Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 1 through 15 of 39 found.
The Genesis Vision > Current Vistas
Atlas of Forecasts: Modeling and Mapping Desirable Futures.
Cambridge: MIT Press,
As the quote notes, every five years or so it seems Katy Borner gifts us with a unique, informative, visual display all about humankind’s on-going scientific edification. This latest volume then offers an expansive guide looking ahead to a better world guided by what we have learned so far. The five main modules, Introduction and History, Methods, Models in Action, Science Maps, and Envisioning Desirable Futures, are filled with images and graphs about topics such as Fractals via Reaction-Diffusion Dynamics, Epidemic Tipping Points, Knowledge Webs, and Polar Bear Habitats. But a reader may wonder over an absence of any inquiry, as many other works also, into whatever phenomenal Earthwise actuality and significance might be found.
To envision and create the futures we want, society needs an appropriate understanding of the likely impact of alternative actions. Data models and visualizations offer a way to understand and intelligently manage complex, interlinked systems in science and technology, education, and policymaking. Here the creator (search) of Atlas of Science (2010) and Atlas of Knowledge (2015), shows how we can factually predict, communicate, and attain viable futures. The models and maps illuminate key processes and outcomes of complex systems dynamics, what progress in science and technology is likely to be made; and how policymakers can better guide regions or nations.
The Genesis Vision > Current Vistas
Katy Börner is a Distinguished Professor of Engineering and Information Science at the Indiana University Luddy School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering. She is also founding director of the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center. Since 2005, she has served as a curator of the international Places & Spaces: Mapping Science exhibit.
Campbell, John O.
The Knowing Universe.
Victoria, BC: Independent Publisher,
The Canadian scholar (search Universal Evolution) provides new insights about a how cosmic to cerebral process seems to quicken and learn by way of inferential Bayesian iterations. A main basis is Karl Friston’s collegial work, who consulted with the author on this volume. In regard, Thus a “self-evidencing,” autopoietic, cocreation is implied, as if some manner (so it seems) of self-making individuation. We add that similar perceptions are lately gaining popular notice, e.g. Roli, Andrea, et al. How Organisms Come to Know the World by Andrea Roli, et al (Nov. 2021) and The Evolution of Agency by Michael Tomasello (2022).
A largely unheralded scientific revolution is sweeping through the research community. One aspect are the many publications centered on Karl Friston's notions (search KF) of a Bayesian Brain and a Free Energy Principle. In regard, Bayesian inferences about relationships between hypotheses and evidence, is the brain's way of solving problems and living forward. Here I seek to extend Friston's collegial theories beyond brains and onto societies, biology and informational physics. Friston's wider claim is indeed that all reality follows a remarkably similar path. Cosmic to cultural existence is an inferential process in which the knowledge gain of entities, aka agents, as they achieve and sustain themselves, accumulates in repositories. (Excerpt)
A Learning Planet > Original Wisdom > The Book of Nature
Inferential systems are a two-step process underwriting existence which unite generalized genotypes with generalized phenotypes. Its first step entails a generative state for accumulating relative knowledge. For example, a biological genome encodes a constructive model or strategy for bringing phenotypes into heritable existence. We may typify the first phase as “existing is knowing.” (17)
Aerts, Diederik and Lester Beltran.
Are Words the Quanta of Human Language? Extending the Domain of Quantum Cognition.
Brussels Free University theorists (search) continue to pursue their good idea that a natural affinity exists between this fundamental realm and our expressive, textual sapient discourse. In regard, a wider persuasion and endeavor seems underway to discern a literate narrative in relative kind from physical domains all the way to our global sapience. By these lights, a book metaphor is a valid, universal representation via prose and poetry.
Quantum structures are being identified that well describe situations occurring in human cognition. Known as quantum cognition, the approach was used in information retrieval and natural language processing. Here we build on recent advances to show how quantization effects are present in our human literacy in the form of the words behaving as quanta of language, analogous to how photons behave as quanta of electromagnetic radiation. We investigate this entanglement, compute the von Neumann entropy and the density matrices of the words so to note that non-locality occurs spontaneously. We interpret these results in terms of the prospect of developing a quantum-inspired thermodynamics for the cultural layer of human society. (Abstract excerpt)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science
Dark Matter Superfluidity.
