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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
Table of Contents
Genesis Vision
Learning Planet
Organic Universe
Earth Life Emerge
Genesis Future
Recent Additions

V. Life's Corporeal Evolution Develops, Encodes and Organizes Itself: An Earthtwinian Genesis Synthesis

Into the 2000s and the 2010s, an integrative fleshing out of an evolutionary development from an ecosmos origin to habitable bioworlds, emergent life, mind and persons in community is underway by a worldwise collaboration. This animate milieu reaches from a conducive physical ground to vital autocatalysis, nested recurrent scales, neural connectomes, ramifying intelligence, complex fractal ecosystems and onto complementary civilizations. Various “extended evolutionary synthesis” projects are underway which try to factor in epigenetics, niche construction, and more mostly remain in a (neo)Darwinian mode. From our global vantage and vista, a deeper dimension of self-organized dynamics as they spawn exemplary complexified, networked, minded creatures and groupings provide the crucial missing source code. For one example, Alan Turing’s morphogenetic programs are seen in effect from developing embryos to animal anatomies and striped patternings. In a day when one can sequence their genetic ancestry, it would seem that life’s whole development from universe to us should necessarily have its own natural genomic endowment.

As an evolution was ‘in the air’ in the 1850’s, so today there seems to be “in the Internet airwaves” a sense of life’s Earthly course as a quickening, deeply homologous, convergent gestation (a view Darwin held). Rather than a branching tree or bush, a main axis of bodily complexity, larger brains, represented information, communal cooperation, and knowing awareness is evident. As here and elsewhere, an episodic, scalar tandem of complexity and cognition is no longer a contingent meander. As guided by informed, organizational energies, an oriented direction and sequence toward phenomenal people is traced. Thus a prior ladder of Being is replaced by a temporal progression of Becoming. For a name, we offer Genesis Evolutionary Synthesis. This large section and the next four contain over 500 references and quotations in support, along with many more citations throughout. We next add via a listing of 21st century contributions, trends and advances as they may inform a 2020 worldwise genesis revolution. One name is added to each to identify and locate.

A statistical physics perspective finds condensed matter phenomena in substantial effect across in evolutionary and organismic dimensions. (William Bialek)

Life’s fluid, metabolic processes are found to exhibit a spontaneous fertility by way of active material dynamics (Cristina Marchetti)

The presence of self-organizing forces at work prior to selection implies a deeper, code source for life’s cellular and cerebral developmental emergence. (Jamie Davies)

Networked complexities reveal a scale-free, multiplex, reticulate, connective anatomy and physiology across somatic, cerebral, and communal phases. (Albert Laszlo Barabasi)

A major evolutionary transitions model defines a nested scale from genes and cells to our human phase, whence each stage has a relative template from replicators to language. (Eors Szathmary)

Into the 2010s, strong evidence has grown for a persistent convergence of anatomic patterns and physiological processes across life’s creaturely formation. (George McGhee)

Life’s evolution exhibits a deep homology whence recurrent forms and functions can be traced all the way to rudimentary vertebrate and invertebrate origins. (Neil Shubin)

Insightful views of whole genome read/write activities in addition to nucleotides such as gene regulatory networks are being realized. (James Shapiro)

Bodies and brains are composed of modular wholes within wholes of semi-autonomous, labor-dividing, mosaic units for genetic, metabolic and neural utility. (Gunter Wagner)

A rational morphology or structural biology, after D’Arcy Thompson, serves to track and quantify an archetypal Bauplan due to innate mathematical equations. (Charles Cockell)

Novel speciation occasions, aka arrival of the fittest, are not due to random mutations but arise from dynamical self-organizing, informative systems. (Andreas Wagner)

A reunification of evolution and embryology known as evolutionary developmental biology or EvoDevo joins individual ontogeny with life’s phylogeny. (Scott Gilbert)

Innovative insights into what constitutes genetic influences, broadly conceived, can newly include epigenetic factors which broadly occur beyond discrete nucleotides. (Eva Jablonka)

Symbiotic unions across all fauna and flora are now seen as a vital aspect the presence and viability of cellular, organism, and social assemblies. (Lynn Margulis)

Beneficial cooperation beyond competition only is now seen as the prevalent mode by which animal and human societies come and stay together. (Martin Nowak)

An animal awareness whence all creatures, even slime molds, have personalities, clever abilities, and communicative socialities akin to people. (Lori Marino)

Life’s quickening course appears to have a central insistence for more intelligence, learning, knowledge and consequent proactive behavior (Richard Watson, Daniel Czegel)

Another vectorial advance occurs as creatures achieve increasing degrees of autonomy, agency, individuality and a semiotic freedom of choice. (Bernd Rosslenbroich))

A central trend of brain size, neuron number, network density, concerted and mosaic socialized capacities define an encephalization of increasing acuity. (Suzana Herculano-Houzel)

A 2020s Minimum Cognition endeavor has traced a long, continuous, self-similar emergence of cerebral form and relative acumen from first origins (slime molds) to our worldwide, linguistic neuroscience. (Thurston Lacalli, et al 2021)

A further cerebral discovery is a steady, human-like presence of bicameral hemispheres with the same part/field, object/scene complements across life’s entire sentient ascent (Giorgio Vallortigara)

A perception of a biosemiotic phase by way of many biologic code significations other than genetic that process and communicate vital information. (Marcello Barbieri)

New affinities between ontogeny and phylogeny are seen not only for corporeal form but for cognitive ability, motor skills, behaviors and language learning. (Arhat Abzhanov)

A self-organized criticality of member/group reciprocal dynamics provides optimum cohesive survival across every Metazon species (starlings to stars) (Nicholas Ouellette 2022)

A 2020s NSF Convergence Project cites many findings of consistent, fractal-like scales across life’s evolutionary course from earliest invertebrates to our personsphere retrospect. (Mande Holford, Paul Bogdan, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, et al)

2020: With some 330+ references, this chapter reports and documents an overdue extended and revised evolutionary synthesis. This main course correction is in the air as evolution itself was for Darwin. As the introductory list of novel reasons cites, the project involves a (re)integration of developmental stages, aka evo-devo, major transitions scale, network topologies, symbiosis and modularity, an axial trend for brains, intelligence and knowledge, cooperative behaviors, free members in mutual groups, song, dance and protolanguage, deep anatomic homologies, and so on.

