VI. Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies
With strong evidence in place for an organic conducive ecosmos (Part III), its independent, genome-like, complex self-organization (Part IV) and an evolutionary developmental gestation (Part V), this multi-faceted Part VI will proceed to document how each Earthly spatial and temporal stage and phase has become seen as an exemplary, phenotype-like result. It opens with a further Universal Principles section gleaned from how a mathematome source guides and reiterate in kind everywhere. Nested Gestation of Communal Creatures then arrays into nine subsections from fractal geology to phenomenal peoples and a Gaian biosphere. Subsequent sections evince cerebral, cognitive, behavioral, whole genome, individual autonomy, and ontogeny = phylogeny occasions. With copious documentation in place, even homo, anthropo and Earthropo qualities can likewise, from our retrospect network vantage, be seen to express one complementary code.
A. A Survey of Common Principles
By a 2020 wiseworld philoSophia view, many references cited in Parts III: Organic Universe, IV: Cosmomic Code and V: A Systems Evolution describe by an array of approaches and various terms an invariant presence of self-organized, network, complementary patterns and processes everywhere. This section serves to gather more reports which attest to a natural genesis by way of an independent, mathematic, one code system composed of certain dual agency/relation, node/link, member/group complements. In this manner, the universal naturome (cosmome to geonome) double duty becomes manifestly exemplified at each and every procreative stage. From protein webs to desert biotas, human cultures, microbes to a metropolis, onto the interstellar raiment, one same triality repeats over and over. We next post, for an example, a 2019 mission statement of the Santa Fe Institute.
SFI researchers endeavor to understand and unify the underlying, shared patterns in complex physical, biological, social, cultural, technological, and even possible astrobiological, worlds. Our global research network of scholars spans borders, departments, and disciplines, unifying curious minds steeped in rigorous logical, mathematical, and computational reasoning. As we reveal the unseen mechanisms and processes that shape these evolving worlds, we seek to use this understanding to promote the well-being of humankind and life on earth.
2020: As Universality Affirmations above and other sections have advised, a second naturome testament translated to and written in a genetic script is becoming legible from a phenomenal genesis uniVerse to me + We = US peoples.
Asllani, Malbor, et al. A Universal Route to Pattern Formation. arXiv:1906.05946.
Caetano-Anolles, Derek, et al. Evolution of Macromolecular Structure. arXiv:1805.06487.
Coen, Enrico. Cells to Civilizations Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012.
Earnest, Tyler, et al. Simulating Biological Processes: Stochastic Physics from Whole Cells to Colonies. Reports on Progress in Physics. 81/5, 2018.
Frey, Erwin, et al. Protein Pattern Formation. arXiv:1801.01365.
Garcia-Ruiz, Ronald and Adam Vernon. Emergence of Simple Patterns in Many-Body Systems from Macroscopic Objects to the Atomic Nucleus. arXiv:1911.04819.
Kelso, Scott and David Engstrom. The Complementary Nature. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.
Norris, Vic. What Properties of Life Are Universal? Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. Online March, 2015.
Ramstead, Maxwell, et al. Answering Shrodinger’s Question: A Free-Energy Formulation. Physics of Life Reviews. Online September, 2017.
Schwab, Julian, et al. Concepts in Boolean Network Modeling. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. March, 2020.
Tao, Terence. E pluribus unum: From Complexity, Universality. Daedalus. 141/3, 2012.
Yang, Ruochen and Paul Bogdan. Controlling the Multifractal Generating Measures of Complex Networks. Nature Scientific Reports. 10/5541, 2020.
View the 142 Bibliographic Entries
B. Nested Gestation of Communal Creatures
A tour of the sequential, multilevel scale of animate entities from their geological substrate to a self-regulating bioplanet. The import conveyed here is that each phase such as Microbial Colonies or Dynamic Ecosystems, as a paradigm shift in each domain, is becoming found and understood to express in form and process the independent self-organizing principles.
1. Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere
This encompassing land, sea and sky Earthscape realm would not likely seem to be influenced by or express any self-organizing, fractal, network complexities, which was the case in 2000. But as these scientific fields grew in interdisciplinary veracity, endeavors in geophysics, atmospheric studies, soil science and more began to find that they indeed are equally at formative effect. (But as ultimately organic-genomic in naturomic effect, it would seem they must be in actual effect everywhere.) Into the 2010s, a broad array of local, bioregion, continental and global areas are seen as formed and guided by invariant, self-organized topologies. As the references cite, rivers, deltas, coastlines, mountain aretes, earthquakes, rainfalls, droughts and onto stormy weather patterns. See the Global Climate as a Complex Dynamical System section for more reports.
2020: Once again, an encoded universality is sustained as geologic landforms, oceanic seas and atmospheric phenomena are being robustly qualified. The benefit would be an informed wiseworld better able to understand and mitigate.
Bickford, Marion, ed. The Web of Geological Sciences. Geological Society of America: Boulder, CO, 2013.
Bonetti, Sara, et al. Channelization Cascade in Landscape Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/1375, 2020.
Fallah, Bijan, et al. Emergence of Global Scaling Behaviour in the Coupled Earth-Atmosphere Interaction. Nature Scientific Reports. 6/34005, 2016.
Hazen, Robert, at al. Mineral Evolution. American Mineralogist. 93/1693, 2008.
Hunt, Allan and Stefano Manzoni.Networks on Networks: The Physics of Geobiology and Geochemistry.< Online: Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2015.
