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VI. Life’s Cerebral Faculties Become More Complex, Smarter, Informed, Proactive, Self-Aware

CIRCA SEPTEMBER 2022, THIS CHAPTER IS IN THE MIDST OF A MAJOR REORIENTATION. PLEASE, tHANK YOU

With strong evidence in place for an organic conducive ecosmos (Part III), its independent, genome-like, complex self-organization (Part IV) and an evolutionary development (Part V), this multi-faceted Part VI will document how each Earthly spatial and temporal phase can be seen as a similar exemplary manifestation. It opens with a Universal Principles section gleaned from latest findings about an archetypal generative source which reiterate in kind everywhere. Nested Gestation of Communal Creatures then arrays into eight subsections from fractal geology to phenomenal peoples. Subsequent modules evince cerebral, cognitive, behavioral, talkative, individual autonomy, and ontogeny = phylogeny occasions.

A. Natural Econsciousness and Ecognition

A perennial, mystic, more Eastern belief is a fundamental plenum of panpsychic consciousness, from which cognizant human sentience naturally arises. Now into the 21st century, a global brain scientific recovery, verification and acceptance is well underway, along with philosophical support. As a result, this original, encompassing mind milieu from which sequential scales of relative awareness, intelligent knowing and our manifest selves arise is being fulfilled. In this vein, another aspect would be that we microcosmic Earthly beings are achieving some measure of the animate macrocosmos looking back upon itself, so to self-recognize, realize and begin a new, cocreative, evolitionary future. See also the Conscious Integrated Information Knowledge section in Chapter VII.

.…western science is changing very rapidly now, toward an understanding of nature as alive, self-organizing, intelligent, conscious or sentient and participatory at all levels from subatomic particles and molecules to entire living planets, galaxies and the whole Cosmos…. Elisabet Sahtouris

2020: Although long at odds with an olden physical mechanism model, since circa 2000 due to a confluence of neuroscientific advances aided by philosophic engagements, an allowance of a pervasive mindfulness from universe to human beingness has gone forth. Along with contributions such as integrated information theory (see VII, A, 4), a recovery of panpsychism, and signs of intelligent behavior across all natural realms, an ecosmic econsciousness lately gains veracity, presence, as it may awaken to and affirm itself by way of Earthuman agency.

Braun, Claude and Shaun Lovejoy. The Biology of Consciousness from the Bottom Up. Adaptive Behavior. 126/3, 2018.

Bruntrup, Godehard and Ludwig Jaskolla, eds. Panpsychism: Contemporary Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Chittka, Lars and Catherine Wilson. Expanding Consciousness. American Scientist. November-December, 2019.

Elek, Oskar, et al. Plyphorm: Structural Analysis of Cosmological Datasets via Interactive Physarum Polycephalum Visualization. arXiv:2009.02441.

Feinberg, Todd and Jon Mallatt. The Ancient Origins of Consciousness. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2016.

Gazzaniga, Michael. The Consciousness Instinct. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2018.

Guevara Erra, Ramon, et al. Statistical Mechanics of Consciousness. Physical Review E. 94/052402, 2016.

Koch, Christof. Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012.

Linde, Andrei. Universe, Life, Consciousness. www.andrei-linde.com/articles/universe-life-consciousness-pdf.

Swan, Liz, ed. Origins of Mind. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Tononi, Giulio. Phi: A Voyage from the Brain to the Soul. New York: Pantheon, 2012.

View the 80 Bibliographic Entries

B. In the 2020s, a Cogntive Course from First Stirrings to Our Earthuman Acumen is Being Defined

2022: As the Pedia Sapiens title of our Introduction conveys, a wealth of current findings which probe deeper into life’s minimal cognition and across evolutionary entities scales have now filled in and defined an embryonic gestation along with bodily, somatic forms, as per Chap. V. Of especial note is a Systems Neuroscience through the Lens of Evolution issue in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Cisek herein), and an The Emergence of Collective Knowledge and Cumulative Culture in Animals, Humans and Machines collection in the same journal ((see Whiten).

The nested, recurrent stages of skeletal, anatomic complexity from life's deep origin to valiant, smart peoples well display a mosaic and concerted encephalization process whence the embryonic body gains a ramifying complex brain faculty. Metazoan creatures across invertebrate, aquatic, amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian scales are now known to possess a modular, multiplex network, neural capacity for enhanced communicative cognition, and proactive group behaviors. A significant aspect is the presence of a ramifying complementary bicameral faculty which is traced back to earliest neural casts.