Another prime quality, quite absent from the old synthesis, is the procreative presence of natural, independent, self-organizing complex source codings. Statistical physics inputs as a common ground are also being recognized. By way of a cognizant personsphere, (the premise of this site and our worldwise selfie) life’s encoded, fleshed out, quickening, ever learning, oriented ascent that got us creatures and peoples well now takes on a guise of a maternal embryonic gestation. The next circa 2023 sample of current references is drawn from some 380 citations across the 21st century Evolution chapter. So this surmise may proceed from a once Darwin’s day to our current and future promise of a 21st century genesis synthesis.

Bapteste, Eric and Philippe Huneman. Towards a Dynamic Interaction Network of Life to Unify and Expand the Evolutionary Theory. BMC Biology. 16/56, 2018.
Bonner, John. The Evolution of Evolution. Journal of Experimental Zoology B. 332/8, 2020.
Cohen, Irun and Assaf Marron. The Evolution of Universal Adaptations of Life is Driven by Universal Properties of Matter: Energy, Entropy and Interaction. F1000Research. July 30, 2020.
Czegel, Daniel, et al. Bayes and Darwin: How Replicator Populations Implement Bayesian Computations. BioEssays. 44/4, 2022.
Dambricourt Malasse, Anne, ed.. Self-Organization as a New Paradigm in Evolutionary Biology. International: Springer, 2022.
Gontier, Nathalie. Testing the “(Neo-)Darwinian” Principles against Reticulate Evolution. Information. 11/7, 2020.
Holford, Mande and Benjamin Normark. Integrating the Life Sciences to Jumpstart the Next Decade of Discover. Integrative & Comparative Biology. 61/6, 2021
Hsieh, Shannon, et al. The Phanerozoic Aftermath of the Cambrian Information Revolution. Paleobiology. 48/3, 2022.
Jaeger, Johannes and Nick Monk. Dynamic Modules in Metabolism, Cell and Developmental Biology. Interface Focus. April, 2021..
Kourki, Arsham. The Evolution of Complex Multicellularity in Animals. Biology & Philosophy. 37/4, 2022.

Manrubia, Susanna, et al. From Genotypes to Organisms: State of the Art and Perspectives of a Cornerstone in Evolutionary Dynamics. arXiv:2002:00363.
McGhee, George. Convergent Evolution on Earth: Lessons for the Search for Extraterrestrial Life. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2019.
Newman, Stuart. Inherency of Form and Function in Animal Development and Evolution. Frontiers in Physiology. June 19, 2019.Noble, Denis. The Illusions of the Modern Synthesis. Biosemiotics 14/1, 2021.
Ostachuk, Agustin. What is It Like to be a Crab? A Complex Network Analysis of Eucaridan Evolution. Evolutionary Biology. 46/2, 2019.
Rao, Riccardo and Stanislas Leibler. Evolutionary Dynamics, Evolutionary Forces, and Robustness: A Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics Perspective. PNAS. 119/13, 2022.
Schwartzman, David. Biological Evolution is Coarsely Deterministic. Journal of Big History. 4/2, 2020.
Vermeij, Geerat. Power, Competition, and the Nature of History. Paleobiology. October, 2019.
Vujovic, Filip, et al. Cellular Self-Organization: An Overdrive in Cambrian Diversity? BioEssays. July 2022.


View the 345 Bibliographic Entries

A. A Major Emergent Evolutionary Transitions Scale

We chose the cover of this 1995 book by John Maynard Smith and Eors Szmathary which introduced their conceptual notice of a nested, developmental sequence because it depicts life’s creaturely evolution as proceeding to our human phase. The image has been criticized as an olden “great scale of nature” since currently a teleological goal denied, nor is it permitted. But if newly due to a worldwise sapienence coming to her/his (Charlotte and Charles EarthWin) own knowledge, an oriented, central course may indeed be quantified and set in place.

As this site tracks the broad field of evolutionary biology, into the 2010s this model has gained acceptance because it well defines life’s episodic emergence from replicative biomolecules to human linguistic societies. This section offers a diverse array of studies, tweaks, adjustments both at specific levels and for the whole procession. A notable aspect is that each phase is seen to possess a novel genetic-like code version. Here is an example where a prior neoDarwinian aimless, contingent, selection scheme exists side by side with a genesis synthesis which has not yet been fully articulated.

Our main website premise, which a new 2021 introduction reiterates, is the occurrence of a further consummate, spherical stage. So the section will also gather entries that glimpse a continuance of this pattern and process onto a nascent Earthkinder. But it is important to enter a caveat and distinction. While this planetary occasion is especially manifest via its cerebral, informative sapiensphere, and sometimes alluded to as a super-organic phase, we do not here imply an homogeneous globalization. Rather as described in Sustainable Ecovillages in chapter VIII, a next evident stage actually seems to be social protocells, in a way akin to viable protocells at life’s origin.

2020: A major revision since 1995 is a theoretical view that life’s developmental evolution can be characterized by a nested, episodic, recurrent, directional sequence of being and becoming. Although life’s course through myriad forms and stages does meander with many extinctions, a regnant, scalar procession from gene replicators all the way to talkative peoples is now widely applied. As such it provides skeletal orientation for a genesis synthesis.

2023: Since its introduction in 1995 (Maynard Smith, Szathmary) this model perception has become well applied, but rarely extended to its human phase. Into the 2020s this has changed with two dedicated journal issues: Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations by Robin, Amanda Robin, et al in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution (December 2021) and Human Socio-Cultural Evolution in Light of Evolutionary Transitions by Yohay Carmel, et al in Royal Society Philosophical Transactions B. (February 2023). However the scale has not yet come to public notice where it could provide a vital planatural philosophy.

