III. A Revolutionary Organic Habitable UniVerse
This extensive chapter after Natural Genesis Vision and Planetary Prodigy wishes to outline an abiding milieu as an historic 2ist century universe to wuman revolution. No longer an accidental entropic mechanism, once more Earth and people are returned to a central place and purpose, this time at the frontier of an animate temporal procreation. Our hope is to identify, communicate and document a conducive, amniotic spacescape for the emergence of ovular worlds, embryonic life, mind and self-aware, intelligent, creative beings on fertile bioplanets as it comes into view by way of our emergent worldwise 2020 vision.
A. Quantum Cosmology
When quantum mechanics was developed in the 1920s another revolution in physics was just starting. It began with the discovery that the universe is expanding. For a long time quantum mechanics and cosmology developed independently of one another. Yet the very discovery of the expansion would eventually draw the two subjects together because it implied the big bang where quantum mechanics was important for cosmology and for understanding and predicting our observations of the universe today. (James Hartle, arXiv:1901.03933)
As our phenomenal Earthkinder intellect applies itself over years and decades to mathematically join inflationary quantum depths with expansive cosmic breadth so to represent a whole universe to human scenario, the endeavor became known by the composite title. A search of the term on the arXix.org physics eprint site returns some 80,000 hits. This QC section first sorts into this deeply technical phase, followed by Cosmos about its spatial and temporal population of galaxies, sunny stars, common planets, all arrayed in a stochastic proliferation. Quantum Organics reports a second revolution moving beyond opaque arcanda to a familiar, classical treatment. And for these EarthWise reasons and abilities, it is now possible to contemplate, quantify, and maybe detect exocosmoses far afield. But our homo to anthropo sapience mostly goes on as a simple agency, unawares that we are carrying out a crucial requirement for a self-describing, comprehending, realizing, selecting genesis cocreation.
Calcagni, Gianluca. Classical and Quantum Cosmology. Europe: Springer, 2017.
Chamcham, Khalil, et al, eds. The Philosophy of Cosmology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
Erhard, Manuel, et al. Advances in High Dimensional Quantum Entanglement. arXiv:1911.10006.
Hartle, James. Arrows of Time and Initial and Final Conditions in the Quantum Mechanics of Closed Systems Like the Universe. arXiv:2002.07093.
Kiukas, Jukka, et al. Complementary Observables in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics. Online April, 2019.
Sabchez, Norma. New Quantum Phase of the Universe before Inflation. International Journal of Modern Physics A. 34/27, 2020.
Smolin, Lee. Einstein’s Unfinished Revolution: the Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum. New York: Penguin, 2019.
Tegmark, Max. Our Mathematical Universe. New York: Knopf, 2014.
Turok, Neil. The Universe Within: From Quantum to Cosmos. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2012
Wilczek, Frank. Physics in 100 Years. arXiv:1503.07735.
View the 123 Bibliographic Entries
1. Cosmos: A Galactic, Stellar, Planetary Spacescape
After theoretical Quantum Cosmology, here we present a survey of astrophysical vistas that have expanded from Galileo’s moon to an infinite multiUniVerse. Our “own” cosmos in its temporal course is graced by a trillion galaxies, each with billions of stars and a quintillion orbital worlds in and out of habitable zones. A good recent example is Finding Our Place in the Universe by Helene Courtois.
Berlinski, Vladimir and Marc Henneaux. The Cosmological Singularity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
Courtois, Helene. Finding Our Place in the Universe. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2019.
Codis, Sandrine, et al. On the Connectivity of the Cosmic Web. arXiv:1803.11477.
Frebel, Anna. Searching for the Oldest Stars. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.
Libeskind, Noam and Brent Tully. Our Place in the Cosmos. Scientific American. July, 2016.
Perlov, Delia and Alex Vilenkin. Cosmology for the Curious. International: Springer, 2017.
Stueken, Eva, et al. Mission to Planet Earth: The First Two Billion Years. Space Science Reviews. 216/Art. 31, 2020.
Tyson, Neil de Grasse, et al. Welcome to the Universe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016.
Vogelsberger, Mark, et al. Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Formation. Nature Reviews Physics. 2/1, 2020.
View the 60 Bibliographic Entries
2. Quantome Organics in the 21st Century
As science transitions to a planetary progeny, new phases of integral clarity are being achieved. In the early 1900s, this realm of subatomic substance and activity was dubbed “quantum,” from the Latin for “amount,” by Max Planck because he theorized that energy waves are composed of discrete material units. For over a century, physicists such as Einstein, Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Bohm, Wheeler and many more sought to study, test, and make sense of this fundamental domain. Quantum “mechanics” went forth somewhat as a “methinks it is like” series of concepts and thought experiments such as entanglement, decoherence, double-slit tests, dead or alive cats, uncertainty, non-locality and so on. For example, I heard Abner Shimony speak in 1979 about superposition, and John Bell in 1990 ask what does it mean that some kind of quantum phase exists, from which we then arise from and wonder.