As a consequence, all these animal forms and stages become increasingly graced by familiar personal abilities and communal activities. A resultant arrow of integrated information and intelligence has become paired with a relative knowing consciousness which seems aimed toward our phenomenal homo, anthropo, and Earthropocene phases. The four subsections about brains, behaviors, bilaterality, and a communicative ability from grunts and gestures to syntactic language will altogether illume an ascendency of brain over body, mind over matter.

2020: The import of this section is to report and convey a 21st century appreciation that life’s evolution is more distinguished by a progressive emergence of cerebral and cognitive abilities. These features thus continue to define a true developmental gestation. And once again, at each stage and instance, the bigender naturome code is manifestly evident, especially with regard to bilateral brain complements.

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1. Intelligence Evolution and Vital Knowledge Gain as a Central Advance

2020: Since 2015 we have reported a growing sense that as life evolves it does so by a directional emphasis on cerebral and cognitive qualities more so than somatic anatomy. An implication is that a developmental gestation seems to be skewed to and involved with becoming smarter and more informed. In this way, one can become a self-aware member in a coherent community.

Chaistain, Erick, at al. Algorithms, Games, and Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111/10620, 2014.

de Vladar, Harold and Eors Szathmary. Neuronal Boost to Evolutionary Dynamics. Interface Focus. 5/6, 2015.

Hasson, Uri, et al. Direct Fit to Nature: An Evolutionary Perspective on Biological and Artificial Neural Networks. Neuron. 105/3, 2020.

Hochberg, Michael, et al.Innovation: An Emerging Focus from Cells to Societies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Vol. 372/Iss. 1736, 2017.

Kouvaris, Kostas, et al. How Evolution Learns to Generalize. arXiv:1508.06854.

Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves and Linda Smith. How Evolution May Work Through Curiosity-Driven Development Process. Topics in Cognitive Science. 8/2, 2016.

Watson, Richard and Eors Szathmary. How Can Evolution Learn? Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 31/2, 2016.

Watson, Richard, et al. Evolutionary Connectionism. Evolutionary Biology. Online December, 2015.

View the 41 Bibliographic Entries

2. The Evolution of Cerebral Form and Cognizance

While a general increase in bodily complexity and dexterity from trilobites to humans is admitted, what is in tandem process (and there really is something going on) is an essential ramification of cerebral capacities. By attributes of bilateral asymmetry, semi-specialized modules, which array in concerted and mosaic modes, crowned by a frontal lobe neocortex, brains evolve by much expanding the size of these components in place from the earliest neural stirrings. This steady course of life’s encephalization adds a further component to trace a central evolutionary axis and vector.

2020: By our worldwise retrospective, Earth life’s viviparous developmental course is seen to proceed by a distinct, continuous ramification from earliest neural rudiments to sequentially complexify brain architectures, cognitive acumens and cooperative behaviors. Cerebral faculties are found to avail modular functions, an interplay of concerted orientation and mosaic diversity, relative neocortex abilities, along with altogether networking with each other.

Briscoe, Steven and Clifton Ragsdale. Homology, Neocortex, and the Evolution of Developmental Mechanisms. Science. 362/190, 2018.

Burkhardt, Pawel and Simon Sprecher. Evolutionary Origin of Synapses and Neurons. BioEssays. Online September, 2017.

Collins, Christopher. Paleopoetics: The Evolution of the Preliterate Imagination. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.

Hopfield, John. Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 79/2554, 2011.

Karten, Harvey. Vertebrate Brains and Evolutionary Connectomics: On the Origins of the Mammalian Neocortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 370/0060.2015, 2015.

Liebeskind, Benjamin, et al. Evolution of Animal Neural Systems Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 48/377, 2017.

Lyon, Pamela. The Cognitive Cell: Bacterial Behavior Reconsidered. Frontiers in Microbiology. Vol.6/Art.264, 2015.

Melchionna, M., et al. Macroevolutionary Trends of Brain Mass in Primates. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 129/1, 2020.

Montgomery, John and David Bodznick. Evolution of the Cerebellar Sense. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Murray, Elizabeth, et al. The Evolution of Memory Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas, et al, eds. Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Striedter, Georg. Building Brains that can Evolve: Challenges and Prospects for Evo-Devo Neurobiology. Metode. Vol. 7/9, 2017.

van Duijn, Marc. Phylogenetic Origins of Biological Cognition. Interface Focus. 7/3, 2017.