Andersson, Claes and Petter Tornberg. Toward a Macroevolutionary Theory of Human Evolution: The Social Protocell. Biological Theory. 14/2, 2019.
Bourrat, Pierrick. Transitions in Evolution: A Formal Analysis. Synthese. 198/3699, 2021.
Carmel, Yohay and Ayelet Shavit. Operationalizing Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality. Proceedings of the Royal Society B February, 2020.
Davison, Dinah, et al.. Did Human Culture Emerge in a Cultural Evolutionary Transition in Individuality? Biological Theory. July, 2021.
Furukawa, Hikaru and Sara Imari Walker. Major Transitions in Planetary Evolution. Ikegami, Takashi, et al, eds. ALIFE 2018 Conference Proceedings. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018.
Hanschen, Erik, et al. Individuality and the Major Evolutionary Transitions. Gissis, Snait, et al, eds. Landscapes of Collectivity in the Life Sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018.

Keenan, Jack and Daniel McShea. Synergies Among Behaviors Drive the Discovery of Productive Interactions. Biological Theory. December 2022.
Nonacs, Peter, et al. Social Evolution and the Major Evolutionary Transition in the History of Life. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. December, 2021.
Robin, Amanda, et al. Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. December, 2021.
Watson, Richard, et al. Design for an Individual: Connectionist Approaches to the Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. March 2022.
Waring, Timothy and Zachary Wood. Long-term Gene-culture Coevolution and the Human Evolutionary Transition. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. May, 2021.

2023: In February already, we make major note of Human Socio-Cultural Evolution in Light of Evolutionary Transitions: Introduction to the Theme Issue. by Yohay Carmel, et al, see whole review herein.

View the 60 Bibliographic Entries

B. Systems Biology Unites: EvoDevo, Genomes, Cells, Networks, Symbiosis, Homology, Inherency

This section will report the significant turn in genetics and biology since the 2001 Human Genome Project to reassemble and reconceive the many biomolecule pieces and components into an integral whole. With their initial occurrence and identity in place, the presence of equally real interrelations in between, and the information they carry and convey, can be admitted and quantified. By this inclusive scope, the dynamic web of life can shed a mechanistic, machinery cast for a phenomenal emergent vitality.

Into the 2010s the network revolution has joined and deepened the systems approach by which further to reunite animate phenomena. Life’s nested wholes within wholes thus become braced and graced by the same multiplex topologies and dynamics as found everywhere else from quantome to neurome and epitome.

Into the 2020s we have added evolutionary developmental biology references as these phases come together again, along with an emphasis on network anatomy and physiology everywhere, homology recurrences and a growing sense of inherency as life's forms and functions seem to arise on cue from deep physical sources.

2020: Since the 2001 human genome sequence, a broad movement has sought to quantify and involve the equally real regulatory and vivifying connectivities between the biomolecular nucleotides. Recent endeavors factor in network topologies and involve deep learning methods. As the 130 sample references convey, an international effort aided by online advances in technique and computation is well along with an integral understanding of 3D and 4D organismic epi/genomes and metabolomes.

Bogdan, Paul, et al. Biological Networks Across Scales. Integrative & Comparative Biology. 61/6, 2022.
Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey, et al. A Minimal Framework for Describing Living Systems: A MultiDimensional View of Life Scales. Integrative & Comparative Biology. 61/6, 2021
DiFrisco, James and Johannes Jaeger. Genetic Causation in Complex Regulatory Systems: An Integrative Dynamic Perspective. BioEssays. 42/6, 2020.
Gazestani, Vahid and Nathan Lewis. From Genotype to Phenotype: Augmenting Deep Learning with Networks and Systems Biology. Current Opinion in Systems Biology. 15/68, 2019.
Gilpin, William, et al. Machine Learning Meets Systems Biology Current Opinion in Systems Biology. July 30, 2020.

Holford, Mande and Benjamin Normark. Integrating the Life Sciences to Jumpstart the Next Decade of Discovery. Integrative & Comparative Biology. 61/6, 2021.
Ingalls, Brian. Mathematical Modeling in Systems Biology Cambridge: MIT Press, 2020.
Kutschera, Ulrich. Systems Biology of Eukaryotic Superorganisms and the Holobiont Concept. Theory in Biosciences. Online June, 2018
Ogura, Takehiko and Wolfgang Busch. Genotypes, Networks, Phenotypes: Moving Toward Plant Systems Genetics. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 32/103, 2016.
Stephanou, Angelique, et al. Systems Biology, Systems Medicine, Systems Pharmacology. Acta Biotheretica. 66/4, 2018.


View the 161 Bibliographic Entries

C. Evoinformatics: Biosemiotic Code-Scripts Everywhere

Akin to movements such as an algorithmic nature and information paradigm, since around 2000 a central presence and role for communicative aspects of living systems has gained prominence. The title term arose from the broader field of semiotics, the study of significations as they distinguish, engender, and vitalize from evolution to ecologies. A pioneer initiator was Thomas Sebeok (1920-2001) at Indiana University, where a loquacious group has since gone forth. Into the 21st century a leading sponsor has been Marcello Barbieri (see above), via an initial book The Organic Codes (2003) among many and a steady embellishment of articles.

As the endeavor grew, inspired by articulations of life’s dialogic essence, an International Society for Biosemiotic Studies formed with annual international conferences and other activities. A stream of volumes such as Biosemiotics: An Examination into the Signs of Life and the Life of Signs (2009) by Jesper Hoffmeyer, and Towards a Semiotic Biolog (2011) edited by Claus Emmeche and Kaveli Kull helped build a representative library. The London Metropolitan University scholar Wendy Wheeler has set up a Living Books about Life web page with writings by Terrence Deacon, Mary Catherine Bateson, and others, accessible from the Society home page.

By way of a Biosemiotics book series (Springer), a journal by this name, international conferences and advocates such as Marcello Barbieri and Jesper Hoffmeyer, an informational, communicative presence and role has been found and articulated for many code versions beyond genes alone. An array of microbial, cellular, metabolic sensings, signings and relative cross-talk across evolutionary organisms has been well scoped out and confirmed.

Barbieri, Marcello. Code Biology, Peircean Biosemiotics, and Rosen’s Relational Biology. Biological Theory. 14/1, 2019.
Barbieri, Marcello. The Semantic Theory of Language Biosystems. January, 2020.
Deacon, Terrence. How Molecules Became Signs. Biosemiotics. October 2021.
Lackova, Ludmila and Dan Faltynek. Can Quantitative Approaches Develop Bio/Semiotic Theory? Biosemiotics. August, 2021
Pagni, Elena and Richard Simanke, eds. Biosemiotics and Evolution: The Natural Foundations of Meaning and Symbolism. Switzerland: Springer, 2022.
Pattee, Harold. Symbol Grounding Precedes Interpretation. Biosemiotics. October, 2021.
Prosdocimi, Francisco and Savio Torres de Farias. Life and Living Beings under the Persepctive of Organic Macrocodes. Biosystems. May, 2021
Taborsky, Edwina. Rational Decision Making in Biological Systems. Biosystems. April, 2022.
Witzany, Guenther. Communication as the Main Characteristic of Life. Vera Kolb, ed. Handbook of Astrobiology, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2019.