Around 2000, the project began to include an informational content and essence, along with algorithmic communication, cited more in An Information Computation Turn. In 2009 I heard two of its conceivers, Jeffrey Bub and Hans Halvorson, give a survey to date. With the advent of complex network systems science, since the 2010s a growing recognition of their similar presence in this deepest mode went forth. As a result the old quantum-classical divide began to dissolve, which Nobel physicist Gerard ‘t Hooft, philosopher Alisa Bokulich and others engage. A premier, comprehensive entry and accessible text is Beyond Weird (2018) by the British science writer Philip Ball, which was cited as the European Physics Book of the Year. For these reasons, as a fertile ecosmos comes into view, the phrase Quantum Organics is broached going forward.
This we seek to document a historic revision due to humankind, which has been called a “second quantum revolution.” As the citations convey, a common affinity to other scales of nature and society became evident. Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM) conferences have realized that what lies beneath is not another material stage but a strongly implied independent, mathematical, generative source. Since the 2010s a robust recognition of multiplex, neural-like network systems in this deep domain also arose and took off. For one example, an international Network Science conference (NetSci 2014) has a “Quantum Network” symposia. And as our collaborative vista brings many pieces to fit together into place, might one imagine a Quantome?
Asano, Masanari, et al. Quantum Adaptivity in Biology: From Genetics to Cognition. Springer, 2015.
Balatsky, Alexander, et al. Dynamic Quantum Matter. Annalen der Physik. 532/2, 2020.
Ball, Philip. Beyond Weird: Why Everything You Thought You Knew about Quantum Physics Is Different. London: Bodley Head, 2018.
Bastidas, Victor, et al. Chimera States in Quantum Mechanics. arXiv:1807.08056.
Berkelbach, Timothy and Michael Thoss. Dynamics of Open Quantum Systems. Journal of Chemical Physics. 152/020401, 2020.
Bianconi, Ginestra. Interdisciplinary and Physics Challenges of Network Theory. arXiv:1509.00345.
Burghardt, Irene and Andreas Buchleitner. Quantum Complex Systems. Annalen der Physik. 527/9-10, 2016.
Heyl, Markus. Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions. Reports on Progress in Physics. 81/5, 2018.
Jaeger, Gregg, et al. Second Quantum Revolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 375/20160397, 2016.
Lombardi, Olimpia, et al, eds. Quantum Chaos and Complexity. Entropy. Online July, 2018
‘t Hooft, Gerard. The Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. arXiv:1405.1548.
Torlai, Giacomo, et al. Neural Network Quantum State Tomography. Nature Physics. May, 2018.
Walleczek, Jan, et al, eds. Special Issue: Emergent Quantum Mechanics – David Bohm Centennial. Entropy. 21/2, 2019.
View the 88 Bibliographic Entries
3. Novel ExoUniverse Studies
While inklings of other cosmoses were broached through history (Siegfried), actual theoretical studies have only been possible into the 2010s by way of cumulative global postings. For a contrast, I heard Andrei Linde present his fractal multiverse theory in 1983 by way of overhead slides, in 2015 Fred Adams could show streaming videos of galactic evolution. Recent papers by Adams and colleagues, Sandora McCullen, and others can consider an entire unitary cosmos to see how varying physical parameters and chemical elements might effect their relative lifetime and habitability. And ever again, how fantastic is it that we sentient beings on a tiny but special bioplanet are altogether able to contemplate and quantify on a scale of whole cosmoses?
Adams, Fred C. The Degree of Fine-Tuning in Our Universe – and Others. arXiv:1902.03928.
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam, et al. The Interacting Multiverse and its Effect on the Cosmic Microwave Background. arXiv:1809.09133.
Dai, Liang, et al. On Separate Universes. arXiv:1504.00351.
Gould, Elizabeth and Niayesh Afshordi. Does History Repeat Itself? Periodic Time Cosmology. arXiv:1903.09694.
Grohs, Evan, et al. Universes without the Weak Force. arXiv:1801.06081.
Kartvelishvili, Guram, et al. The Self-Organized Critical Multiverse. arXiv:2003.12594.
Linde, Andrei. A Brief History of the Multiverse. arXiv:1512.01203.
Rahvar, Sohrab. Cosmic Initial Conditions for a Habitable Universe. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 470/3, 2017.
Rubenstein, Mary-Jane. Worlds Without End. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Sandora, McCullen. Multiverse Predictions for Habitability. arXiv:1903.06283.
Siegfried, Tom. The Number of the Heavens, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2019.
Wilczek, Frank. Multiversality. Classical and Quantum Gravity. 30/193001, 2013.
View the 55 Bibliographic Entries
B. An Animate Procreative Ecosmos
A continuous thread seems to link together the events of the history of the Universe, from the Big Bang to the advent of Homo sapiens. The striking continuity of the general pattern of evolution suggests that the Universe was pregnant with life since beginning, and the biosphere was right from the start pregnant of mankind. Francesco Gaeta
Over the ages and stages of our human wonderment, by turns an aboriginal, mystic animism was overtaken by a sterile, mechanical physics, especially in the last century. But into a new millennium, an emergent transition to a global, personsphere collaboration seems on the way to quantifying a conducive uniVerse and procreative geobiosphere. Two prime aspects involve living systems reaching deeper into a fertile chemical ground, and how such material substrates are becoming spontaneously active. As one now reviews in mid 2020, an evolutionary developmental gestation can be perceived all the way from a singular cosmic origin to humankinder’s worldwide sentience. But this revolutionary reproductive reanimation has not yet been well documented and commonly recognized. We offer these many annotated references, almost 9,000 in all, to respectfully help reveal and aver an innately life-friendly, amniotic milieu. This present section, along with Consilience of Biology and Physics, Systems Physics, Systems Chemistry and Universal Evolution, attempt to flesh out a consummate array evidential advances in our midst.
