Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 1 through 15 of 82 found.
The Genesis Vision > Historic Precedents
Bellucci, Bellucci, Stefano, et al.
Black Holes, Gravitational Waves and Space Time Singularities.
Foundations of Physics.
An introduction to a special issue of papers from a May 2017 workshop at the Vatican Observatory in honor of George Lemaitre (1894-1966), the Belgian priest and cosmologist whom in the 1930s is considered the founder of the big bang origin of the expansive universe. He had a distinguished career at MIT, the Catholic University of America and elsewhere, with a continued importance which drew luminous papers such as Virtual Black Holes and Space-Time Structure by Gerard ‘t Hooft, The Big Bang and its Dark Matter Content by Roger Penrose, On Quantum Life of Black Holes by Gia Dvali (search), The Standard Cosmological Model by George Ellis, and From the Sky to the Fundamental Physics by Renata Kallosh.
The Genesis Vision > Current Vistas
Universe in Creation: A New Understanding of the Big Bang and the Emergence of Life.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
A Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics astronomer and educator surveys cosmic and human evolution, but within a minority vista. It opens with a question by John Archibald Wheeler Is the universe so set up from the beginning, that it is guaranteed to produce intelligent life at some long-distant point in its history to be? (8) A participatory universe with an informational Bit to It trajectory courses through the text, along with Andrei Linde’s ascendant consciousness. Gould surmises early on: … the available evidence suggests the universe may well be set up for the emergence of intelligent Life. (11) He is aware this is counter to the pointless accident crowd whereof people are not “written in” (which other reviewers chide him for). But he further braces with a notice of much fractal self-similarity and a convergent evolution. All told, the effort is a good example of how a change in mindset and perspective, keeping hope alive, can shifts from nothing to something, a phenomenal genesis that seems to require our witness and acclaim.
We know the universe has a history, but does it also have a story of self-creation to tell? Yes, in Roy Gould’s account. He offers a compelling narrative of how the universe―with no instruction other than its own laws―evolved into billions of galaxies and gave rise to life, including humans who have been trying for millennia to comprehend it. Far from being a random accident, the universe is hard at work, extracting order from chaos. Making use of the best current science, Gould turns the universe on its head. The cosmos expands inward, not outward. And the universe seems to defy entropy as it becomes more ordered. Universe in Creation explores whether the emergence of life, rather than being a mere afterthought, may be written into the most basic laws of nature.
A Learning Planet > Original Wisdom > Rosetta Cosmos
Chai, Lucy and Danielle Bassett.
Evolution of Semantic Networks in Biomedical Texts.
Cambridge University and University of Pennsylvania bio/neuro/info engineers post a frontier paper which limns an affinity between complex cerebral and textual domains. With theoretical depth, both brains and books are rooted in, arise from, and well exemplify a fertile natural milieu. A cumulative advance from 2010 rudiments to 2018 sophisticated analyses can now evince computational similarities across a similar scale of “information transmission networks.” As a result, the presence of universal, invariant “fractal hierarchical modular architectures” is clearly evident. The key insight is an organizational connectivity or computational scaling, as the quotes note, which guides both phases. So once more, a window upon nature’s literate essence is opened. See also A Mathematical Theory of Semantic Development in Deep Neural Networks at 1810.10531, and Evidence of Rentian Scaling of Functional Modules in Diverse Biological Networks in Neural Computation (30/8, 2018).
Language is hierarchically organized: words are built into phrases, sentences, and paragraphs to represent complex ideas. Here we ask whether the organization of language in written text displays the fractal hierarchical architecture common in systems optimized for efficient information transmission. We test the hypothesis that the expositional structure of scientific research articles displays Rentian scaling, and that the exponent of the scaling law changes as the article's information transmission capacity changes. Using 32 scientific manuscripts - each containing between three and 26 iterations of revision - we construct semantic networks which display clear Rentian scaling from the first draft to the final revision. This reflects the evolution in semantic network structure over the manuscript revision process, highlighting a balance between network complexity and efficiency. Taken together, our results suggest that semantic networks reflecting the structure of exposition in scientific research articles display striking hierarchical architecture that arbitrates tradeoffs between competing constraints on network organization. (Abstract excerpt)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science
A modular hierarchical architecture is observed across various real-life networks. Here, we quantify this fractal-like structure in semantic networks composed of introductions of scientific articles, in particular throughout the drafting and revision process of scientific manuscripts. We observe that the Rentian scaling exponent describing hierarchical network structure varies throughout the publication life cycle and clusters into three main trends among our collection of manuscripts. This evolution of the scaling exponent over the manuscript revision process suggests a balance of network complexity and efficiency, a trade-off which similarly governs other natural and man-made networked systems. (18)
Rent's rule pertains to the organization of computing logic, specifically the relationship between the number of external signal connections to a logic block (i.e., the number of "pins") with the number of logic gates in the logic block, and has been applied to circuits ranging from small digital circuits to mainframe computers. (Wikipedia)
Buettel, Jessie, et al.