View the 54 Bibliographic Entries

D. A 2020s Teleology Turn: Life’s Developmental Increase of Personal Purpose

This new April 2022 section will be an open home to gather and report many diverse views and documentations which are lately coming together so to verify this true once and future integral evolutionary orientation. This large Chapter V, and the whole website, now contains a compelling amount of revolutionary EarthWise findings that such an actual orthogenesis can no longer be denied.

But a vested neoDarwinian scheme since the 1950s and before of only random mutations and contingent selection has excluded, and quite prohibits, any directional development at all going forth on its phenomenal, innate own. Into the 21st century however, efforts toward a revised Extended Synthesis have grown for many reasons, as the Chap.V litany cites. As this Natural Genesis (as an alternative to selection) worldWise resource avers, a deeply fertile, ecosmos, (rather than morbid mechanism) provides a deep fertility suffused with self-organizing codes. (Might it be an EarthWinian uniVersion).

This historic, once and future, admission is quite overdue and can be newly based on an increasing, convergent flow of evidential findings, as the Chap. V lead listing gathers. Many novel aspects from physical self-organization to proactive agency come together to allow and support an admission that something lively going on by itself can no longer be avoided.

An historic Teleology Turn can be well indicated by three significant occasions and contributions. In June 2021, the Linnean Society of London, since 1788 the premier naturalist endeavor (see its site and journal) sponsored an Evolution on Purpose: Teleonomy in Living Systems conference. The meeting website contains Abstracts for 20 frontier presentations by leading scholars such as Stuart Kauffman, Eva Jablonka, Denis Noble, Nathalie Gontier, Eugene Koonin, Stuart Newman, Denis Walsh and James Shapiro.

Into 2022, in the USA a similar project was conceived by the Templeton Foundation with a general Biological Research on Purpose title (see Alan Love herein). Its website (biologicalpurpose.org) opens with this note: There is a growing recognition that biological phenomena which suggest agency, directionality, or goal-directedness demand new conceptual frameworks that can translate into rigorous theoretical models and discriminating empirical tests. () Some subject areas are Directionality in Genomica and Macroevolution and Evolutionary Origins and Transitions of Agency.

Thirdly, a 2022 volume, Self-Organization as a New Paradigm in Evolutionary Biology, edited by Anne Dambricourt Malasse (Springer, July), collects and surveys how the presence of procreative vitalities can regain conducive substantial roots. In regard: This book shows how self-organization has become integrated in modern biology. It then presents emergent evolutionary models such as the sciences of complexity, non-linear dynamical systems, fractals, attractors, epigenesis, systemics, and morphogenesis. A prime contributor is the theoretical biologist Stuart Newman.

Further afield see Integrating the Life Sciences to Jumpstart the Next Decade of Discovery by Maude Holford and Ben Newmark in Systems Biology and Earthuman Integrations sections about a National Science Foundation project to identify and foster 2020s convergent syntheses. A special issue of Integrative & Comparative Biology (61/6, 2021) contains some 30 papers which lately describe a nested, sequential, recurrent scale which persists and quickens across life’s long emergent development.

2023: This overdue course correction began around 2018 much due to Peter Corning’s encouragement As a result, the British Linnean Society sponsored a major conference since the evidence could no longer be ignored. Many papers noted herein where published in its prestigious journal. In 2023, they were collected in Evolution "On Purpose:" Teleonomy in Living Systems in the Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology (MIT Press).

Clawson, Wesley and Michael Levin. Endless Forms Most Beautiful 2.0: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. August, 2022.
Crespi, Bernard and Nancy Yang. Three Laws of Teleonometrics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 137/1, 2022.
Evolution on “Purpose:” Teleonomy in Living Systems. Google tltle words.
Dambricourt Malasse, Anne, ed. Self-Organization as a New Paradigm in Evolutionary Biology International: Springer, 2022.
Heylighen, Francis. The Meaning and Origin of Goal-Directedness: A Dynamical Systems Perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. July, 2022.
Johnston, Iain, et al. Symmetry and Simplicity Spontaneously Emerge from the Algorithmic Nature of Evolution. PNAS. 119/11, 2022.
Love, Alan and Max Dresow. Organizing Interdisciplinary Research on Purpose. BioScience. 72/4, 2022.
Newman, Stuart. Self-Organization in Embryonic Development. IN arXiv:2108.00532.
Rao, Riccardo and Stanislas Leibler. Evolutionary Dynamics, Evolutionary Forces, and Robustness: A Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics Perspective. PNAS. 119/13, 2022.


View the 10 Bibliographic Entries

E. A Nested Anatomy/Physiology Sequence of Members in Whole Groups

At this outline stage, we survey the sequential, multilevel scale of animate entities from their geobiological substrate to homo sapience. (For a self-regulating bioplanet see Earth Alive above.) A theme which holds for each phase such as Microbial Colonies or Dynamic Ecosystems is that a broad paradigm shift has occurred whence its prior elemental content been reconceived and joined by way of the independent self-organizing, complex network system principles. By this notice, the common presence of one bicameral, bigender code everywhere continues to gain veracity.

1. The Origins of Life

In the 1960s when I began my readings, an opaque discontinuity stood between the presence of organic Earth life and the extant physical cosmos. In the years since and especially the last decade this disconnect has been bridged by deep biological rootings in a conducive materiality, whence by turns condensed matter has come to have innate, active spontanities. Researchers have reconstructed many primordial components and sequential steps such as replicator biomolecules and protocell vesicles. Origin studies have often divided into two schools as to whether RNA replicators or metabolisms came first (Iris Fry). Three main features are now said to define living systems – a vital metabolism, bounded compartments, and informational programs. In the later 2010s as a unified understanding is being worked out, nature’s self-organizing network dynamics have additionally been factored in (Sara Walker, et al) in a guise of autocatalysis, hypercycles, autopoiesis, and so on.