Barge, Laura, et al. From Chemical Gardens to Chemobrionics. Chemical Reviews. 115/8652, 2015.
Barrow, John, et al, eds. Fitness of the Cosmos for Life: Biochemistry and Fine-Tuning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Chen, Irene and Martin Nowak. From Prelife to Life: How Chemical Kinetics Become Evolutionary Dynamics. Accounts of Chemical Research. 45/12, 2012.
Cronin, Leroy and Sara Walker. Beyond Prebiotic Chemistry. Science. 352/1174, 2016.
Egel, Richard. Life’s Order, Complexity, Organization, and Its Thermodynamic-Holistic Imperatives. Life. Online November, 2012.
Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel, et al. Mineral Self-Organization on a Lifeless Planet. Physics of Life Reviews. January, 2020.
Gordon, Richard and Alexei Sharov, eds. Habitability of the Universe before Earth. Amsterdam: Academic Press/Elsevier, 2017.
Hazen, Robert. Symphony in C: Carbon and the Evolution of (Almost) Everything. New York: Norton, 2019.
Mann, Stephen. Systems of Creation: The Emergence of Life from Nonliving Matter. Accounts of Chemical Research. 45/12, 2012.
Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard and Stefan Thurner, eds. Principles of Evolution: From the Planck Epoch to Complex Multicellular Life. Berlin: Springer, 2011.
Pross, Addy. What is Life?: How Chemistry becomes Biology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Westall, Frances and Andre Brack. The Importance of Water for Life. Space Science Reviews. 214/2, 2018.
View the 138 Bibliographic Entries
1. A Consilience of Biology and Physics: Active Matter
This section was added in 2013 to cover a growing flow of research papers across these sciences that are finding an integral affinity between them. By our worldwise compass, quantum, condensed matter, many-body, statistical mechanics, and other fields are becoming perceived to have quite lively inferences. At the same while, organic evolutionary systems via anatomic forms, physiologic metabolism, neural architecture and cognizance, dynamic ecosystems and human societies are found to exhibit physical principles. In origin of life studies and elsewhere, as an organic nature spreads ever deeper roots, so does material substance gain an endemic conducive fertility. For example, systems biophysicist Nigel Goldenfeld (search) has advised that biology will become physics in the 21st century and biology is the new condensed matter physics.
An aspect within this overdue reunion is known by an Active Matter phrase. It was first used by the Indian physicist Sriram Ramaswamy in 2010 to designate a novel form of self-propelled material motion. As the quote notes, the endeavor has since engaged many self-assembled and mobile phases. A “Soft Matter” version studies all manner structural properties of pliable biomolecular and cellular forms. A common implication seems to be an innate mathematical source that serves to structure and guide the gravid spontaneity of a procreative evolution and history.
Active matter is composed of large numbers of active "agents", each of which consumes energy in order to move or to exert forces. Such systems are intrinsically out of thermal equilibrium. Active matter systems break time reversal symmetry because energy is being continually dissipated by the individual constituents. Most examples of active matter are biological in origin and span the scales from bacteria and self-organising bio-polymers to schools of fish and flocks of birds. (Wikipedia)
Azaele, Sandro, et al. Statistical Mechanics of Ecological Systems. arXiv:1506.01721.
Bialek, William. Perspectives on Theory at the Interface of Physics and Biology. arXiv:1512.08954.
Cartwright, Julyan, et al. DNA as Information: At the Crossroads between Biology, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Vol.374/Iss.2063, 2016.
Cavagna, Andrea and Irene Giardina. Bird Flocks as Condensed Matter Systems. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. Volume 5, 2014.
Crosato, Emanuele, at al. Thermodynamics of Emergent Structure in Active Matter. arXiv:1812.08527.
Fodor, Etienne and Cristina Marchetti. The Statistical Physics of Active Matter. arXiv:1708.08652.
Goldenfeld, Nigel and Carl Woese. Life is Physics: Evolution as a Collective Phenomenon Far from Equilibrium. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. Volume 2, 2011.
Gompper, Gerhard, et al. The 2019 Motile Active Matter Roadmap. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 32/29, 2020.
Katsnelson, Mikhail, et al. Towards Physical Principles of Biological Evolution. Physica Scripta. 93/4, 2018.
Lee, Chiu Fan and Jean David Wurtz. Novel Physics Arising From Phase Transitions in Biology. Journal of Physics D. 52/2, 2019.
McFadden, Johnjoe and Jim Al-Khalili. The Origins of Quantum Biology. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Vol.474/Iss.2220, 2018.
Ramaswamy, Sriram. The Mechanics and Statistics of Active Matter. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. 1/323, 2010.
Xue, Chi, et al. Scale-invariant Topology and Bursty Branching of Evolutionary Trees Emerge from Niche Construction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/7679, 2020.