Phillips, Colin and Douglas Jerolmack. Self-Organization of River Channels. Science.> 352/694, 2016.
Rak, Rafal, et al. Universal Features of Mountain Ridge Networks on Earth. Journal of Complex Networks. May, 2019.
Tsonis, Anastasios and James Elsner, eds. Nonlinear Dynamics in Geosciences. Berlin: Springer, 2007.
View the 73 Bibliographic Entries
2. The Origins of Life
In the 1960s when I began my readings, an opaque discontinuity stood between the presence of organic Earth life and the extant physical cosmos. In the years since and especially the last decade this disconnect has been bridged by deep biological rootings in a conducive materiality, whence by turns condensed matter has come to have innate, active spontanities. Researchers have reconstructed many primordial components and sequential steps such as replicator biomolecules and protocell vesicles. Origin studies have often divided into two schools as to whether RNA replicators or metabolisms came first (Iris Fry). Three main features are now said to define living systems – a vital metabolism, bounded compartments, and informational programs. In the later 2010s as a unified understanding is being worked out, nature’s self-organizing network dynamics have additionally been factored in (Sara Walker, et al) in a guise of autocatalysis, hypercycles, autopoiesis, and so on.
2020: By these lights, a persistent emergence of life, mind and selves can now be seamlessly grounded in an increasingly fertile, amniotic universe. And by our collective Earthsphere sapience, an ordained ovogenesis may reach and witness its (her/his) necessary self-realization and affirmed selection.
Barge, Laura, et al. Thermodynamics, Disequilibrium, Evolution. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. Online June, 2016.
Camprubi, Eloi, et al. The Emergence of Life. Space Science Reviews. 215/56, 2019.
Cronin, Leroy and Sara Imari Walker. Beyond Prebiotic Chemistry. Science. 352/1174, 2016.
Deamer, David. First Life: Discovering the Connections between Stars, Cells, and How Life Began. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.
Goldenfeld, Nigel, et al. Universal Biology and the Statistical Mechanics of Early Life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Vol. 375/Iss. 2109, 2017.
McFarland, Ben. A World From Dust: How the Periodic Table Shaped Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Menor-Salvan, Cesar. ed. Prebiotic Chemistry and Chemical Evolution of Nucleic Acids. International: Springer, 2018.
Preiner, Martina, et al. The Future of Origin of Life Research. Life. 10/3, 2020.
Ruelle, David. The Origin of Life Seen From the Point of View of Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. arXiv:1701.08388.
Walker, Sara Imari and Cole Mathis. Network Theory in Prebiotic Evolution. Menor-Salvan, Cesar, ed. Prebiotic Chemistry and Chemical Evolution of Nucleic Acids. International: Springer, 2018.
View the 157 Bibliographic Entries
3. Microbial Colonies
In 2000, an initial paper about biological phenomena was published in the Advances in Physics (49/4) journal, in print since 1952, namely Cooperative Self-Organization of Microorganisms by Eshel Ben Jacob, the late Israeli physicist, with Inon Cohen and Herbert Levine. The second lively paper in that physics publication was Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics by Barbara Drossel (50/2). As the image description notes, bacteria are no longer seen to exist in isolation but as communal exemplars of naturomic self-organizing, network forces. A notable trait is known as quorum sensing via chemical and/or electrical signals by which bacterial colonies of infinite kind “decide” what to do when perturbed or on the move (Bonnie Bassler).
2020: So again this prokaryote, bioflim phase, as it gains environmental and human microbiome status and respect, has become appreciated as an model occasion of life’s universal dynamics.
Allen, Rosalind and Bartlomiej Waclaw. Bacterial Growth: A Statistical Physicist’s Guide. Reports on Progress in Physics. 82/1, 2018.
Ben Jacob, Eshel. Social Behavior of Bacteria: From Physics to Complex Organization. European Physical Journal B. 65/3, 2008.
Cunha, Danilo, et al.Bacterial Colonies as Complex Adaptive Systems. Natural Computing. Online June, 2018.
Hahn, Aria, et al. The Information Science of Microbial Ecology. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 31/209, 2016.
Hussa, Elizabeth and Heidi Goodrich-Blair. It Takes a Village: Ecological and Fitness Impacts of Multipartite Mutualism. Annual Review of Microbiology. 67/161, 2013.
Lan, Ganhui and Yuhai Tu. Information Processing in Bacteria: Memory, Computation, and Statistical Physics. Reports on Progress in Physics. 79/5, 2016.
Sapp, Jan. The New Foundations of Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
View the 79 Bibliographic Entries
4. Cellular Holobiont Symbiosis
As a first comment, in the early 2000s any notice of self-organizing forces in unicellular biology was rare. As initiated by Tom Misteli and others, a recognition and acceptance grew that the formation and activity of life’s cellular milieu could be much attributed to these developmental network agencies. By our 2020, scientific cell studies, such as cancer occurrence and mitigation, normally assume a central place and role for nature’s internal spontaneity. But this revision has not yet formally registered with a machinery term often in use. This is another aim of Natural Genesis.
When this section went online in 2004, the presence of a bacterial symbiosis was relegated to the sidelines, and questioned whether it was there at all. As entries here, in Systems Evolution and throughout attest, since circa 2012 symbiotic unions across life’s evolutionary whole biology and sociality have become well known as a primary, integrative facilitator of a nested emergence, aka a constant symbiogenesis.