We cite this entry by a University of Pennsylvania astrophysicist as a current example of collective Earthuman abilities to plumb and explore any depth and reach of cosmological phenomena. One wonders what kind of extant reality, as may become evident to us, proceeds to evolve its own facility of self-revelation and description. For whatever reason is this universal learning process going on. See also Boyle, Latham and Neil Turok. Two-Sheeted Universe, Analyticity and the Arrow of Time by Latham Boyle and Neil Turok at 2109.06204 and The Universe as a Driven Quantum System by Jose Vieira at 2109.01660 for other such scientific studies as they spiral to this global genius.
In these lectures I describe a theory of dark matter superfluidity developed in the last few years. The dark matter particles are axion-like, with masses of order eV. They Bose-Einstein condense into a superfluid phase in the central regions of galaxy halos. The superfluid phonon excitations in turn couple to baryons and mediate a long-range force (beyond Newtonian gravity). Thus the dark matter and modified gravity phenomena represent different phases of a single underlying substance, unified through the well-studied physics of superfluidity. (Abstract)
A Learning Planet > The Spiral of Science
Shao, Helen, et al.
Finding Universal Relations in Subhalo Properties with Artificial Intelligence.
We cite this entry by ten astrophysicists posted at Princeton, Flatiron Inst., Columbia, U. Connecticut, Harvard, U. Edinburgh, U. Western Cape, RSA, U. Florida, and MIT including Mark Vogelsberger for its advancing technical content and as an example of how we peoples as an Earthificial phenomenon can proceed to explore, quantify and learn about any celestial expanse. Indeed curious, collaborative peoples can readily do this to such a degree that we might see ourselves as carrying out some ecosmic function of self-comprehension.
We use a generic formalism designed to search for relations in high-dimensional spaces to determine if the total mass of a subhalo can be predicted from other internal properties such as velocity dispersion, radius, or star-formation rate. We train neural networks using data from the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS) project and show that the model can predict the total mass of a subhalo with high accuracy. The networks exhibit extrapolation properties which can accurately predict the total mass of any type of subhalo and related galaxy at any redshift with different cosmologies, astrophysics models, subgrid physics, volumes, and resolutions, indicating that the network may have found a universal relation. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > Gaia
Arthur, Rudy and Arwen Nicholson.
Selection Principles for Gaia.
Journal of Theoretical Biology.
University of Exeter bioecologists and colleagues of Tim Lenton there offer a further finesse of propensities and activities by which to explain and qualify this especial, lively abode upon which a sentient speciesphere might finally be able to figure all this out.
The Gaia hypothesis considers the life-environment coupled system as a single entity that acts to regulate and maintain habitable conditions on Earth. In this paper we discuss three mechanisms which could potentially lead to a vital Gaia: Selection by Survival, Sequential Selection and Entropic Hierarchy. We use the Tangled Nature Model (H. Jensen) of co-evolution as a common framework for all three. This idea which combines sequential selection with a reservoir of diversity tends toward growth and increases resilience of the Gaian system over time. This paper adds a further taxonomy of “Entropic Gaia” whence biomass, complexity and enhanced habitability over time are likely features of a co-evolving Earth, and exoplanetary, system. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics
Heffern, Elleard, et al.
Phase Transitions in Biology: From Bird Flocks to Population Dynamics.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
We note this entry by University of Missouri physicists and biologists including Sonya Bahar provide a good example of the robust, self-similar fulfillments of a wide-ranging universe to us dynamic complexity network revolution which is just now possible, and well underway.
Phase transitions from one condition to another are a significant concept in physical reality. Insights derived from many past studies are lately being well applied to diverse phenomena in living systems. We provide a brief review of phase transitions and their new role in explaining biological processes from collective behaviour in animal flocks to neuronal firings in cerebral activity. We also highlight a novel area of their presence in population collapse and extinction due to climate change or microbial responses to antibiotic treatments. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics
Valani, Rahil and David Paganin.
Deterministic Active Matter Generated Using Strange Attractors.
University of Adelaide and Monash University physicists provide a further mathematical finesse to explain a natural spontaneity which fosters and results in life-like movements across many substantial conditions.