Astro-Ecology? Shifting the Interdisciplinary Collaboration Paradigm.
Ecology and Evolution.
An editorial by University of Tasmania biologists which cites a 1994 article by Paul Keddy (Applications of the Hertzsprung-Russell Star Chart to Ecology) in Trends in Ecology and Evolution (9/6, 1994) which then refers to Robert MacArthur’s 1972 work Geographical Ecology that scientific studies whether about bioregion ecosystems or celestial environs should be pay attention to common patterns amongst their separate pieces. Some decades later, as this website seeks to document, a revival of this broad vista is evoked by comparing how trees fall in a forest to topological arrays of sunny stars.
Robert MacArthur's Geographical Ecology turned 21 last year. As it enters adulthood, we may ask whether or not it is still influencing contemporary approaches to ecology. The opening sentence, “To do science is to search for repeated patterns, not simply to accumulate facts...”, sets a theme for the entire book. As ecologists, we are faced with the problem of finding patterns when there is a large number of species, an even larger number of possible pairwise interactions, and when these are dispersed across a bewildering array of habitat types. How do we look for general patterns in nature? The Hertzsprung-Russell star diagram provides an inspiring example for meeting MacArthur's challenge. (Abstract)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep
Neural Networks and Deep Learning.
The IBM Watson Center senior research member provides a latest copious textbook for this active revolution. Ten chapters go from the AI machine advance to brain and behavior based methods, onto features such as training, regularization, linear/logistic regression, matrix factorization, along with neural Turing machines, Kohonen self-organizing maps, recurrent and convolutional nets.
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep
The Deep Learning Revolution.
Cambridge: MIT Press,
The renown neuroscientist author has been at the innovative center of the AI computational machine to brain and behavior neural network advance since the 1980s. He recounts his national and worldwide experience with many collaborators in this volume which make it the best general introduction to the field. A great gift for any student, as the author has also been involved with learning how to learn methods for schools. The book is filled with vignettes of Francis Crick, Geoffrey Hinton, Stephen Wolfram, Barbara Oakley, John Hopfield, Sydney Brenner, Christof Koch and others across the years. An example of his interests and reach is as a speaker at the 2016 Grand Challenges in 21st Century Science (Google) in Singapore.
Terrence J. Sejnowski holds the Francis Crick Chair at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and is a Distinguished Professor at the University of California, San Diego. He was a member of the advisory committee for the Obama administration's BRAIN initiative and is founding President of the Neural Information Processing (NIPS) Foundation. He has published twelve books, including (with Patricia Churchland) The Computational Brain (25th Anniversary Edition, MIT Press).
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science > deep
Deep Learning: Evolution and Expansion.
Cognitive Systems Research.
A Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Computer Applications and Management, New Delhi professor of computer science provides a wide-ranging survey of this neural net based method since the 1980s by way of citing over 50 worldwide approaches to this day.
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology
Bachlechner, Thomas, et al.
Axion Landscape Cosmology.
We cite this entry by physicists TB, UC San Diego, Kate Eckerle and Oliver Janssen, University of Milan, and Matthew Kleban, NYU as their latest paper which by mathematical finesses that seem to allude to sentient beings able to learn this. I heard Kleban speak on The Axidental Universe at UM Amherst on November 9, second abstract below, and see also by this team Multiple-Axion Framework in Physical Review D (98/061301, 2018).
We study the cosmology of complex multi-axion theories. With O(100) fields and GUT scale energies these theories contain a vast number of vacua, inflationary trajectories and a natural dark matter candidate. We demonstrate that the vacua are stable on cosmological timescales. In a single theory, both large- and small-field inflation are possible and yield a broad range of cosmological observables, and vacuum decay can be followed by a relatively large number (> 60) of efolds of inflation. Light axions stabilized by gravitational instantons may constitute a natural dark matter candidate that does not spoil an axion solution to the strong CP problem. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos
I will describe how a "landscape" theory with all energy scales at the Planck scale and randomly chosen parameters can account for the basic features of cosmology — why our universe is so big, so flat, so old, has adiabatic and scale invariant density perturbations at large scales with an amplitude ~1/100,000, why dark matter and dark energy are comparable today, and why the dark energy density is so small. Requiring the minimal anthropic condition that collapsed structures form selects out cosmological histories that tunnel and then undergo ~60 efolds of inflation post-tunneling. Hence, such theories generically produce large universes with expansion histories very much like our own, including a big bang (tunneling), slow-roll inflation, dark matter, and dark energy. The implication is that these features should perhaps not be regarded as surprising. (Kleban Abstract)
The Geometry and Formation of the Cosmic Web.