In the later 2010s, due to Scott Gilbert, Jan Sapp, Seth Bordenstein, Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg and Eugene Rosenberg, Joan Roughgarden and others, a further perception of organisms, and indeed human selves, arose as our bacterial, micorbiome multitudes were factored in so as to compose a whole viable unity. These symbiotic selves have been dubbed holobionts, with a relative hologenome, to note their communal membership. See also the Anthropocene section for wider, ecosphere visions (Anna Tsing, et al) of s symbiotic and autopoietic vitality.
2020: Once more a major revolution can be recorded for this primal scale by way of common symbiotic mutualities, and the innate presence of structural and processural mathematic influences.
Archibald, John. One Plus One Equals One: Symbiosis and the Evolution of Complex Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Bordenstein, Seth and Kevin Theis. Host Biology in Light of the Microbiome. PLoS Biology. Online August, 2015.
Bosch, Thomas and David Miller. The Holobiont Imperative: Perspectives from Early Emerging Animals. Switzerland: Springer, 2016.
Cornish-Bowden, Athel. Lynn Margulis and the Origin of the Eukaryotes. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 434/20, 2017.
Estrela, Sylvie, et al. Transitions in Individuality through Symbiosis. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 31/191, 2016.
Gilbert, Scott and Alfred Tauber. Rethinking Individuality: The Dialectics of the Holobiont. Biology & Philosophy. Online October, 2016.
Gontier, Nathalie, ed. Reticulate Evolution. Berlin: Springer, 2015.
O'Malley, Maureen. From Endosymbiosis to Holobionts. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Online March, 2017.
Roughgarden, Joan, et al. Holobiont as Units of Selection and a Model of Their Population Dynamics and Evolution. Biological Theory. Online September, 2017.
Sapp, Jan. The Symbiotic Self. Evolutionary Biology. Online March, 2016.
Singharoy, Abhishek, et al. Atoms to Phenotypes. Cell. 179/1098, 2019.
Yong, Ed. I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life. New York: Ecco Books, 2016.
View the 121 Bibliographic Entries
5. Multicellular Fauna and Flora Organisms
We next move to this subseguent extravagance of aquatic, amphibian, reptile, avian, mammalian, and primate creaturely complexity. As we have seen, once again impelled by self-organization and selection, unitary cells continued to clump together, divide labors and associate via symbiotic mergers into bounded multicellular animal and plant communities. Along the way, modular organs were formed which vivified and served unitary variegated, mobile, oxygen-breathing, sea to land-dwelling, airborne entities with nervous systems, brains and proactive behavior. A plethora of adaptive environmental vegetation, which contributed in necessary turn to a supportive atmosphere, similarly flourished everywhere it could.
Arnellos, Argyris, et al. Organizational Requirements for Multicellular Autonomy. Biology and Philosophy. 29/6, 2014.
Brusalte, Stephen and Zhe-Xi Luo. Ascent of the Mammals. Scientific American. May, 2016.
Halatek, Jacob, et al. Self-Organization Principles of Intracellular Pattern Formation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Vol.373/Iss.1747, 2018.
Kapheim, Karen, et al. Genomic Signatures of Evolutionary Transitions from Solitary to Group Living. Science. 348/1139, 2015.
Larson, Ben, et al. Biophysical Principles of Choanoflagellate Self-Organization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/1303, 2020.
Libby, Eric and Paul Rainey. A Conceptual Framework for the Evolutionary Origins of Multicellularity. Physical Biology. 10/3, 2013.
Newman, Stuart, et al. The Vertebrate Limb: An Evolving Complex of Self-Organizing Systems. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 137/12, 2018.
Ruiz-Trillo, Inaki and Aurora Nedelcu, eds. Evolutionary Transitions to Multicellular Life. Berlin: Springer, 2015.
Sebe-Pedros, Arnau, et al. The Origin of Metazoa. Nature Reviews Genetics. 18/8, 2017.
Van Gestel, Jordi and Corina Tarnita. On the Origin of Biological Construction, with a Focus on Multicellularity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114/11018, 2017.
View the 93 Bibliographic Entries
6. Cooperative Societies
As multicellular animals evolved in somatic and cerebral intricacy, they proceeded due to the same agencies to gather, combine and bring diverse labors to social assemblies. A historic, overdue revision of evolutionary theory has then been the realization that a prior neoDarwinian emphasis on competitive survival is actually mediated by and secondary to a natural incentive for mutual cooperative value. The effect is variously known as quorum sensing, reciprocal altruism, symbiotic union and guided on a beneficial reciprocity of individual and community. As such metabolic and cognitive groupings proceed to gain some rudimentary properties of an organism, they are perceived as forming a new level of selection. Thus a tacit, active balance of conflict and accord, often along gender lines, is now seen to distinguish animal societies whether flock, herd, pod, colony and so on.
2020: This member/group communal attribute on the way to a social protocell has also been cited as competitive coherence, creative union, ubuntu culture and more. For our own Earthmost survival it would much behoove we peoples altogether to appreciate and practice this universal, complementary, familial principle that serves evolving life from microbes to ecovillages.
Bahar, Sonja. The Essential Tension: Cooperation and Competition in Biological Evolution. Switzerland: Springer Frontiers, 2017.
Bourke, Andrew F. G. Principles of Social Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Cavagna, Andrea, et al. The Physics of Flocking. Physics Reports. Online December, 2017.
Couzin, Iain and Simon Levin, eds. Collective Behavior in Biological Systems. Journal of Statistical Physics. 158/3, 2015.