Strange attractors are induced by governing differential or integro-differential equations associated with non-linear dynamical systems, but they can also drive such dynamics. When such equations contain stochastic forcing, they may be replaced by deterministic chaotic driving via an overall strange attractor. We outline a flexible deterministic means for chaotic strange-attractor driven dynamics, and illustrate its utility for modeling active matter. Similar phenomena may be modeled in this manner, such as run-and-tumble particles, run-reverse-flick motion, clustering, jamming and flocking. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Organic > Universal
Mirkin, Nicolas and Diego Wisniacki.
Many-Body Localization and the Emergence of Quantum Darwinism.
A paper by University of Buenos Aires physicists for a Quantum Darwinism and Friends, edited by Sebastian Deffner, et al, for the 70th birthday of its theoretical founder, Wojciech Zurek (LANL) contributes a further explanatory credence.
Quantum Darwinism shows how the perception of objective classical reality arises via selective amplification and the spreading of information in our fundamentally quantum universe. Quantum Darwinism goes beyond decoherence, as it recognizes that the many copies of the system’s pointer states are imprinted on the environment: agents acquire data indirectly, by intercepting environment fragments (rather than directly measuring systems of interest). The data disseminated through the environment provide us with shared information about stable, effectively classical pointer states. Humans rely primarily on the photon environment, eavesdropping on “objects of interest” by intercepting tiny fractions of photons that contributed to decoherence. (Editors)
Animate Cosmos > Information
Mediano, Pedro, et al.
Greater than the Parts: A Review of the Information Decomposition Approach to Causal Emergence.
Eight senior systems theorists from the UK, USA and Canada including Henrik Jensen, Anil Seth and Fernando Rosas expand and deepen our Earthuman frontiers of discovering, quantifying and articulating the presence of a universal, independent, manifestly exemplified generative domain at each and every ecosmic scale and instance. A latest finesse of integrated information theory provides a mathematical measure whence the same form and flow, pattern and process of common node/link, entity/group complements repeats in kind. Key cases are cellular automata, bird flocks, and cerebral cognition, which is then dubbed a “causal emergence.” Albeit a highly technical work, a similar reality with a likeness to genotype and phenotype gains vital credence. See also Beyond Integrated Information: A Taxonomy of Information Dynamics Phenomena by this collegial team at 1909.02297.
Emergence is a profound subject that straddles many scientific disciplines from galaxy formations all the way to how consciousness arises from the collective activity of neurons. Despite perceptions that some kind of intrinsic manifestation is underway, its scientific and conceptual study has suffered from a formalism basis that could guide collaborative discussions. Here we conduct a broad survey so to introduce a formal theory of causal emergence based on an information decomposition feature. As a result, information about a system's temporal evolution beyond its separate parts appears to reveal an ascendant path. This article provides a rigorous framework by which to assess the proposed approach in diverse scenarios. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat
Unterberger, Jeremie and Philippe Nghe.
Stoechiometric and Dynamical Autocatalysis for Diluted Chemical Reaction Networks.
We cite this entry by University of Lorraine and University of Paris chemists as an example of novel appreciations of the widespread, diverse presence and importance of natural catalytic self-creativity. In regard, one might well view a human functional identity as “ecosmic catalysts” as we may begin to intentionally take up and continue life’s future genesis.
Autocatalysis in a variety of active forms is being found to underlie the ability of chemical and biochemical systems to replicate. Here we study a topological condition for autocatalysis, namely: restricting the reaction network to highly diluted species, and assume a strongly connected component with at least one reaction with multiple products. We find this condition to be necessary and sufficient for stoechiometric autocatalysis. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Anthropic
Our main result in a nutshell: The chemical mechanism that epitomizes the ability of living systems to reproduce themselves is autocatalysis, namely, catalysis brought about by one of the products of the reactions. Autocatalysis must have been present from the early stages of the origin of life, from primitive forms of metabolism to autocatalytic sets based on the first catalytic biopolymers and the emergence of sustained template-based replication of nucleic acids. Diverse artificial autocatalytic systems have been implemented in the laboratory, and remnants of ancestral autocatalytic networks may be found in extant metabolic network. (1)
The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Life.