2020: Across some 160 entries, our late recreation of the precursor biochemical, replicant, metabolic, protocellular, autocatalytic occasions of life, senses and evolvement is well along. By any light, a spontaneous, oriented fertility seems to occur wherever possible on its incarnate own. Into the 21st century, animate life, developmental gestation, and our Earthomo presence becomes deeply rooted in an increasingly conducive ecosmos. Current projects involve a novel factoring in independent self-organizing agencies and network topologies.

As a further consolidation, life’s common cellular makeup has been distilled into three main metabolic, replicative and compartmental features. The two camps of RNA or metabolism first are likewise combining their views. From mid 20th century glimpses over an opaque gulf between universe and human, these robust affirmations find living systems, their birthings and blossomings, and our late Gaian witness to trace a quickening continuity.

Brandenburg, Axel and David Hochberg. Introduction to Origins of Biological Homochirality. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 52/1-3, 2022.

Cardoso, Silvana, et al. Chemobrionics: From Self-Assembled Material Architectures to the Origin of Life. Artificial Life. 26/3, 2020.

Camprubi, Eloi, et al. The Emergence of Life. Space Science Reviews. 215/56, 2019.

Deamer, David. Assembling Life: How Can Life Begin on Earth and Other Habitable Planets?. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Heylighen, Francis, et al. The Role of Self-Maintaining Resilient Reaction Networks in the Origin and Evolution of Life. Biosystems. Vol. 219, September 2022.

Preiner, Martina, et al. The Future of Origin of Life Research. Life. 10/3, 2020.

Prosdocimi, Francisco, et al. The Theory of Chemical Symbiosis: A Margulian View for the Original Emergence of Biological Systems. Acta Biotheoretica. August, 2020.

Seoane, Luis and Ricard Sole. Information Theory, Predictability and the Emergence of Complex Life. Royal Society Open Science. February, 2018.

Walker, Sara Imari and Cole Mathis. Network Theory in Prebiotic Evolution. Menor-Salvan, Cesar, ed. Prebiotic Chemistry and Chemical Evolution of Nucleic Acids. International: Springer, 2018.

Vanchurin, Vitaly, et al. Thermodynamics of Evolution and the Origin of Life. arXiv:2110.15066.


View the 193 Bibliographic Entries

2. Microbial Colonies

In 2000, an initial paper about biological phenomena was published in the Advances in Physics (49/4) journal, in print since 1952, namely Cooperative Self-Organization of Microorganisms by Eshel Ben Jacob, the late Israeli physicist, with Inon Cohen and Herbert Levine. The second lively paper in that physics publication was Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics by Barbara Drossel (50/2). As the image description notes, bacteria are no longer seen to exist in isolation but as communal exemplars of naturomic self-organizing, network forces. A notable trait is known as quorum sensing via chemical and/or electrical signals by which bacterial colonies of infinite kind “decide” what to do when perturbed or on the move (Bonnie Bassler).

2020: This substantial, omnipresent prokaryote, biofilm phase lately gains all manner of organismic, environmental, human microbiome, medical status. Since circa 2000 it has become studied and quantified as an iconic occasion of life’s universal, self-organizing, fractal, complexifying dynamics. Life’s baslc cellular phase is no longer composed of isolate bacteria but distinguished by the same scientific integration as everywhere else. In regard, bacterial activities are seen to epitomize how colonies survive and thrive by quorum sensing, symbiotic assemblies, a relative intelligence (slime molds) and more.

Allen, Rosalind and Bartlomiej Waclaw. Bacterial Growth: A Statistical Physicist’s Guide. Reports on Progress in Physics. 82/1, 2018
Artiga, Marc. Bacterial Communication. Biology and Philosophy. 36/4, 2021.
Cunha, Danilo, et al. Bacterial Colonies as Complex Adaptive Systems. Natural Computing. Online June, 2018.
Dinet, Celine, et al. Linking Single-Cell Decisions to Collective Behaviors in Social Bacteria. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Volume 1820, January, 2021.
George, Ashish, et al. Functional Universality in Microbial Communities Arises from Thermodynamic Constraints. arXiv:2203.06128.

Macktoobian, Matin. Self-Organizing Nest Migration Dynamics Synthesis for Ant Colony Systems. arXiv:2210.03975.
Menon, Shakti, et al. Information Integration and Collective Motility in Phototactic Cyanobacteria. PLoS Computational Biology. April, 2020.
Nayfach, Stephen, et al. A Genomic Catalog of Earth’s Microbiomes. Nature Biotechnology. 39/4, 2021.
Roy, Anjan, et al.. A Unifying Autocatalytic Network-based Framework for Bacterial Growth Laws. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118/33, 2021.
Shis, David, et al. Dynamics of Bacterial Gene Regulatory Networks. Annual Reviews of Biophysics. 47/447, 2018.
Shishkov, Olga and Orit Peleg. Social Insects and Beyond: The Physics of Soft, Dense Invertebrate Aggregations. arXiv:2206.11129
Zamponi, Nahuel, et al. Scale Free Density and Fluctuations in the Dynamics of Large Microbial Ecosystems. arXiv:2206.12384.


View the 99 Bibliographic Entries

3. Cellular Self-Organization and Holobiont Symbiogenesis

As a first comment, in the early 2000s any notice of self-organizing forces in unicellular biology was rare. As initiated by Tom Misteli and others, a recognition and acceptance grew that the formation and activity of life’s cellular milieu could be much attributed to these developmental network agencies. By our 2020, scientific cell studies, such as cancer occurrence and mitigation, normally assume a central place and role for nature’s internal spontaneity. But this revision has not yet formally registered with a machinery term often in use. This is another aim of Natural Genesis.

When this section went online in 2004, the presence of a bacterial symbiosis was relegated to the sidelines, and questioned whether it was there at all. As entries here, in Systems Evolution and throughout attest, since circa 2012 symbiotic unions across life’s evolutionary whole biology and sociality have become well known as a primary, integrative facilitator of a nested emergence, aka a constant symbiogenesis.