Dunbar, Robin, et al. Primate Social Group Sizes Exhibit a Regular Scaling Pattern. Biology Letters. 14/1, 2018.
Finn, Kelly, et al. Novel Insights into Animal Sociality from Multilayer Networks. arXiv:1712.01790.
Hofmann, Hans, et al. New Frontiers in the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 56/6, 2016.
Kappeler, Peter, et al. Social Complexity: Patterns, Processes, and Evolution. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 73/1, 2019.
Sterelny, Kim, et al, eds. Cooperation and Its Evolution. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.
Wright, Colin, et al. Collective Personalities. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 73/3, 2019.
View the 199 Bibliographic Entries
7. Dynamic Ecosystems
Life’s diverse creaturely communities abide in active environments such as rainforests, prairies, coral reefs, to which they need adapt to and cope with. Akin to each prior stage and aspect entered so far, in our transitional time even Darwin’s tangled bank has become amenable to complex systems science so as to reveal a similar, endemic order. As ecological theories advance, biota and bioregions are no longer seen to seek an equilibrium balance, but actually reside in and exemplify a far-from-equilibrium, nested network and vital self-organizion. These noospheric understandings of dynamic flora and fauna ecosystems guided by the same forces and forms as all else then serve to inform respectful mediations and to foster viabilities.
2020: As these citations attest, common, self-similar relations are present no matter what pole to pole or equatorial domain that life’s brave, accomadative beings may find themselves. As once evident to an aboriginal vision, at our parturient hour, a global sensitivity can again reveal regnant patterns in rainfall, seasonal vegetation, riverine flows, and whole ecoEarth as a numinous, legible testament.
Allen, Timothy and Thomas Hoekstra. Toward a Unified Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015.
Farnsworth, Keith, et al. Unifying Concepts of Biological Function from Molecules to Ecosystems. Oikos. 126/10, 2017.
Hagstrom, George and Simon Levin. Marine Ecosystems as Complex Adaptive Systems. Ecosystems. Online February, 2017.
Linquist, Stefan, et al. Yes! There are Resilient Generalizations (“Laws”) in Ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology. 91/2, 2016.
Meron, Ehud. Nonlinear Physics of Ecosystems. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015.
Nordbotten, Jan, et al. Ecological and Evolutionary Dynamics of Interconnectedness and Modularity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115/750, 2018.
Peters, Debra, et al. An Integrated View of Complex Landscapes. BioScience. 68/9, 2018.
Shade, Ashley, et al. Macroecology to Unite All Life, Large and Small. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. Online September, 2018
Tarnita, Corina, et al. A Theoretical Foundation for Multi-Scale Regular Vegetation Patterns. Nature. 541/398, 2017.
Whitehead, Hal, et al. The Reach of Gene-Culture Coevolution in Animals. Nature Communications. 10/2405, 2019.
Wimberley, Edward. Nested Ecology: The Place of Humans in the Ecological Hierarchy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.
View the 148 Bibliographic Entries
8. Multiple Ancestries of Homo Sapiens
Complex, network system perspectives are also being employed by the fields of primate studies, archaeology and anthropology to better explain how simians became hominids and onto phenomenal humans. This multi-faceted emergence is considered to occur through a co-evolution of increasing brain size, dexterous tool making and especially sociable interactions facilitated by language and know-how abilities. In reflective regard, Earth life can be seen adorn itself with a global species whom can altogether reconstruct the long, arduous course that got us here. No longer a linear march to homo sapiens, new fossil finds, along with paleogenetic analyses trace a chancy, meandering trek replete with dead ends, branchings and much interbreeding. Similar innovative advances have now allowed cultural, artifactual, knowledge content and migratory passages to be recovered. One may be prompted by a wide-screen curiosity to wonder about a self-revealing genesis universe which seems trying to describe and explain to itself by our nascent witness and co-creation.
2020: An epochal revision has occurred in the later 2010s by way of ancient DNA sequence recovery so to quite redraw a leafy tree, or branching bush from which a more loquacious, cerebral, efficient homo to anthropo speciation still came to be.
Boughner, Julia, and Campbell Rolian, eds. Developmental Approaches to Human Evolution. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.
Buskes, Chris. The Encultured Primate: Thresholds and Transitions in Hominin Cultural Evolution. Philosophies. 4/1, 2019.
Dunbar, Robin. Human Evolution: Our Brains and Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Gamble, Clive. Settling the Earth: The Archaeology of Deep Human History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Hoffecker, John. The Information Animal and the Super-Brain.Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. 20/1, 2013.
Laland, Kevin. The Cultural Animal. Scientific American. September, 2018.
Maslin, Mark. The Cradle of Humanity: How the Changing Landscape of Africa Made Us So Smart. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Migliano, Andrea, et al. Characterization of Hunter-Gather Networks and Implications for Cumulative Culture
. Nature Human Behavior. 1/0043, 2017.
Parmigiani, Stefano, et al. What Made Us Human? Biological and Cultural Evolution of Homo sapiens. Journal of Anthropological Sciences. Vol. 94, 2016.
Tibayrenc, Michel and Francisco Ayala, eds. On Human Nature: Biology, Psychology, Ethics, Politics, and Religion. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press, 2016.
Tylen, Kristian, et al. The Evolution of Early Symbolic Behavior in Homo Sapiens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.117/4578, 2020.