View the 113 Bibliographic Entries
2. Systems Physics: Self-Organization
Many scientific fields are in the process of a major shift from reduction to emergence such as Systems Biology, Genetics, Neuroscience, and Chemistry, as this site reports. By finding and cataloging the particles and linear laws of cosmic and material realms, this phase has well plumbed materiality and spacetime. But a Google search for “Systems Physics” does not get any results. A curious inversion seems to occur whence this fundament atomic pursuit since Greece and Rome to Newton’s day may be the last to reconceive itself. A developmental self-organization from galaxies to genomes to Gaia does not appear in large colliders. Physicist advocates such as Philip Anderson, Brian Josephson, Robert Laughlin, Lee Smolin, Nigel Goldenfeld, William Bialek and many others are now trying to move beyond a benthic theory of everything to a recurrent vitality everywhere. A Systems Physics to reunite and reinvent quantum and cosmos from which life, intelligence and personhood in community are meant to emerge is an overdue imperative. Other sections herein such as Active Matter, Fractal Cosmology, Common Principles contain additional references.
Castellano, Claudino, et al. Statistical Physics of Social Dynamics. Reviews of Modern Physics. 81/2, 2009.
Drossel, Barbara. Strong Emergence in Condensed Matter Physics. arXiv:1909.01134.
Janson, Natalia. Non-Linear Dynamics of Biological Systems. Contemporary Physics. 53/2, 2012
Kibble, Tom and Ajit Srivastava. Condensed Matter Analogues of Cosmology. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 25/400301, 2013.
Krioukov, Dmitri, et al. Network Cosmology. Nature Scientific Reports. 2/793, 2012.
Kwapien, Jaroslaw and Stanislaw Drozdz. Physical Approach to Complex Systems. Physics Reports. 515/3-4, 2012.
Perc, Matjaz. Beauty in Artistic Expressions through the Eyes of Networks and Physics. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. March 11, 2020.
Scott, Alwyn. The Nonlinear Universe. Berlin: Springer, 2007.
Tkacik, Gasper, et al. Thermodynamics for a Network of Neurons: Signatures of Criticality. arXiv:1407.5946.
Yeung, Chi Ho and David Saad. Networking – A Statistical Physics Perspective. Journal of Physics A. 46/10, 2013.
View the 69 Bibliographic Entries
3. Supramolecular Systems Chemistry
This is a 2007 section for the coalescing endeavor which is being dubbed “supramolecular systems chemistry,” aka “constitutional dynamic and adaptive chemistry.” These terms are from the 1997 Nobel chemist Jean-Marie Lehn and colleagues so to represent new appreciations of how nature’s universal self-organizing animations are equally in effect across complex bio/chemical materialities. As Chemical Gardens above, these informed forces are seen to foster emergent, nested, complexities. Another French Nobel scientist Christian de Duve advised that evolutionary matter seems to “pregnant with life.”
In regard another mini-revolution is recorded whence physical substance is being found to possess an essential spontaneity to evolve and develop into organic precursors. We cite, for example, the work of the University of Glasgow chemist Leroy Cronin and group to seriously quantify life’s deep, tap roots into a fertile cosmos. As the references note, the field has interdisciplinary reaches into life’s origins, artificial chemistry, computational methods, reaction networks, autocatalytsis and astrochemistry.
Ashkenasy, Goren, et al. Systems Chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews. 46/2543, 2017.
Banzhaf, Wolfgang and Lidia Yamamoto. Artificial Chemistries. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.
Doty, David and Shaopeng Zhu. Computational Complexity of Atomic Chemical Reaction Networks. arXiv:1702.05704.
Ghosh, Abhik and Paul Kiparsky. Grammar of the Elements. American Scientist. November-December, 2019.
Grzybowski, Bartosz, et al. From Dynamic Self-Assembly to Networked Chemical Systems. Chemical Society Reviews. 46/5647, 2017.
Lehn, Jean-Marie. Perspectives in Chemistry – Steps toward Complex Matter. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 52/10, 2013.
McArdle, Sam, et al. Quantum Computational Chemistry. Review of Modern Physics. 92/015003, 2020.
Mikhailov, Alexander and Gerhard Ertl. Chemical Complexity. Switzerland: Springer Frontiers, 2017.
Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa, et al. Prebiotic Systems Chemistry. Chemical Reviews. 114/1, 2014.
Showalter, Kenneth and Irving Epstein. From Chemical Systems to Systems Chemistry: Patterns in Space and Time. Chaos. 25/9, 2015.
Unsleber, Jan and Markus Reiher. The Exploration of Chemical Reaction Networks. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. Volume 71, 2020.
View the 70 Bibliographic Entries
4. Universal Evolution: A Celestial Expanse
This section was added in 2014 to gather viewpoints about a similar stochastic evolutionary process which seems be in occurrence even across vicarious cosmic environments. In regard, this celestial domain has been dubbed a Universal Darwinism, see John O. Campbell, Lee Smolin, Milan Cirkovic and other sources. And in a deep physical contrast, Wojciech Zurek (search here and arXiv) has advanced a Quantum Darwinism which has gained an ongoing interest.
This Western view is then complemented by a Russian school via publications in a substantial Evolution almanac from Volgograd, search Leonid Grinin, et al. But this more Eastern vista does not hold to a capricous contingency. Rather in a Cosmism (search) way, an organic reality is seen to seen as a teleological “Universal Evolutionism.” Life’s aware emergence springs from an independent, informative self-organization in effect before winnowing selection. This is a distinction and difference which quite aligns with a Natural Genesis.
