across seven image and sentiment classification datasets shows that it reliably finds good networks -- and in three cases achieves state-of-the-art results -- even on a single GPU, in just 6-24 hours. Our study provides a first attempt at applying neuro-evolution to the creation of 1D convolutional networks for sentiment analysis including the optimisation of the embedding layer. (Abstract)

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Shallue, Christopher and Andrew Vanderburg. Identifying Exoplanets with Deep Learning. arXiv:1712.05044. With A Five Planet Resonant Chain Around Kepler-80 and an Eighth Planet Around Kepler-90 subtitle, a Google Brain software engineer and a UT Austin astronomer report a novel application of artificial machine intelligence to successfully analyze huge data inputs from this planet-finder satellite. The achievement received wide press notice, along with a December 14 conference: NASA and Google to Announce AI Breakthrough.

NASA's Kepler Space Telescope was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets orbiting Sun-like stars, but these planets are on the very edge of the mission's detection sensitivity. Accurately determining the occurrence rate of these planets will require automatically and accurately assessing the likelihood that individual candidates are indeed planets, even at low signal-to-noise ratios. We present a method for classifying potential planet signals using deep learning, a class of machine learning algorithms that have recently become state-of-the-art in a wide variety of tasks. We train a deep convolutional neural network to predict whether a given signal is a transiting exoplanet or a false positive caused by astrophysical or instrumental phenomena.

We apply our model to a new set of candidate signals that we identified in a search of known Kepler multi-planet systems. We statistically validate two new planets that are identified with high confidence by our model. One of these planets is part of a five-planet resonant chain around Kepler-80, with an orbital period closely matching the prediction by three-body Laplace relations. The other planet orbits Kepler-90, a star which was previously known to host seven transiting planets. Our discovery of an eighth planet brings Kepler-90 into a tie with our Sun as the star known to host the most planets. (Abstract)

A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep

Silver, David, et al. Mastering the Game of Go without Human Knowledge. Nature. 550/354, 2017. An 18 member team (all male) from the Google’s DeepMind London artificial intelligence group including founder Demis Hassabis and AlphaGo European winner Fan Hui enhance the capabilities of their neural network learning programs. With regard to the second quote for the gist of the paper, these algorithmic, reinforcement methods appear as a microcosm of an ascendant, self-reinforcing evolutionary education as it may at last reach a consummate worldwise sapience. While we are wary of game metaphors, a vital truth could be gleaned. What am I trying to say – to wit that a universe to human quickening procreation seems like a game that plays itself. In regard, it may be the case that only one sentient ovoplanet is needed to achieve its self-observation, and realization, so as in this venue, “to log on to itself.” While life’s course is a long slog of stochastic chance, rife with injustice and tragedy, it is a game that yet can be won. As Great Earth, Natural Algorithms, Cosmo Opus and elsewhere try to evoke, our Geonate moment may give us an opportunity to be the fittest people and planet by virtue of a Cosmonate act of self-selection and continuance.

A long-standing goal of artificial intelligence is an algorithm that learns, tabula rasa, superhuman proficiency in challenging domains. Recently, AlphaGo became the first program to defeat a world champion in the game of Go. The tree search in AlphaGo evaluated positions and selected moves using deep neural networks. These neural networks were trained by supervised learning from human expert moves, and by reinforcement learning from self-play. Here we introduce an algorithm based solely on reinforcement learning, without human data, guidance or domain knowledge beyond game rules. AlphaGo becomes its own teacher: a neural network is trained to predict AlphaGo’s own move selections and also the winner of AlphaGo’s games. This neural network improves the strength of the tree search, resulting in higher quality move selection and stronger self-play in the next iteration. Starting tabula rasa, our new program AlphaGo Zero achieved superhuman performance, winning 100–0 against the previously published, champion-defeating AlphaGo. (Abstract)

Conclusion Humankind has accumulated Go knowledge from millions of games played over thousands of years, collectively distilled into patterns, proverbs and books. In the space of a few days, starting tabula rasa, AlphaGo Zero was able to rediscover much of this Go knowledge, as well as novel strategies that provide new insights into the oldest of games. (358)

An Organic, Genomic, Conducive UniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > physics

Quantum Systems In and Out of Equilibrium. ergodic.ugr.es/cp. A site for a June 2017 seminar at the University of Granada, Spain, which we note as an example of current frontiers in this fundamental realm in the later 2010s. Some 20 theorists spoke such as Sandu Popescu, Beatriz Olmos, and Hans Briegel, with available Abstracts. It is sponsored by the UG Statistical Physics Group, linked to this site.

The aim of this meeting is to bring together scientists interested in Quantum aspects of Thermalization, Quantum Transport, Quantum Effects in Macroscopic Systems (condensed matter, biology, etc.), Quantum Computation, Open Quantum Systems, Quantum Fluctuations and Large Deviations, and Quantum Thermodynamics.

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS

Quantum Many-Body Systems Far from Equilibrium. www.physics.sun.ac.za/~kastner/qmb18/index. This is a March 2018 conference at the National Institute for Theoretical Physics in Stellenbosch, South Africa about quench dynamics, thermalization and many-body localization. We also note as an example of how quantum phenomena are now being perceived and treated in similar ways to classical condensed matter.

Recent progress in manipulating cold atoms and ions has brought the study of non-equilibrium behavior of isolated quantum systems into the focus of research. This has given rise to the development of novel theoretical concepts and numerical tools, but also led to a renewed interest in foundational questions. Important recent developments, like quench protocols, thermalisation in isolated quantum systems, as well as absence of thermalisation due to many-body localisation, will be in the focus of this workshop. We aim to bring together researchers from a variety of fields related to this topic, including quantum information, statistical physics, mathematical physics, cold atoms and condensed matter physics.

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > exouniverse

Chamcham, Khalil, et al, eds. The Philosophy of Cosmology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. With coeditors Joseph Silk, John Barrow, and Simon Saunders, the proceedings of a Templeton funded September 2014 conference organized by a group with this name (Google) based in New York City, Oxford, and Cambridge. At the outset, while a stellar array such as George Ellis, Bernard Carr, Joel Primack, James Hartle, Sean Carroll, Carlo Rovelli, and David Albert presented, the speakers were 30 men sans any women. Some chapters are The Domains of Cosmology by G. Ellis, Black Holes, Cosmology and the Passage of Time by B. Carr, and The Observer Strikes Back by J. Hartle and Thomas Hertog. While notice of the anthropic principle, and J. A. Wheeler’s “it from bit” circuit popped up, the collection remains fixated within an abstract cosmos devoid of a vivifying source, personal destiny or phenomenal essence of its own.

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