The Universidad Politecnica, Madrid astronomer continues his career studies of dynamic celestial geometries which are found to be self-similar as everywhere else. See also his papers Fractal Analysis of the Large-scale Stellar Mass Distribution in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (March 2018) and The Projected Mass Distribution and the transition to Homogeneity (1810.03539).
The cosmic web structure is studied with the concepts and methods of fractal geometry, employing the adhesion model of cosmological dynamics as a basic reference. The structures of matter clusters and cosmic voids in N-body simulations or the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are elucidated by means of multifractal geometry. Multifractal geometry can encompass three fundamental descriptions of the cosmic structure, namely, the web structure, hierarchical clustering, and halo distributions. In this way, a unified theory of the large-scale structure of the universe seems to emerge, although some aspects of the multifractal spectrum cannot be explained yet. The formation of the cosmic web is best modeled as a type of turbulent dynamics, generalizing the known methods of Burgers turbulence. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS
The cosmic web is a foam-like structure, formed by a web of sheets surrounding voids of multiple sizes. In fact, the range of sizes is so large that we can speak of a self-similar structure. This motivates its study by means of fractal geometry. In fact, fractal models of the universe predate the discovery of the cosmic web structure and arose from the idea of a hierarchy of galaxy clusters that continues indefinitely towards the largest scales, an idea championed by Benoit Mandelbrot. (1) The simplest strictly singular and continuous mass distribution consists of a uniform mass distribution on a fractal set, namely, on a self-similar set of the type of the Cantor set. This mass distribution has just one type of singularities. Therefore, it is a monofractal, described by just one dimension, the Hausdorff dimension of the fractal set. This type of fractal has a sequence of individual empty voids that is characterized by the Zipf law. (27)
Aharonov, Yakir, et al.
Completely Top-down Hierarchical Structure in Quantum Mechanics.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
In a paper reviewed by Paul Davies and Leonard Susskind, with a commentary note Top-down Causation and Quantum Physics by George Ellis, physicists YA and Jeff Tollaksen, Chapman University, CA and Eliahu Cohen, University of Ottawa are seen to achieve a strongest proof to date of the presence of later retro-influences upon natural phenomena. Earlier referenced versions are Top-down Causation: An Integrating Theme within and across the Sciences? by G. Ellis, et al in Interface Focus (2/1, 2012) and Quantifying Causal Emergence Shows that Macro can Beat Micro by Erik Hoel, et al in PNAS (11019790, 2013). In some real way this universe to humankind emergence does stratify, shift and pass on to an increasing degree of aware self-creation.
Can a large system be fully characterized using its subsystems via inductive reasoning? Is it possible to completely reduce the behavior of a complex system to the behavior of its simplest “atoms”? In this paper we answer these questions in the negative for a specific class of systems and measurements. After a general introduction of the topic, we present the main idea with a simple two-particle example, which leads to surprising effects within atomic and electromagnetic systems. We conclude that under certain boundary conditions, higher-order correlations within quantum mechanical systems can determine lower-order ones, but not vice versa. This supports a top–down structure in many-body quantum mechanics. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS
Critically Excited States with Enhanced Memory and Pattern Recognition Capacities in Quantum Brain Networks: Lessons from Black Holes.
We select this entry by the Ludwig Maximilian University and MPI Physics researcher from a steady stream on this site and in journals of theoretical finesses of a wide ranging affinity, to say the least, between cerebral acuities and this celestial curiosity. The idea stretches the imagination, but fits well into growing realizations as we report here that everything from universe to human in essential way repeats and exemplifies an iconic cosmome and quantome to genome, neurome and culturome quickening genesis. See also Black Hole Based Quantum computing in Labs and in the Sky at 1601.01329, and Black Holes as Brains: Neural Networks with Area Low Entropy at 1801.03918.
We implement a mechanism - originally proposed as a model for the large memory storage capacity of black holes - in quantum neural networks and show that an exponentially increased capacity of pattern storage and recognition is achieved in certain critically excited states. These states are achieved thanks to the high excitation levels of some of the neurons, which dramatically lower the response threshold of the remaining weaker-excited neurons. As a result, the latter neurons acquire a capacity to store an exponentially large number of patterns within a narrow energy gap. The stored patterns can be recognized and retrieved with perfect response under the influence of arbitrarily soft input stimuli. The lesson is that the state with the highest micro-state entropy and memory storage capacity is not necessarily a local minimum of energy, but rather an excited critical state. The considered phenomenon has a smooth classical limit and can serve for achieving an enhanced memory storage capacity in classical brain networks. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > exouniverse
Black holes and human brains are the two creations of nature that are extremely efficient storers of information. It is a legitimate question to ask whether these two seemingly remote systems share some fundamental mechanism for increased capacity of information storage. (1) Moreover, the above mechanism of the enhanced information storage capacity was shown to be operative in ordinary quantum systems, with bosonic qudits with attractive (excitatory) connections. Such a system effectively represents a quantum “brain” of sharply enhanced memory capacity, in which patterns can be encoded and retrieved at an arbitrarily small energy cost. (1)
Finding Our Place in the Universe How We Discovered Laniakea – the Milky Way’s Home.