The Western Sydney University astrophysicist (search) contributes a chapter for the Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Physics (Sept. 2021) goes beyond physical parameters so to wonder deeply about the overt fact that the natural cosmos is capable of giving rise to living entities.
e-tuning in physics serves as impetus to search for a better theory, one which can account for the facts in a more natural way, without unmotivated assumptions. But what could naturally explain a life-permitting universe? Perhaps we won the cosmic lottery: a life-permitting universe exists, despite the seemingly overwhelming odds, because the universe as a whole consists of a vast, variegated ensemble of sub-universes — a multiverse. (7)
Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology
2021 Census of Interstellar, Circumstellar, Extragalactic Protoplanetary Disk, and Exoplanetary Molecules..
An MIT astrobiochemist provides a 73 page, tabular and graphic display based on the latest worldwide findings. These celestial chemicals are arranged by how many atoms they contain, from two to thirteen and more. A Periodic Table is posted to show which 19 elements - H, He, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe – are found to be involved so far. Again our interest is an appearance that nature’s materiality well seems to possess an innate fertility, from which eons later a sentient bioworld could reconstruct in amazement.
To date, 241 individual molecular species, comprised of 19 different elements, have been detected in the interstellar and circumstellar medium by astronomical observations. These molecules range in size from two atoms to seventy, and have been detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. This census sums up the first detection of each molecular species, the observational facility, wavelength range, transitions, and laboratory spectroscopic work. Tables of molecules detected in interstellar ices, external galaxies, protoplanetary disks, and exoplanetary atmospheres are provided. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology
What We Are Thinking About: Lifecycle of Carbon in the Universe: As much as 25% of all interstellar carbon may be locked into large aromatic molecules. How these species are formed and incorporated into other molecules, and how these processes are tied to star- and planet-formation, are open issues. Linking Astrochemistry to Astrobiology: How far does chemistry advance in the interstellar medium before it is incorporated into planets, as the molecular feedstock from which life arises? Cosmic Origins of Biological Homochirality: All life on earth uses a single enantiomer (handedness) of most chiral molecules in biology. Thermal fluctuations or heterogenous catalysis at mineral surfaces might be a reason, but also the inheritance of initial seed excess from space. (McGuire Research Group site)
Navrotsky, Alexandra and Kristina Lilova.
Materials of the Universe: The Final Chemical Frontier.
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry.
Arizona State University astrochemists introduce a virtual collection of topical papers from refractory ceramics to organic solids.
The concept of Materials of the Universe (MotU) is to unite cosmology, astrophysics, astronomy, planetary science, mineralogy, and petrology with materials science, chemistry, physics, and biology to address their complex evolutionary chemistries. We need to understand their formation, stability, catalytic activity, and rheology over a range of temperatures, pressures, and compositions not yet imagined. This MotU Special Issue has contributions across science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields inspired by materials under extreme conditions at low- and high-temperature and pressure, ultrahigh-vacuum, radiation fields, and far from equilibrium conditions.
Cosmic Code > nonlinear > networks
Voutsa, Venetia, et al.
Two Classes of Functional Connectivity in Dynamical Processes in Networks.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface.
Twenty-five senior researchers from Germany, France, the UK, Austria, and the Netherlands including Brian Fath and Andrea Brovelli post a 26 page, 290 reference entry as an especial instance of the of the 2020s universal complex code synthesis. As the Abstract notes, a consistent presence in kind can be averred as multiplex node/link and modular network topologies are found to form and animate life’s many biospheric, cerebral, societal and environmental phases. Once again, an evidential occurrence of an ecosmic genotype and phenotype occurs in exemplary effect as a common code-script nstantiates itself at every UniVerse to Earthuman Verse occasion. From our natural genesis view, these integral findings are coincident with our EarthKinder moment. In such regard, they can compose a necessary geonomic basis for a super-organic viability.
The relationship between network structure and dynamics is a well investigated aspect of complex system phenomena with relevance to a wide range of instances from neuroscience to geomorphology. A major strategy is the quantitative comparison of evident network architecture (structural connectivity, SC) with network representations of temporal forms (functional connectivity, FC). Here we show that one can distinguish two classes of functional connectivity—one based on simultaneous activity (co-activity) of nodes, the other on sequential activity of nodes. We expand the theoretical view of SC instances and the two FC classes for various scenarios in ecology, systems biology, socio-ecological realms and elsewhere. (Abstract excerpt)
In conclusion, we have attempted to unify the broad range of SC/FC approaches within a common framework. We have reproduced key findings from the literature and extended them towards additional variations of network topology and dynamical characteristics in order to see common properties and underlying principles and offer a deep mechanistic understanding of the major contributors to SC/FC correlation. (15)