Baladron, Carlos and Andrei Khrennikov. Outline of a Unified Darwinian Evolutionary Theory for Physical and Biological Systems. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. Online May, 2017.
Campbell, John O. Universal Darwinism as a Process of Bayesian Inference. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. June 2016.
Cirkovic, Milan. The Astrobiological Landscape: Philosophical Foundations of the Study of Cosmic Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Grinin, Leonid, et al. Evolutionary Megaparadigms. Grinin, Leonid et al, eds. Evolution: Cosmic, Biological, and Social. Volgograd: Uchitel Publishing, 2011.
Knott, Paul. Decoherence, Quantum Darwinism, and the Generic Emergence of Our Objective Classical Reality. arXiv:1811.09062.
Lewis, Samuel, et al. Darwin’s Aliens. International Journal of Astrobiology. Online November, 2017.
Newman, Stuart. Universal EvoDevo? Biological Theory. 13/67, 2018.
Yang, Xin-She.Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2014.
View the 39 Bibliographic Entries
C. The Information Computation Turn
Into the 21st century, aided by computational advances, the concept of information as broadly conceived from algorithms to literate knowledge has become recognized as a prime independent quality along with and prior to matter and energy, space and time. As many references such as James Gleick's The Information (2011) attest, a deep textual dimension provides a missing, codifying element in support of an organic genesis uniVerse. In several ways, the long temporal passage of an ecosmic nature to human culture gains a vital informational-computational empowerment. From Gottfried Leibniz, Alan Turing to Stephen Wolfram and Gregory Chaitin to Gordana Dodig-Gordana, Luciano Floridi, Wolfgang Hofkircher, Sara Walker and many others, the general perception is a universe that seems to independently program and iteratively compute itself into personal, emergent cognizance. By some analogous genotype/phenotype, software,hardware facility, a double generative mathematical domain reappears in our late midst. Another aspect is a similar informational essence within quantum phenomena, which is covered in the next section.
Bawden, David and Lyn Robinson. “Waiting for Carnot:” Information and Complexity. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. Online May, 2015.
Cuffaro, Michael and Samuel Fletcher. Physical Perspectives on Computation, Computational Perspectives on Physics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.
Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana. Nature as a Network of Morphological Infocomputational Processes for Cognitive Agents. European Physical Journal Special Topics. 226/181, 2017.
Dyson, George. Turing’s Cathedral: The Origins of the Digital Universe. New York: Pantheon Books, 2012.
Ensslin, Torsten, et al. The Physics of Information. Annalen der Physik. 531/3, 2019.
Floridi, Luciano. The Logic of Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Gleick, James. The Information: A History, A Theory, A Flood. New York: Pantheon, 2011.
Hidalgo, Cesar. Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, from Atoms to Economies. New York: Basic Books, 2015.
Horsman, Dominic, et al. The Natural Science of Computing. Communications of the ACM. August, 2017.
Ji, Sungchul. Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages. Information. February, 2017.
Mora, Thierry, et al. Special Issue on Information Processing in Living Systems. Journal of Statistical Physics. 162/5, 2017.
Walker, Sara Imari, et al, eds. From Matter to Life: Information and Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
View the 136 Bibliographic Entries
1. Quantum Participatory Information
This 2017 subsection grew out of the Quantum Cosmology and Information Computation sections as it became evident that along with Complex System features this foundational realm also has a distinct informational quality. While intimated in the 1980s and 1990s by the sage physicist John Archibald Wheeler, Rolf Landauer, David Deutsch, and others, initial 21st century perceptions were of two kinds. The 2000 work Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Michael Nielsen and Isaac Chuang was mainly about mechanics, qubits, Shannon communications and so on. This school continues apace with volumes such as Quantum Computer Science by David Mermin (2007) and Quantum Information Theory by Mark Wilde (2nd ed. 2017) to advance this field.
But another turn sought deeper insights whence this basic feature is distinguished by a prescriptive essence. An initial entry may be the 2003 paper Characterizing Quantum Theory in Terms of Information-Theoretic Constraints by Rob Clifton, Jeffery Bub and Hans Halverson, along with by Gennaro Auletta’s 2005 Quantum Information. In 2010 Vlatko Vedral wrote Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information. Later works by Christopher Timpson (2013), Giulio Chiribella, Giacomo D’Ariano, again David Deutsch with Chiara Marletto, Andrei Khrennikov (Foundations of Physics) grew into an expansive model as cited herein.
This collection about nature’s communicative content which may pass from a programmable universe to our retrospective observation is an apropos place for J. A. Wheeler’s overall arc from Bit (originally Byte, a code-like basis) to It (sentient entities). His novel theory alluded to a quantum reality which requires some manner of self-aware “measurement, witness, recognition” so as to come into full manifestation. By 2017, this deep insidht has gained much acceptance (Edward Witten interview) for it melds an informational source with a central rode for emergent human beings. A further version is the Quantum Bayesian or QBism approach advanced by Christopher Fuchs and colleagues, search here and the arXiv preprint site, whence our cognitive inquiries proceed in clarity by way of iterative, more probable, estimations.
Aguirre, Anthony, et al, eds. It From Bit or Bit From It?: On Physics and Information. Berlin: Springer, 2015.