View the 127 Bibliographic Entries

3. Laterality: An Emergent Bicameral Brain

2020: Still another 21st century discovery of much import is the steady presence of a bilateral, hemispheric, archetypal endowment across every Metazoan creature. This common property was unknown before 2000 but has since been robustly verified from our human double brain through mammalian, avian, reptilian, and aquatic kingdoms all the way to insects and invertebrates. It is surmised that a broad reciprocal ability to peck for seeds with the right eye which informs the left side while the left view which goes to the right brain scans for predators is optimum for evolutionary survival. In regard this binocular quality of characteristic dot focus and holistic image to left and right hemispheres seems to hold through all past and present instances. And as this optimum bigender complementarity reaches our homo to anthropo to Earthomo sapience, a true microuniverse could be seen to ordain our cerebral capacity.

In this year, we have added a citation as Laterality Entering the Next Decade: The 25th Anniversary of a Journal Devoted to Asymmetries of Brain, Behavior and Cognition by Markus Hausmann, et al as a record of the consummate advances in this now universe to human study to an extent that, as its text says, a profound, salutary realization has been achieved.

Corballis, Michael and Isabelle Haberling. The Many Sides of Hemispheric Asymmetry. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 23/9-10, 2017.

Forrester, Gillian, et al, eds. Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition. Progress in Brain Research. Volume 238, 2018.

Frasnelli, Elisa, et al. Left-Right Asymmetries of Behaviour and Nervous System in Invertebrates. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 36/4, 2013.

Gunturkun, Onur and Sebastian Ocklenburg. Ontogenesis of Lateralization. Neuron. 94/2, 2017.

Levin, Michael, et al. Introduction to Provocative Questions in Left-Right Asymmetry. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Vol. 371/Iss. 1710, 2016.

Rogers, Lesley and Giorgio Vallortigara, eds. Lateralized Brain Functions: Methods in Human and Non-Human Species. Switzerland: Springer, 2017.

Vallortigara, Giorgio and Lesley Rogers. A Function for the Bicameral Mind. Cortex. Online December, 2019.

View the 49 Bibliographic Entries

4. Animal Intelligence and Sociality

2020: As the cover image bookends, a revolution has taken place since the early 1990s when animals were still seen as instinctive, dumb beasts. Today, as we well know, all great and small creatures are known to possess an intelligent sentience, personality, clever behaviors, quorum senses, empathy, salutary groupings and more. Rather then anthromorphic concerns as before, it seems that animals actually have a whole human-like array of cognitive and communal qualities. As references here and elsewhere convey, it could appear as if an independent, common cognitive and social repertoire extends through life’s evolutionary fauna and flora from the earliest neural occasion to our nascent personsphere.

Into 2021, we add an expanded title by way of a Natural AI: Animal Intelligence and Behavioral Sociality. In regard, recent contributions by wise women scientists such as Lori Marino, Jennifer Mather, Nicola Clayton, Tanya Latty, and Suzanne Simard reveal the deep communal sensitivities of emergent life’s fauna and flora.

Birch, Jonathan, et al. Dimensions of Animal Consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Science. August 2020.

Carere, Claudio and Dario Maestripieri, eds. Animal Personalities: Behavior, Physiology, and Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

De Waal, Frans. Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? New York: Norton, 2016.

Japyassu, Hilton and Kevin Laland. Extended Spider Cognition. Animal Cognition. 20/3, 2017.

Marino, Lori and Debra Merskin. Intelligence, Complexity, and Individuality in Sheep. Animal Sentience. Vol. 4, 2019.

Plotnik, Jousha and Nicola Clayton. Convergent Cognitive Evolution across Animal Taxa. Eric Margolis and Stephen Laurence, eds. The Conceptual Mind. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.

Thornton, Alex, et al. Animal Minds: From Computation to Evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 367/2670, 2012.

Vonk, Jennifer and Todd Shackelford, eds. Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. International: Springer, 2019.