In the later 2010s, due to Scott Gilbert, Jan Sapp, Seth Bordenstein, Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg and Eugene Rosenberg, Joan Roughgarden and others, a further perception of organisms, and indeed human selves, arose as our bacterial, micorbiome multitudes were factored in so as to compose a whole viable unity. These symbiotic selves have been dubbed holobionts, with a relative hologenome, to note their communal membership. See also the Anthropocene section for wider, ecosphere visions (Anna Tsing, et al) of s symbiotic and autopoietic vitality.

2020: Since circa 2000, the study of life’s central stage and mode of nucleated eukaryotic cells within metabolic organisms has seen several paradigm shifts. With the 2011 passing of Lynn Margulis, the pioneer advocate of beneficial symbiotic unions, her 40 year contribution has at last become well proven, accepted and applied. As a further corollary, a novel sense of creaturely and our human individual organism arose. While still underway, the somatic inclusion of a resident bacterial microbiome has been dubbed a “holobiont” to denote this altogether composite selfhood.

Another bidecadal advance with regard to cellular formations and whole organisms has been the persistent proof that mathematic self-organizing processes indeed have a primary generative role. The collegial NIH scientist Tom Misteli is a leading researcher in this regard. In addition, the anatomy and physiology presence of dynamic network topologies to dynamically interconnect all the prior parts is now being included. Nathalie Gontier, a University of Lisbon biophilosopher, well describes this reticulate propensity.

And into the 2020s, a century after Russian proposals in this regard, a “Universal Symbiogenesis” is lately being allowed and admitted to be in primary effect from astronomic realms to life’s origin onto all stages of a nested evolutionary, selves in societies, development. As entries herein by N. Gontier, P. Slijepcevic,, A, Igamberdiev and others attest, nature’s archetypal complementarity and familial triality is lately found to be in vivifying effect from UniVerse to WumanVerse.

Choi, Jeong-Mo, et al. Physical Principles Underlying the Complex Biology of Intracellular Phase Transitions. Annual Review of Biophysics. 49/107, 2020.
Cornish-Bowden, Athel. Lynn Margulis and the Origin of the Eukaryotes. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 434/20, 2017.
Gilbert, Scott and Alfred Tauber. Rethinking Individuality: The Dialectics of the Holobiont. Biology & Philosophy. October, 2016.
Igamberdiev, Abir, et al, eds. Symbiogenesis and Progressive Evolution. Biosystems. April, 2021
Mitchison, Timothy and Christine Field. Self-Organization of Cellular Units. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. Volume 37, October, 2021.

Mukherjee, Siddhartha. The Song of the Cell: An Exploration of Medicine and the New Human. New York: Scribner, 2022.
Sagan, Dorion. From Empedocles to Symbiogenesis: Lynn Margulis’s Revolutionary Influence on Evolutionary Biology. Biosystems. June, 2021.
Sapp, Jan. The Symbiotic Self. Evolutionary Biology. March, 2016.
Singharoy, Abhishek, et al. Atoms to Phenotypes. Cell. 179/1098, 2019.
Slijepcevic, Predrag. Serial Endosymbiosis Theory: From Biology to Astronomy and Back to the Origin of Life. Biosystems. April, 2021.
Thornburg, Zane, at al. Fundamental Behaviors Emerge from Simulations of a Living Minimal Cell. Cell. 185/345, 2022.
Wang, Yingxu, et al. On the Philosophical, Cognitive and Mathematical Foundations of Symbiotic Autonomous Systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. August, 2021.


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4. Multicellular Fauna and Flora Organisms in Transition

We next move to this subseguent extravagance of aquatic, amphibian, reptile, avian, mammalian, and primate creaturely complexity. As we have seen, once again impelled by self-organization and selection, unitary cells continued to clump together, divide labors and associate via symbiotic mergers into bounded multicellular animal and plant communities. Along the way, modular organs were formed which vivified and served unitary variegated, mobile, oxygen-breathing, sea to land-dwelling, airborne entities with nervous systems, brains and proactive behavior. A plethora of adaptive environmental vegetation, which contributed in necessary turn to a supportive atmosphere, similarly flourished everywhere it could.

2020: As some 100 entries convey, life’s developmental procession presses forward to a further phase of cellular, organelle, neuronal, genetic, mobile complex, cognizant organisms in viable groupings. From glimpses at century’s turn to this day, a persistent self-assembly of widely diverse, environmentally adapted cellular creatures is seen to have occurred several times. As this evolutionary emergence takes place wherever it can, this advance can again be viewed as another major emergent transition.

2023: We continue with a major emergent transition emphasis for this copious creaturely metazoan section. (I saw a show about a friendly platypus last eve.) Over and again cellular life is now realized to persistently come together amongst all land, sea and avian species toward personal, intelligent, communal collectives. Life is now known to evolve on an oriented, developmental ascent by way a member/group beneficial cooperativity. In 2023, a natural knowledge forms and flourishes in our prodigious PediaPedia resource.

Arias Del Angel, Juan, et al. Interplay of Mesoscale Physics and Agent-like Behaviors in the Parallel Evolution of Aggregative Multicellularity. BMC EvoDevso. 11:21, 2020.
Asllani, Malbor, et al. A Universal Route to Pattern Formation in Multicellular Systems. European Physical Journal B. 93/7, 2020.
Autorino, Camilla and Nicoletta Petridou. Critical Phenomenon in Embryonic Organization. Current Opinion in Systems Biology. Vol. 31, September 2022.
Bernardes, Joana, et al. The Evolution of Convex Trade-off Enables the Transition Towards Multicellularity. Nature Communications. 12/4222, 2021.
Duclos, Kevin, et al. Investigating the Evolution and Development of Biological Complexity under the Framework of Epigenetics. Evolution & Development. July, 2019.
Fisher, R. M., et al. The Evolution of Multicellular Complexity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. July, 2020.
Gosak,, Marko, et al. Networks Behind the Morphology and Structural Design of Living Systems. Physics of Life Reviews. March, 2022.