Cambridge: MIT Press,
The University of Lyon cosmic cartographer and author describes this latest epic survey (April) of our once and future galactic environs. See also for example a recent collaboration The Quasi-Linear Nearby Universe at arXiv:1807.03724. And we wonder what cosmic function are phenomenal peoples accomplishing by deeply and widely learning this?
You are here on Earth, in the solar system, in the Milky Way galaxy which itself is within the extragalactic supercluster Laniakea. How can we pinpoint our location so precisely? For twenty years, astrophysicist Hélène Courtois surfed the cosmos with an international team of researchers to map our local universe. In this book, Courtois describes this quest and the discovery of our home supercluster. She explains that Laniakea (“immeasurable heaven” in Hawaiian) contains about 100,000 large galaxies like our own, and a million smaller ones. The French edition was named the Best Astronomy Book of 2017. This MIT Press edition describes new discoveries such as the cosmic velocity web and the Dipole and Cold Spot repellers.
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > exouniverse
Hélène Courtois is a French astrophysicist specializing in cosmography. She is Professor and Vice President at the University of Lyon 1 and the director of a research team at the Lyon Institute of Nuclear Physics. She received the 2018 Scientist of the Year Award from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs for her international influence. She is featured in the 2019 Nova documentary Cosmic Flows: The Cartographers of the Universe.
Linder, Eric and David Polarski.
The End of Cosmic Growth.
UC Berkeley and University of Montpellier, France cosmologists proceed to quantify and propose by way of mathematical graphs a past, present and future of this entire universe. We note the achievement in itself, and also how ever fantastic is it that a collaborative species on an infinitesimal globe can in a few decades be able to consider, describe and learn all about such infinite reaches. It would appear that humankinder has some phenomenal cosmic identity and purpose if only me with We could come to our senses.
The growth of large scale structure is a battle between gravitational attraction and cosmic acceleration. We investigate the future behavior of cosmic growth under both general relativity (GR) and modified gravity during prolonged acceleration, deriving analytic asymptotic behaviors and showing that gravity generally loses and growth ends. We also note the `why now' problem is equally striking when viewed in terms of the shut down of growth. For many models inside GR the gravitational growth index γ also shows today as a unique time between constant behavior in the past and a higher asymptotic value in the future. Interestingly, while f(R) models depart in this respect dramatically from GR today and in the recent past, their growth indices are identical in the asymptotic future and past. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Organic
Siregar, Pridi, et al.
A General Framework Dedicated to Computational Morphogenesis: Part II Knowledge Representation and Architecture.
PS and Nathalie Julen, Integrative BioComputing, France, Peter Hugnagl, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and George Mutter, Harvard Medical School post a series of papers herein, the above being the longer essay, along with A General Framework Dedicated to Computational Morphogenesis: Part I Constitutive Equations. (Online July) and Computational Morphogenesis: Embryogenesis, Cancer Research and Digital Pathology (169-170/40). We cite because an insightful attempt is made, based on efforts back to the 1990s, to formulate a structural systems biology in accord with a physical foundations. By virtue of this view, nested, fractal arrays of active entities in community appear as life’s embryonic and morphological genesis evolves and emerges.
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics
Marais, Adriana, et al.
The Future of Quantum Biology.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface.
A dozen scientists from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, VU University, Amsterdam, and Cambridge University offer a latest report with 133 references of how a quantum transfer of energy and charge which involves superposition, coherence and entanglement can be seen at work in such areas as photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, olfaction, respiration, neuronal sensations and onto cognition. Still another instance is their presence at life’s biophysical and biochemical origin and complexification.
Biological systems are dynamical, constantly exchanging energy and matter with the environment in order to maintain the non-equilibrium state synonymous with living. Developments in observational techniques have allowed us to study biological dynamics on increasingly small scales. Such studies have revealed evidence of quantum mechanical effects, which cannot be accounted for by classical physics, in a range of biological processes. Quantum biology is the study of such processes, and here we provide an outline of the current state of the field, as well as insights into future directions. (Abstract)