View the 135 Bibliographic Entries
9. Gaia Alive: A Bio-Ecosphere Sustains Itself
Earth’s biosphere is now known to have regulated itself for some billion years in a homeostatic fashion so as to sustain favorable atmospheric and geochemical conditions for life’s continued survival. Since the 1970's, the British geochemist James Lovelock, with Lynn Margulis and many others, have provided theoretical and experimental support for life as a planetary phenomenon. Lovelock's country neighbor, the author William Golding, suggested the name of the earth goddess Gaia. The concept has received intense scrutiny, often rejection, over past decades but is now generally understood and accepted as an innovative model. Its proof is an actual worthwhile service to global ecological research programs. This section also contains references for the field of Earth systems science and Earth’s formative history.
Alvarez, Walter. A Big History of Our Planet and Ourselves. New York: Norton, 2016.
Arenes, Alexandra, et al. Giving Depth to the Surface: An Exercise in the Gaia-Graphy of Critical Zones. Anthropocene Review. Online June, 2018.
Hermida, Margarida. Life on Earth is an Individual. Theory in Biosciences. Online February, 2016.
Jabr, Ferris. The Earth is just as Alive as You Are. New York Times. April 21, 2019.
Kleidon, Axel. How does the Earth System Generate and Maintain Thermodynamic Disequilibrium. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 370/1012, 2012.
Langmuir, Charles and Wally Broecker. The Story of Earth from the Big Bang to Humankind. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012.
Lenton, Timothy, et al. Selection for Gaia across Multiple Scales. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Online July, 2018.
Nicholson, Arwen, et al. Alternative Mechanisms for Gaia. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Online August, 2018.
Ruse, Michael. The Gaia Hypothesis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.
View the 68 Bibliographic Entries
C. A Quickening Encephalization and Sensibility
The nested, recurrent stages of skeletal, anatomic complexity from life's origin to we peoples just surveyed can then be seen by our worldwide compass to facilitate a progressive encephalization, the embryonic body gains a bilateral brain. Metazoan creatures across invertebrate, aquatic, amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian scales evolve a mosaic, modular cerebral capacity, enhanced communicative cognition, proactive behavior, relative consciousness and in this human phase a communal, reflective corpus of remembered knowledge.
1. The Evolution of Cerebral Form and Cognizance
While a general increase in bodily complexity and dexterity from trilobites to humans is admitted, what is in tandem process (and there really is something going on) is an essential ramification of cerebral capacities. By attributes of bilateral asymmetry, semi-specialized modules, which array in concerted and mosaic modes, crowned by a frontal lobe neocortex, brains evolve by much expanding the size of these components in place from the earliest neural stirrings. This steady course of life’s encephalization adds a further component to trace a central evolutionary axis and vector.
Briscoe, Steven and Clifton Ragsdale. Homology, Neocortex, and the Evolution of Developmental Mechanisms. Science. 362/190, 2018.
Burkhardt, Pawel and Simon Sprecher. Evolutionary Origin of Synapses and Neurons. BioEssays. Online September, 2017.
Collins, Christopher. Paleopoetics: The Evolution of the Preliterate Imagination. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.
Hopfield, John. Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 79/2554, 2011.
Karten, Harvey. Vertebrate Brains and Evolutionary Connectomics: On the Origins of the Mammalian Neocortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 370/0060.2015, 2015.
Liebeskind, Benjamin, et al. Evolution of Animal Neural Systems Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 48/377, 2017.
Lyon, Pamela. The Cognitive Cell: Bacterial Behavior Reconsidered. Frontiers in Microbiology. Vol.6/Art.264, 2015.
Melchionna, M., et al. Macroevolutionary Trends of Brain Mass in Primates. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 129/1, 2020.
Montgomery, John and David Bodznick. Evolution of the Cerebellar Sense. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Murray, Elizabeth, et al. The Evolution of Memory Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas, et al, eds. Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Striedter, Georg. Building Brains that can Evolve: Challenges and Prospects for Evo-Devo Neurobiology. Metode. Vol. 7/9, 2017.
van Duijn, Marc. Phylogenetic Origins of Biological Cognition. Interface Focus. 7/3, 2017.
View the 121 Bibliographic Entries
2. An Emergent Bicameral Brain
Corballis, Michael and Isabelle Haberling. The Many Sides of Hemispheric Asymmetry. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 23/9-10, 2017.
Forrester, Gillian, et al, eds. Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition.>/b> Progress in Brain Research. Volume 238, 2018.
Frasnelli, Elisa, et al. Left-Right Asymmetries of Behaviour and Nervous System in Invertebrates. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 36/4, 2013.
Gunturkun, Onur and Sebastian Ocklenburg. Ontogenesis of Lateralization. Neuron. 94/2, 2017.
Levin, Michael, et al. Introduction to Provocative Questions in Left-Right Asymmetry. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Vol. 371/Iss. 1710, 2016.
Rogers, Lesley and Giorgio Vallortigara, eds. Lateralized Brain Functions: Methods in Human and Non-Human Species. Switzerland: Springer, 2017.
Vallortigara, Giorgio and Lesley Rogers. A Function for the Bicameral Mind. Cortex. Online December, 2019.
View the 45 Bibliographic Entries
3. Animal Intelligence and Sociality
Carere, Claudio and Dario Maestripieri, eds. Animal Personalities: Behavior, Physiology, and Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.
De Waal, Frans. Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? New York: Norton, 2016.
Japyassu, Hilton and Kevin Laland. Extended Spider Cognition. Animal Cognition. 20/3, 2017.