Hiebert, Laurel, et al. Coloniality, Clonality, and Modularity in Animals. Journal of Experimental Zoology B. April, 2021.
Larson, Ben, et al. Biophysical Principles of Choanoflagellate Self-Organization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/1303, 2020.
McClusker, Derek. Cellular Self-Organization. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 31/3, 2020.
Simpson, Carl. Adaptation to a Viscous Snowball Earth Ocean as a Path to Complex Multicellularity. American Naturalist. 198.5, 2021.
Wedlich-Soldner, Roland and Timo Betz. Self-Organization: The Fundament of Cell Biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Vol.373/Iss.1747, 2018.


View the 112 Bibliographic Entries

5. Cooperative Member/Group Societies

As multicellular animals evolved in somatic and cerebral intricacy, they proceeded due to the same agencies to gather, combine and bring diverse labors to social assemblies. A historic, overdue revision of evolutionary theory has then been the realization that a prior neoDarwinian emphasis on competitive survival is actually mediated by and secondary to a natural incentive for mutual cooperative value. The effect is variously known as quorum sensing, reciprocal altruism, symbiotic union and guided on a beneficial reciprocity of individual and community. As such metabolic and cognitive groupings proceed to gain some rudimentary properties of an organism, they are perceived as forming a new level of selection. Thus a tacit, active balance of conflict and accord, often along gender lines, is now seen to distinguish animal societies whether flock, herd, pod, colony and so on.

2020: In most species, individual creatures live together in communal, communicative groupings for much survival advantage. By this view life moves on to still a further integrative transition. While 20th century evolution texts tended to view animal entities as engaged in rank, fittest, survivalist competitions, many studies as noted now find an equally present, more significant proclivity for mutually beneficial behaviors. As a result, a compete and cooperate version moves on to a preferred reciprocity of semi-autonomous members within a fluidly coherent assembly. Airborne bird flocks such as starlings are an iconic image, but this mutuality extends across Metazoan lineages even to invertebrates.

With this coherency in place, a crucial attribute can be observed. By many names such as competitive coherence, creative union, ubuntu village, and social protocell, at liberty entities within an interactive group membership reveals an optimum complementary balance. For our own Earthmost futurity it would behoove we peoples (as elections destructuvely pit me versus We) to appreciate and practice this universal, exemplar that serves life from microbes to ecovillages. Simply put, our very survival and futurity could depend on a wumanwise appreciation of me + We = US local and global communities.

Bahar, Sonja. The Essential Tension: Cooperation and Competition in Biological Evolution. Switzerland: Springer Frontiers, 2017.
Brask, Josefine, et al. Animal Social Networks: An Introduction for Complex Systems Scientists. Journal of Complex Networks. 9/2, 2021.
Cavagna, Andrea, et al. Natural Swarms in 3.99 Dimensions. arXiv:2107.04432.
Cooney, Daniel, et al. Evolutionary Dynamics Within and Among Competing Groups. arXiv:2209.02063.
Couzin, Iain. Collective Animal Migration. Current Biology. 28/17, 2018.
Deutsch, Andreas, et al. Multi-scale Analysis and Modelling of Collective Migration in Biological Systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. July 2020.
Grueter, Cyril, et al. Multilevel Organization of Animal Society. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. May, 2020
Gosztolai, Adam and Pavan Ramdya. Connecting the Dots in Ethology: Applying Network Theory to Understand Neural and Animal Collectives. arXiv:2112.02361.

Heffern, Elleard, et al. Phase Transitions in Biology: From Bird Flocks to Population Dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. October 2021.
Kappeler, Peter, et al. Social Complexity: Patterns, Processes, and Evolution. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 73/1, 2019.
Ouellette, Nicholas. A Physics Perspective on Collective Animal Behavior. Physical Biology. 19/2, 2022.
Ribeiro, Tiago, et al. Scale-Free Dynamics in Animal Groups and Brain Networks. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. January 2021.
Sarfati, Raphael, et al. Self-organization in Natural Swarms of Synchronous Fireflies. Science Advances. 7/28, 2021.
Wright, Colin, et al. Collective Personalities. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 73/3, 2019.


View the 230 Bibliographic Entries

6. Dynamic Fractal Network Ecosystems

Life’s diverse creaturely communities abide in active environments such as rainforests, prairies, coral reefs, to which they need adapt and cope with. Akin to each prior stage entered so far, in our transitional time even Darwin’s tangled bank has become amenable to complex systems science so to reveal a similar, endemic order. As ecological theories advance, biota and bioregions are no longer seen to seek an equilibrium balance, but actually reside in and exemplify a far-from-equilibrium, nested network and vital self-organization. These worldwise understandings of dynamic flora and fauna ecosystems guided by the same forces and forms as all else have are lately come to inform respectful mediations and to foster sustainabilities viabilities.

An iconic instance would be the career contributions of the University of Michigan system ecologists John Vandermeer and Ivette Perfecto, along with many international colleagues. Their 2017 work Ecological Complexity and Agroecology and a stream of papers (search) provide a fine example of how to combine deep understandings of nonlinear complexities with practical agriculture applications so to better manage pests and pathogens. In 2020 regard, their work adds a notice of synchronized chimera effects as this ecosmic bicameral reciprocity seems to hold everywhere

2020: As many citations attest, a prime essence of a one genetic-like code universality is that its self-organizing complex network system can be found in visual effect everywhere. Indeed, even Charles Darwin’s tangled bank metaphor for prolific diverse biotas has become amenable to this analysis. Across all environs from deserts to glaciers, equator to poles, all manner of vegetation densities, predator-prey, keystone species, coral reef, are now known to guided by and exhibit archetypal patterns and processes. From aboriginal vision, shamanic, indigenous sensitivities to infosphere 21st century insights, if we have a mindfulness to observe our environmental abide can appear and teach as a natural revelation.

Bohdalkova, Eliska, et al. Universality in Biodiversity Patterns: Variation in Species Temperature and Species-Productivity Relationships. Ecography. 44/9, 2021.
Farnsworth, Keith, et al. Unifying Concepts of Biological Function from Molecules to Ecosystems. Oikos. 126/10, 2017.
Fortin, Marie-Josee, et al. Network Ecology in Dynamic Landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. April, 2021.
Franklin, Oskar, et al. Organizing Principles for Vegetation Dynamics. Nature Plants. 6/5, 2020.
Guimaraes, Paulo. The Structure of Ecological Networks across Levels of Organization. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 51/433, 2020.