Asano, Masanari, et al. Quantum Information Biology arXiv:1503.02515.
Benioff, Paul. Relation between Observers and Effects of Number Valuation in Science. arXiv:1804.04633.
Chiribella, Giulio and Robert Spekkens, eds. Quantum Theory: Information Foundations and Foils. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015.
D’Ariano, Giacomo, et al. Quantum Theory from First Principles: An Informational Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
Lombardi, Olimpia, et al, eds. What is Quantum Information? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
Mermin, David. Making Better Sense of Quantum Mechanics. Reports on Progress in Physics. 82/1, 2018.
Timpson, Christopher. Quantum Information Theory. Oxford: Clarendon, 2013.
Vedral, Vlatko. Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Von Baeyer, Hans. QBism: The Future of Quantum Physics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016.
View the 53 Bibliographic Entries
D. An Intrinsic Consciousness and Cognition
A perennial, mystic, more Eastern belief is a fundamental plenum of panpsychic consciousness, from which cognizant human sentience naturally arises. Now into the 21st century, a global brain scientific recovery, verification and acceptance is well underway, along with philosophical support. As a result, this original, encompassing mind miliue from which sequential scales of relative awareness, intelligent knowing and our manifest selves arise is being fulfilled. In this vein, another aspect would be that we microcosmic Earthly beings are achieving some measure of the animate macrocosmos looking back upon itself, so to self-recognize, realize and begin an evolitionary future. See also the Conscious Integrated Information Knowledge section in Chapter VII.
.…western science is changing very rapidly now, toward an understanding of nature as alive, self-organizing, intelligent, conscious or sentient and participatory at all levels from subatomic particles and molecules to entire living planets, galaxies and the whole Cosmos…. Elisabet Sahtouris
Braun, Claude and Shaun Lovejoy. The Biology of Consciousness from the Bottom Up. Adaptive Behavior. 126/3, 2018.
Bruntrup, Godehard and Ludwig Jaskolla, eds. Panpsychism: Contemporary Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Chittka, Lars and Catherine Wilson. Expanding Consciousness. American Scientist. November-December, 2019.
Feinberg, Todd and Jon Mallatt. The Ancient Origins of Consciousness. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2016.
Gazzaniga, Michael. The Consciousness Instinct. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2018.
Guevara Erra, Ramon, et al. Statistical Mechanics of Consciousness. Physical Review E. 94/052402, 2016.
Koch, Christof. Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012.
Linde, Andrei. Universe, Life, Consciousness. www.andrei-linde.com/articles/universe-life-consciousness-pdf.
Swan, Liz, ed. Origins of Mind. Berlin: Springer, 2013.
Tononi, Giulio. Phi: A Voyage from the Brain to the Soul. New York: Pantheon, 2012.
View the 74 Bibliographic Entries
E. A Thermodynamics of Life
The sterile, mechanical universe of later 19th century theories was conceived as a closed, isolated system tending to quiescent equilibrium. As predicted by the second law of thermodynamics, it must inexorably expire as available energy is spent doing work and converted to entropy. The “noonday brilliance” of the human moment is all for naught per Bertrand Russell in the early 20th century. But a major revision and expansion has been underway since the 1970s whereof life is conceived as an open system infused and organized by a sustaining flow of energy and information. The doom sentence has been repealed and superseded by far-from-equilibrium theories, due much to Nobel laureate Ilya Prigogine and colleagues. But in the 21st century the older and newer versions still coexist into our global collaborative revolution. Altogether these efforts serve to explain a vital "physical" source and animation for and impetus to biological and cultural evolution. All of which well bodes for a reunification of organic beings with a conducive cosmos.
Cartwright, Jon. Roll Over, Boltzman. Physics World. May, 2014.
Dewar, Roderick, et al, eds. Beyond the Second Law: Entropy Production and Non-equilibrium Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2013.
England, Jeremy. Dissipative Adaptation in Driven Self-Assembly. Nature Nanotechnology. 10/11, 2015.
Jeffery, Kate, et al. On the Statistical Mechanics of Life: Schrodinger Revisited. Entropy. 21/12, 2019.
Kaneko, Kunihiko and Chikara Furesawa. Macroscopic Theory for Evolving Biological Systems Akin to Thermodynamics. Annual Review of Biophysics. 47/273, 2018.
Kleidon, Axel. Thermodynamic Foundations of the Earth System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Marletto, Chiara. Constructor Theory of Thermodynamics. arXiv:1608.02625.
Nigmatullin, Ramil and Mikhail Prokopenko. Thermodynamic Efficiency of Interactions in Self-Organizing Systems. arXiv:1912.08948.
Rajpurohit, Tanmay and Wassim Haddad. Stochastic Thermodynamics: A Dynamical Systems Approach. Entropy. Online December, 2017.
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1. Quantum Thermodynamics
As I have noted on occasion, my 1960 degree is in engineering thermodynamics from Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, now NYU Poly. Back then the field was mainly about the three laws for steam power plants. In 1987 I had lunch at a complexity conference with Ilya Prigogine, the 1970s Nobel founder of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Since around 2010, aided by Internet worldwide collaborations, such studies of energy source, usage, dissipation, and entropies, widely conceived, began to merge with quantum mechanical physics by way of corresponding theoretical finesses. Into the late 2010s, these composite endeavors have spread and grown to an extent and depth that they merit their own subsection.