Marino, Lori and Debra Merskin. Intelligence, Complexity, and Individuality in Sheep. Animal Sentience. Vol. 4, 2019.
Plotnik, Jousha and Nicola Clayton. Convergent Cognitive Evolution across Animal Taxa. Eric Margolis and Stephen Laurence, eds. The Conceptual Mind. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.
Thornton, Alex, et al. Animal Minds: From Computation to Evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 367/2670, 2012.
Vonk, Jennifer and Todd Shackelford, eds. Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. International: Springer, 2019.
View the 84 Bibliographic Entries
4. Organisms Evolve Rhythmic Protolanguage Communication
As our Earthrise sapience expands its retrospective temporal and spatial compass, we can add a 2018 subsection to report novel recoveries of creaturely semiotic calls, gestures, signings for mating, subsistence, rank, and other needs in conspecific groupings. While Microbial Colonies cites quorum sensings via chemical means, here the subject matter involves visible motions and audible vocalizations across aquatic, reptilian, amphibian, mammalian, primate classes and onto proto-homo sapiens. Since Cultural Code covers human languages and conversation, here are studies about how our voluble literacy arose apace from evolution’s consistent cross-talk.
In this endeavor, many researchers find birdsong to be an iconic exemplar, Surely a disparate instance, it has yet revealed parallels with human alphabetic words and rhythmic prosody. Another notice is a sequential appearance over time with analogue song and dance preceeding and preparing for digitized, textual varieties. To serve this new field, an Oxford Journal of Language Evolution began in 2016. Special issues on the origins, evolution, and neuroscience of communicative language also appeared in the Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (24/1, 2017), Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences (21/1, 2018), and Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Review (81/B, 2017). OK
2020: Akin to the bicameral ramification above, an inherent propensity for Earthly entities of all kinds to gain communicative abilities by any and all means has been quantified. Once again complementary modes of discrete materials and symbolic meanings come forth as a universe to human procreation tries to achieve her/his own a voice and vision.
Balari, Sergio and Guillermo Lorenzo. Computational Phenotypes: Towards an Evolutionary Developmental Biolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Bichakjian, Bernard. Language Evolution: How Language was Built and Made to Evolve. Languages Sciences. Online March, 2017.
Everaert, Martin and Johan Bolhuis. The Biology of Language. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 81/B, 2017.
Fitch, W. Tecumseh. Special Issue on the Biology and Evolution of Language. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 24/1, 2017.
Hoeschele, Marisa. Preface to the Special Section on Animal Music Perception. Comparative Cognition and Behavior. Volume 12, 2017.
Kenneally, Christine. Talking through Time: The Role of Knowledge. Scientific American. September, 2018.
Massip-Bonet, Angels, et al, eds. Complexity Applications in Language and Communication Sciences. International: Springer, 2019.
Steels, Luc and Eors Szathmary. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Language. BioSystems. Online November, 2017.
View the 49 Bibliographic Entries
D. An Enhancement of Autonomous Individuality
As somatic complexity, proactive cerebral intelligence and represented knowledge proceeds in an evolutionary gestation, another directional attribute and quality becomes evident as each organism’s relative sense of self-awareness and personal identity. A corollary, as Cooperative Societies and elsewhere inform, is that such a “semi-autonomy” is achieved as a symbiotic, reciprocal member of a viable grouping. From our global now, the arc of an emergent genesis increasingly appears as an embryonic conception of an individual and collective selfhood. And lately we may have reached the verge of a global individuation and persona, as Systems History advises.
Agren, Arvid. Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Online November, 2013.
Bouchard, Frederic and Philippe Huneman, eds. From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.
Clarke, Ellen. A Levels-of-Selection Approach to Evolutionary Individuality. Biology & Philosophy. Online October, 2016.
Ferner, Adam and Thomas Pradeu. Ontologies of Living Beings. Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology. Volume 9, 2017.
Hanschen, Erik, et al. Individuality and the Major Evolutionary Transitions. Gissis, Snait, et al, eds. Landscapes of Collectivity in the Life Sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018.
Lidgard, Scott and Lynn Nyhart, eds. Biological Individuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.
Moreno, Alvaro and Matteo Mossio. Biological Autonomy: A Philosophical and Theoretical Enquiry. Berlin: Springer, 2015
Radzvilavicius, Arunas and Neil Blackstone. The Evolution of Individuality Revisted. Biological Reviews. Online March, 2018.
Rosslenbroich, Bernd. On the Origin of Autonomy. Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
West, Stuart, et al. Major Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112/10112, 2015.
View the 60 Bibliographic Entries
E. New Parallels of Phylogeny and Ontogeny
In the 19th century, before and for a time after The Origin of Species, an organism’s embryonic development was broadly seen to recapitulate the long evolutionary sequence from which it arose. But the comparison was set aside around 1900 as anatomical studies came to find contradictions to older parallels. Into the 2000s and 2010s after a past century of quantified research, a better understanding and general agreement between ontogenetic development and phylogenetic evolution is accepted, this time in several areas. In addition to fetal gestation, its necessary occurrence is recognized for cognitive capacities, behavioral stages and is now especially evident for linguistic abilities. The title phrase "universal gestation" was a popular conception in Charles Darwin’s time, which we take license to recover its veracity.
2020: From our late retrospect, the entirety of earth life’s somatic, cerebral and societal evolution does in fact take on a similar appearance to the growth, motor learning, mental achievement, and language acquisition of a human person.