Ibarra, Jose, et al. Nurturing Resilient Forest Biodiversity: Nest Webs as Complex Adaptive Systems. Ecology and Society. 5/2, 2020.
Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo, et al. Spatial Patterns in Ecological Systems: From Microbial Colonies to Landscapes. Emerging Topics in Life Sciences. 6/3, 2022.
Nordbotten, Jan, et al. Ecological and Evolutionary Dynamics of Interconnectedness and Modularity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115/750, 2018.
Shade, Ashley, et al. Macroecology to Unite All Life, Large and Small. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. Online September, 2018
Vandermeer, John, et al. New Forms of Structure in Ecosystems Revealed with the Kuramoto Model. Royal Society Open Science. February, 2021.
Zhao, Li-Xia, et al. The Shaping Role of Self-Organization: Linking Vegetation Patterning, Plant Traits and Ecosystem Functioning. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Vol.286/Iss.1900, 2019.


View the 169 Bibliographic Entries

7. Multiple Ancestries of Homo Sapiens

Complex, network system perspectives are also being employed by the fields of primate studies, archaeology and anthropology to better explain how simians became hominids and onto phenomenal humans. This multi-faceted emergence is considered to occur through a co-evolution of increasing brain size, dexterous tool making and especially sociable interactions facilitated by language and know-how abilities. In reflective regard, Earth life can be seen adorn itself with a global species whom can altogether reconstruct the long, arduous course that got us here. No longer a linear march to homo sapiens, new fossil finds, along with paleogenetic analyses trace a chancy, meandering trek replete with dead ends, branchings and much interbreeding. Similar innovative advances have now allowed cultural, artifactual, knowledge content and migratory passages to be recovered. One may be prompted by a wide-screen curiosity to wonder about a self-revealing genesis universe which seems trying to describe and explain to itself by our nascent witness and co-creation.

2020: An historic, expansive revision with regard to our pedigree is occuring in the later 2010s by way of novel abilities to sequence ancient, hominid DNA, specifically reported in Paleogenomics. The familiar tree-like branchings based on fossil bones are being pruned and redrawn by way of Neanderthal cross-breedings and so on all the way to great ape primate origins. There are meanderings and dead ends but a main vectorial procession toward intelligence, awareness, knowledge gain by capable creatures in viable groupings is persistently evident.

Buskes, Chris. The Encultured Primate: Thresholds and Transitions in Hominin Cultural Evolution. Philosophies. 4/1, 2019.
Dannemann, Michael and Fernando Racimo. Something Old, Something Borrowed: Admixture and Adaptation in Human Evolution. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 53/1, 2018.
Douglas, Kate, ed. Our Human Story. New Scientist Essential Guide Volume 4, 2020.
Fernandez-Lopez, Javier, et al. Understanding Hunter-Gatherer Cultural Evolution Needs Network Thinking. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. August, 2022.
Higham, Tom. The World Before Us: How Science is Revealing a New Story of Our Human Origins. New York: Penguin, 2021

Migliano, Andrea, et al. Characterization of Hunter-Gather Networks and Implications for Cumulative Culture. Nature Human Behavior. 1/0043, 2017.
Mounier, Aurelien and Marta Mirazon Lahr. Deciphering African Late Middle Pleistocene Hominin Diversity and the Origin of Our Species. Nature Communications. 10/3406, 2019.
Overmann, Karenleigh and Frederick Coolidge, eds. Squeezing Minds from Stones: Cognitive Archaeology and the Evolution of the Human Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Tylen, Kristian, et al. The Evolution of Early Symbolic Behavior in Homo Sapiens.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/4578, 2020.
Voorhees, Burton, et al. Identity, Kinship, and the Evolution of Cooperation. Current Anthropology. September, 2018.
Wong, Kate. How Scientists Discovered the Staggering Complexity of Human Evolution. Scientific American. September 2020.


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F. Universal Gestation: Phylogeny and Ontogeny

In the 19th century, before The Origin of Species and for a while after, an organism’s embryonic development was broadly seen to recapitulate the evolutionary sequence from which it arose. But the comparison was set aside around 1900 as anatomical studies found contradictions to older parallels. Into the 2000s and 2010s a better quantified understanding of and general agreement between ontogenetic development and phylogenetic evolution is allowed, this time in several areas. In addition to embryonic and fetal maturation, a necessary recurrence is recognized for cognitive capacities, behavioral stages and especially for linguistic abilities. The title phrase "universal gestation" was a popular conception in Charles Darwin’s day, which we now take license so to recover its veracity.

2020: A century and half of intensive, wide ranging studies after Ernst Haeckel’s later 1800s recapitulation views, which where then in favor, it can again be affirmed that Earth life’s long phylogenetic bodily, cerebral, linguistic and societal evolution does necessarily have a similar appearance and track to the ontogenetic growth, motor skills, mental acumen, and especially linguistic learning of each individual organism.

Dobreva, Mariya, et al. Time to Synchronize Clocks: Connecting Developmental Mechanisms and Evolutionary Consequences of Heterochrony. Journal of Experimental Zoology. November 2021.
Kohsokabe, Takahiro and Kunihiko Kaneko. Dynamical Systems Approach to Evolution–Development Congruence: Revisiting Haeckel's Recapitulation Theory. Journal of Experimental Biology B. February, 2021.
Levit, Georgy and Uwe Hossfeld. Self-Organization Meets Evolution: Ernst Haeckel and Abiogenesis. Dambricourt Malasse, Anne, ed. Self-Organization as a New Paradigm in Evolutionary Biology. International: Springer, 2022.
Niklas, Karl and Ulrich Kutschera. From Goethe’s Plant Archetype via Haeckel’s Biogenetic Law to Plant Evo-Devo. Theory in Biosciences. October, 2016.
Olsson, Lennart, et al. The “Biogenetic Law” in Zoology: From Ernst Haeckel’s Formulation to Current Approaches. Theory in Biosciences. February, 2017.
Ostachuk, Augustin. On Novelty, Heterochrony and Developmental Constraints in a Complex Morphological Theory of Recapitulation. Evolutionary Biology. 43/3, 2015.
Uesaka, Masahiro and Naoki Irie. Beyond Recapitulation: Past, Present and Future. Journal of Experimental Zoology B. 338/1-2, 2022.


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