2020: A cross-disciplinary intersect of thermodynamic theory, still a work in progress, with quantum phenomena as it reconceives itself as a complex dynamic system, has led to a flurry of insightful syntheses.
Alicki, Robert and Ronnie Kosloff. Introduction to Quantum Thermodynamics: History and Prospects. arXiv:1801.08314.
Anders, Janet and Massimiliano Esposito. Focus on Quantum Thermodynamics. New Journal of Physics. 19/010201, 2017.
Faist, Philippe. Quantum Coarse Graining: An Information-Theoretic Approach to Thermodynamics. arXiv:1607.03104.
Gemmer, Jochen, et al. Quantum Thermodynamics. Berlin: Springer, 2012.
Vedral, Vlatko. Law and Disorder. New Scientist. April 7, 2018.
Wolchover, Natalie. The Quantum Thermodynamics Revolution. Quanta Magazine. Online May 2, 2017.
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2. An Autocatalytic, Bootstrap Universe
This January 2018 section reports an increasing notice of how a natural universe to human evolutionary emergence seems to be facilitated by life’s autocreative biochemical self-initiation. As popularly known, a catalyst is a (bio)chemical agent which can effect a reaction without itself being changed in the process. An autocatalytic term has become a general identifier for this procedure, and has gained usage because something like this does seem to be going on. A pioneer theorist since the 1970s has been Stuart Kauffman (search) which he has articulated in books and collegial papers to this day. Lately the concept is advanced by biomathematicians such as Wim Hordijk and Michael Steel, along with Liane Gabora, Nathaniel Virgo, Guenther Witzany, Sara Walker, Leroy Cronin, Addy Pross, and others herein.
In November 2019, another phase or mode of a self-making natural genesis will be included here, namely “bootstrap universe” theories. With a once and future casting, the concept began with Geoffrey Chew in the 1960s, but while notable it was set aside. As entries here especially by Natalie Wolchover and others cite, a strong revival has occurred because a lively cosmos seems to actually be doing something like this. New contributions by Nima Arkani-Hamed, David Poland, Gui Pimental and others (cited below, and posted on the arXiv eprint site). If one queries “bootstrap” there it gets over 3,000 hits. The Simons Foundation perceptively funds such efforts and conference (Perimeter Institute). Indeed this ecosmic placement seems to be expecting us (as Freeman Dyson would say) because there is some necessary, vivifying act we all are to carry out.
2020: In this auspicious moment, might we peoples appreciate our presence as the sentient, informed selves who are made and meant to intentionally continue and take forward?
Bissette, Andrew and Stephen Fletcher. Mechanisms of Autocatalysis. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 52/12800, 2013.
Farnsworth, Keith, et al. Unifying Concepts of Biological Function from Molecules to Ecosystems. Oikos. 126/10, 2017.
Hordijk, Wim and Mike Steel. The Emergence of Autocatalytic Networks. Biosystems. 152/1, 2017.
Lancet, Doron. Systems Protobiology: Origin of Life by Mutually Catalytic Networks. Life. Online July, 2018.
Piotto, Stefano, et al. Plausible Emergence of Autocatalytic Cycles under Prebiotic Conditions. Life. Online April 4, 2019.
Wolchover, Natalie. Cosmic Triangles Open a Window to the Origin of Time. Quanta. October 29, 2019.
Witzany, Guenther. Crucial Steps to Life: From Chemical Reactions to Code Using Agents. BioSystems. Online December, 2015.
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F. Systems Cosmology: Fractal SpaceTimeMatter
Aschwanden, Markus. Self-Organized Criticality in Astrophysics: The Statistics of Nonlinear Processes in the Universe. Berlin: Springer, 2011.
Coutinho, Bruno, et al. The Network behind the Cosmic Web. arXiv:1604.03236.
Doering, Andreas and Tim Palmer. New Geometric Concepts in the Foundations of Physics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 373/Issue 2047, 2015.
Ferreira, Pedro, et al. Inflation in a Scale Invariant Universe. arXiv:1802.06069.
Gaite, Jose. Scale Symmetry in the Universe. Symmetry. 12/4, 2020.
Krioukov, Dmitri, et al. Network Cosmology. Nature Scientific Reports. 2/793, 2012.
Lapidus, Michel. An Overview of Complex Fractal Dimensions. arXiv:1803.10399.
Miniati, Francesco and Andrey Brersnyak. Self-Similar Energetics in Large Clusters of Galaxies. Nature. 523/59, 2016.
Watkins, Nicholas, et al. 25 Years of Self-Organized Criticality. Space Science Reviews. 198/1, 2016.
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G. Anthropic, Biotropic, Earthropic Principles
Barrow, John, et al, eds. Fitness of the Cosmos for Life: Biochemistry and Fine-Tuning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Conway Morris, Simon. What is Written into Creation? Burrell, David, et al, eds. Creation and the God of Abraham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Drabrowski, Mariusz. Anthropic Selection of Physical Constants, Quantum Entanglement, and the Multiverse Falsifiability. arXiv:1910.09073.
Holder, Rodney and Simon Mitton, eds. Georges Lemaitre: Life, Science and Legacy. Berlin: Springer, 2013.