Abzhanov, Arhat. Von Baer’s Law for the Ages. Trends in Genetics. 29/12, 2013.
Botha, Rudolf. Language Evolution: The Windows Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Kohsokabe, Takahiro and Kunihiko Kaneko. Evolution-Development Congruence in Pattern Formation Dynamics. Journal of Experimental Zoology B. 326/1, 2016.
Niklas, Karl and Ulrich Kutschera. From Goethe’s Plant Archetype via Haeckel’s Biogenetic Law to Plant Evo-Devo. Theory in Biosciences. Online October, 2016.
Ostachuk, Augustin. On Novelty, Heterochrony and Developmental Constraints in a Complex Morphological Theory of Recapitulation. Evolutionary Biology. 43/3, 2015.
Tomasello, Michael and Amrisha Vaish. Origins of Human Cooperation and Morality. Annual Review of Psychology. 64/231, 2013.
View the 63 Bibliographic Entries
F. Integral Human Persons
In this extensive survey and passage from life’s deep, intrinsic origins across an episodic developmental emergence we have seen so far how the universal complex network systems are manifestly evident in a genomic way at every prior stage and instance. This next section continues to report how the universal bigender complementarity in its iconic particulate, nodal (male) and relational, connected (feminine) modes are once more in procreative play in all aspects of our own phenomenal personification.
In Integral Human Persons will consider how human beings appear as a true microcosmic exemplar, now set in a temporal procreation. The seven subsections span our individual formation and growth from infancy of bodily self-organization, cerebral cognizance and behavioral mores and onto informed awareness, iconic gender identities, and a novel symbiotic selfhood. A final module will review a lifelong psychic course of individuation as we may realize ourselves as vital participants in an ecosmic self-realization.
1. Systems Physiology and Psychology: Somatic and Behavioral Development
By a novel “developmental systems theory” approach and other views, which are described herein, the same complex dynamics that self-organize ecosmos and evolution seem to be in similar, pervasive effect as they guide an infant’s and child’s advance in bodily maturation, visual perception, kinetic agility, self-other behaviors and sequential stages of cognitive education.
Bartsch, Ronny, et al. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact. PLoS One. November 10, 2015.
Cangelosi, Angelo and Matthew Schlesinger. Developmental Robotics: From Babies to Robots. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.
Dehaene, Stanislav. How We Learn. New York: Viking, 2020.
Farris, Sarah. Evolution of Brain Elaboration Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Vol.370/Iss.1684, 2015.
Hartenstein, Volker and Angelika Stollewerk. The Evolution of Early Neurogenesis. Developmental Cell. 32/4, 2016.
Hollenstein, Tom. Twenty Years of Dynamic Systems Approaches to Development. Child Development Perspectives. 5/4, 2011.
Ivanov, Plamen, et al. Focus on the Emerging New Fields of Network Physiology and Network Medicine. New Journal of Physics. 18/100201, 2016.
Legerstee, Maria, et al. The Infant Mind: Origins of the Social Brain. New York: Guilford Press, 2012.
Liebeskind, Benjamin, et al. Complex Homology and the Evolution of Nervous Systems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Online December, 2015.
Rolls, Edmund. Cerebral Cortex: Principles of Operation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Van Den Heuvel, Martijn, et al. Comparative Connectomics. Trends in Cognitive Science. Online March, 2016.
View the 95 Bibliographic Entries
2. Systems Neuroscience: Multiplex Networks and Critical Function
W When this certain section to document 21st century findings about every aspect of our brain anatomy and cognitive performance was first posted in 2004, neuroimaging techniques, computational abilities, along with theories of scale-free networks, self-organizing complexities, genetic architectural influences and more were at an early stage. But by 2020, due to thousands of researchers in globally collaborative universities, institutes and brain projects, a broad and deep knowledge has been achieved of how we think, learn, remember, speak, experience, feel, respond, cooperate and be creative. Our intent, as elsewhere, in this resource site is to helf bring this salutary accomplishment into public awareness and beneficial avail.
A brain’s maturation and active cognizance is now seen to arise from a dynamic sequence of multiplex intracies, modules, communities, hubs, linkages which then tend to a self-organized critical poise. As Universality Affirmations also documents, we wish to enter the worldwise discovery that our mental capabilities have been found toseek and perform best at a dynamic balance of more and less coherence (don’t we all know). Another take cites a “chimera” process which goes on in the two states at the same time. In regard, this sensory system has been dubbed a “connectome” akin to other -omic phases.
2020: An august resolve from this luminous literature herein is that human peoples are more of a microcosmic exemplar, and central participant, than ever before realized.
Ariswalla, Xerxes and Paul Verschure. The Global Dynamical Complexity of the Human Brain. Applied Network Science. Online December, 2016.
Ascoli, Giorgio. Trees of the Brain, Roots of the Mind. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.
Bassett, Danielle and Olaf Sporns. Network Neuroscience. Nature Neuroscience. 20/3, 2017.
Betzel, Richard. Organizing Principles of Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Zebrafish Larvae. Network Neuroscience. 4/1, 2020.
Baumgarten, Lorenz and Stefan Bornholdt. Critical Excitation-Inhibition Balance in Dense Neural Networks. arXiv:1903.12632.
Cocchi, Luca, et al. Criticality in the Brain. arXiv:1707.05952.
Fornito, Alex, et al. Bridging the Gap between Connectome and Transcriptome. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 23/1, 2019.