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5. Organisms Evolve Rhythmic Protolanguage Communication

As our Earthrise sapience expands its retrospective temporal and spatial compass, we can add a 2018 subsection to report novel recoveries of creaturely semiotic calls, gestures, signings for mating, subsistence, rank, and other needs in conspecific groupings. While Microbial Colonies cites quorum sensings via chemical means, here the subject matter involves visible motions and audible vocalizations across aquatic, reptilian, amphibian, mammalian, primate classes and onto proto-homo sapiens. Since Cultural Code covers human languages and conversation, here are studies about how our voluble literacy arose apace from evolution’s consistent cross-talk.

In this endeavor, many researchers find birdsong to be an iconic exemplar, Surely a disparate instance, it has yet revealed parallels with human alphabetic words and rhythmic prosody. Another notice is a sequential appearance over time with analogue song and dance preceeding and preparing for digitized, textual varieties. To serve this new field, an Oxford Journal of Language Evolution began in 2016. Special issues on the origins, evolution, and neuroscience of communicative language also appeared in the Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (24/1, 2017), Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences (21/1, 2018), and Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Review (81/B, 2017). OK

2020 Our linguistic abilities are often seen as a definitive human quality. But into the 2010s by way of novel technigues aided by international efforts, akin to paleogenomic studies a precursor course across creature, primate, and hominids onto to early rudiments is now being recovered. A notable finding is that original occasions had a holistic, prosody, musical basis, aided by communal dance. This sequential phase predates later discrete, hieroglyph, alphabetic stages. Active studies consider gestural signs, meaningful utterances, how grunts became grammear and so on. If traced to bacterial quorum sensings by chemical and/or electrical means, there seems to be inherent propensity for Earth life’s evolution to gain to communicate by any and all means.

Balari, Sergio and Guillermo Lorenzo. Computational Phenotypes: Towards an Evolutionary Developmental Biolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Bichakjian, Bernard. Language Evolution: How Language was Built and Made to Evolve. Languages Sciences. Online March, 2017.

Everaert, Martin and Johan Bolhuis. The Biology of Language. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 81/B, 2017.

Fitch, W. Tecumseh. Special Issue on the Biology and Evolution of Language. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 24/1, 2017.

Hoeschele, Marisa. Preface to the Special Section on Animal Music Perception. Comparative Cognition and Behavior. Volume 12, 2017.

Kenneally, Christine. Talking through Time: The Role of Knowledge. Scientific American. September, 2018.

Massip-Bonet, Angels, et al, eds. Complexity Applications in Language and Communication Sciences. International: Springer, 2019.

Steels, Luc and Eors Szathmary. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Language. BioSystems. Online November, 2017.

View the 61 Bibliographic Entries

D. A Creative Union of Free Personal Agency in Reciprocal, Supportive Societies

As somatic complexity, proactive cerebral intelligence and represented knowledge proceeds in an evolutionary gestation, another directional attribute and quality becomes evident as each organism’s relative sense of self-awareness and personal identity. A corollary, as Cooperative Societies and elsewhere cite, is that a “semi-autonomous” state is best achieved as a symbiotic, reciprocal member of a viable grouping. From our global moment, the arc of an emergent genesis increasingly appears as an embryonic conception of an individual and collective selfhood. And lately we may have reached the verge of a global individuation and persona, as Systems History advises.

2020: As the section intro advises, from our Earthomo sapiens vantage the long arduous trajectory of an ecosmic evolutionary developmental genesis does take on the vectorial guise of a self-making, liberating, realizing individuation. As references attest, it is vital that entity members in communal groupings possess and enhance a semi-autonomous freedom for optimum survival. This reciprocity is in effect from slime molds to social insects, bird flocks, mammals and so on.

Agren, Arvid. Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Online November, 2013.

Bouchard, Frederic and Philippe Huneman, eds. From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.

Clarke, Ellen. A Levels-of-Selection Approach to Evolutionary Individuality. Biology & Philosophy. Online October, 2016.

Ferner, Adam and Thomas Pradeu. Ontologies of Living Beings. Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology. Volume 9, 2017.

Hanschen, Erik, et al. Individuality and the Major Evolutionary Transitions. Gissis, Snait, et al, eds. Landscapes of Collectivity in the Life Sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018.

Lidgard, Scott and Lynn Nyhart, eds. Biological Individuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.

Moreno, Alvaro and Matteo Mossio. Biological Autonomy: A Philosophical and Theoretical Enquiry. Berlin: Springer, 2015

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Rosslenbroich, Bernd. On the Origin of Autonomy. Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.

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