Lewis, Geraint and Luke Barnes. A Fortunate Universe: Life in a Finely Tuned Cosmos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Livio, Mario and Martin Rees. Fine-Tuning, Complexity, and Life in the Multiverse. arXiv:1801.06944.
Naumann, Thomas. Do We Live in the Best of All Worlds? The Fine-Tuning of the Constants of Nature. Universe. Online August, 2017.
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H. An Astrochemistry to Astrobiological Fertility
Into the 2000s and 2010s an exceptional Earthkinder has widely and deeply explored our celestial stellar, galactic and universal environs with regard to its material composition. Rather than a lumpen sterility, a flow of findings has increasingly revealed a natural propensity to form and complexify into an array of lively biochemical precursors. That is to say, a revolutionary organic procreative spontaneity has become its inherent essence. A novel ecosmos thus appears to be “pregnant with life” as the Nobel chemist Christian de Duve famously said.
The copious section includes proceedings for international conferences on this field of study, which has converged upon the term Astrobiology. As this work progressed, it rooted deeply into pre-biological phases which similarly exhibited a tendency to self-arrange into suitable formulations for life’s evolution to come. In regard the further field of Astrochemistry arose.
Cataldo, Franco, et al. Petroleum, Coal and Other Organics in Space. arXiv:2005.01162.
Chela-Flores, Julian. From Systems Chemistry to Systems Astrobiology: Life in the Universe as an Emergent Phenomenon. International Journal of Astrobiology. Online July, 2012.
Cobb, Alyssa and Ralph Pudritz. Nature’s Starships: Observed Abundances and Relative Frequencies of Amino Acids in Meteorites. Astrophysical Journal. 783/2, 2014.
Domagal-Goldman, Shawn and Katherine Wright, eds.. The Astrobiology Primer 2.0. Astrobiology. 16/8, 2016.
Fortenberry, Ryan. Quantum Astrochemical Spectroscopy. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry. 117/2, 2017.
Kolb, Vera, ed. Handbook of Astrobiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019.
Meadows, Victoria, et al, eds. Planetary Astrobiology. Tempe: University of Arizona Press, 2020.
McGuire, Brett. 2018 Census of Interstellar, Circumstellar, Extragalactic, Protoplanetary Disk, and Exoplanetary Molecules. arXiv:1809.09132.
Puzzarini, Cristina. Astronomical Complex Organic Molecules. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry. 117/2, 2017.
Smith, Ian, et al, eds. Astrochemistry and Astrobiology. Berlin: Springer, 2013.
Van Dishoeck, Ewine. Astrochemistry: Overview and Challenges. arXiv:1710.05940.
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I. ExoEarths Everywhere: A Cosmic Census
As a starter, web reference sites can be viewed at NASA Kepler Satellite, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and many other Google sites, along with Exoplanet encyclopedias, some listed here, for a wealth of information. By virtue of space and Earth telescope searches, along with instrumental and computational analysis, into the 2010s a radically novel universe is being realized that appears to be filled with as many orbital planets as there are sunny stars. In regard, this fecund ecomos seems to have an innate propensity to form and evolve solar arrays and exoworlds of every possible variety. It is then often predicted that bio-friendly Earth analogs in stellar and galactic habitable zones will soon be found.
While this worldwide mission continues apace, since circa 2015 research interests have moved on to learning how to observe and quantify candidate metallicity, continental mantles, liquid and gaseous atmospheres, moons, host star systems (many binary), mobile rocky worlds, Super-Earths, mini-Neptunes, gas giants and so on. Multi-member global teams are in pursuit of lively “biosignatures” (search here and arXiv) via bio/chemical spectography. Astro2020, ALMA 2030, and other large projects intend to access degrees of relative habitability from microbial to complex life forms and onto technical civilizations. So one might even coin a phrase as A Cosmic Census for such heavenly neighborhoods.
2020: We wish to report this 21st century Earthropocene vista which has achieved the most revolutionary discovery that myriad planetary/solar systems, habitable zones, are a common, phenomenal presence across a newly conducive ecosmos genesis.
Aschwanden, Markus and Felix Scholkmann. Exoplanet Predictions Based on Harmonic Orbit. arXiv:1705.07138.
Behroozi, Peter and Molly Peeples. On the History and Future of Cosmic Planet Formation. arXiv:1508.01202.
Borucki, William. KEPLER Mission: Development and Overview. Reports on Progress in Physics. 79/3, 2016.
Boss, Alan. Universal Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Gargaud, Muriel, et al. Habitability in the Universe from the Early Earth to Exoplanets. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 46/4, 2016.
Kaltenegger, Lisa. How to Characterize Habitable Worlds and Signs of Life. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 55/433, 2017.
Perryman, Michael. The Exoplanet Handbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.
Gilbert, Gregory and Daniel Fabrycky. An Information Theoretic Framework for Classifying Exoplanetary System Architectures. arXiv:2003.11098.
Ramirez, Ramses. A More Comprehensive Habitable Zone for Finding Life on Other Planets. Geosciences. Online July, 2018.
Tremaine, Scott. The Statistical Mechanics of Planet Orbits. arXiv:1504.01160.
Walker, Sara, et al. Exoplanet Biosignatures: Future Directions. arXiv:1705.08071.
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