Kirchhoff, Michael. Predictive Brains and Embodied, Enactive Cognition. Synthese. 195/6, 2018.
Majhi, Soumen, et al. Chimera States in Neuronal Networks. Physics of Life Reviews. September, 2018.
Seung, Sebastian. Connectome: How the Brain’s Wiring Makes us Who We Are. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012.
Vazquez-Rodriguez, Bertha, et al. Stochastic Resonance at Criticality in a Network Model of the Human Cortex. Nature Scientific Reports. 7/13020, 2017.
Wang, Jilin, et al. Non-equilibrium Critical Dynamics of Bursts in θ and δ Rhythms as Fundamental Characteristic of Sleep and Wake Micro-architecture. PLoS Computational Biology. November, 2019.
View the 176 Bibliographic Entries
3. A Complementary Brain and Thought Process
While Emergent Bicameral Brain above reported a consistent presence of bilateral faculties across evolutionary animal lineages, this section records their developmental fulfillment in human beings with distinctive left and right hemisphere qualities. While long intimated, scientific proof began in the 1960s by way of the CalTech neuroscientist Roger Sperry. Into the 2010s, after decades of clinical and neuroimaging studies, an actual double, reciprocal asymmetry has been well quantified, as these citations convey. In general, the left side focuses on finer, discrete objects out of context, with the right half complement connecting the dots within a holistic field of view.
In recent years, additional takes upon alternative, cerebral archetypes have come into play. A “dual process” model due to Jonathan Evans, Daniel Kahneman, and others has conceived a slow (right) and fast (left) thinking version. These phases proceed in our daily cognizance, as they alsooccur in an evolutionary and historic train of wider image perception first with later quick detail attention. Another neural model is based on dorsal and ventral cognitive streams, see Marianne Wolf, Stephen Grossberg, Tara McHugh, Randall O’Reilly and others. Again the ventral component attends to What aspects such as words or events, while the dorsal path is contributes vital Where, Why contexts and meanings.
As another feature and corollary, conversational language is likewise facilitated by dual script and score modes. Along with literal speech and alphabetic text, a left brain specialty, a right side rythmic prosody is crucial for full communicative discourse. For example see Tecumseh Fitch, Nicola Clayton, Kevin Laland and others whence bodily hand gestures and dance movements are needed to convey for an overall message. And once more, these modes appear in a melodic to linguistic evolutionary sequence. In sum once again, a One Code litany of agent and relation, entity and empathy, network node and link, physical particle and wave, political conservative or liberal and so ever on continues to be just now affirmed across a procreative ecosmos.
View the 116 Bibliographic Entries
4. Conscious Integrated Information Knowledge
Circa 2010, Giulio Tononi, Larissa Albantakis, Christoph Koch, Bernard Baars, Tim Palmer and others have engaged theoretical and experimental reasons that have since given knowing consciousness a physical essence. (An Intrinsic Consciousness has more about how a natural ecosmic source is evident.) The Integrated Information phrase was added to the title to represent this popular mathematic explanation for how our daily noosphere arises by way of a parallel, episodic reinforcement of complexity and consciousness. In a broad view this tandem interaction graces both our own senses, and distinguishes an evolutionary ascent to our worldwide moment. Another main model is known as the Global Workspace Theory whence thoughts are collected so as to enter aware notice.
2020: For this bidecadal review, a definitive progress from fleeting, sideline glimpses to knowledgable senticence accepted as a respectable international endeavor is well in place. By a 2020 revolution, a natural genesis comes alive and personal. A once and future sense of an actual ecosmic consciousness which finds its self-recognition in phenomenal human beings is at last affirmed.
Chalmers, David. Constructing the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Dehaene, Stanislas. Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts. New York: Viking, 2014.
Esteban, Francisco, et al. Informational Structures: A Dynamical System Approach for Integrated Information. PLoS Computational Biology. September, 2018.
Feinberg, Todd and Jon Mallatt. The Evolutionary and Genetic Origins of Consciousness in the Cambrian Period Over 500 Million Years Ago. Frontiers in Psychology. 4/667, 2013.
Ginsburg, Simona and Eva Jablonka. The Evolution of the Sensitive Soul: Learning and the Origins of Consciousness. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2019.
Mashour, George, et al. Conscious Processing and the Global Neuronal Workspace Hypothesis. Neuron. 105/5, 2020.
Mateos, D. M., et al. Consciousness as a Global Property of Brain Dynamic Activity. arXiv:1710.08384.
Palmer, Tim. Human Creativity and Consciousness. arXiv:2002.03738.
Tononi, Giulio. Consciousness as Integrated Information. Biological Bulletin. 215/3, 2008.
Tononi, Giulio and Christof Koch. Consciousness: Here, There but Not Everywhere. arXiv:1405.7089.
View the 90 Bibliographic Entries
5. Half the UniVerse: A Woman's 2020 Wisdome
As we consider individual persons, the most significant feature of anyone’s life is surely their gender. As well known, feminine and masculine identity roles have long been burdened with tribal and cultural agendas, academic distortions, male definitions and resultant abusive injustice. We are aware of the September 2017 Scientific American Gender issue and do not wish to add another opinion on the contentious subject. Rather, into these later 2010s, via an emergent, bicameral humankinder it might be finally possible to reach an innate phenomenal basis for egalitarian complementarities. As this resource tries to document, the worldwise discovery of a greater organic genesis which exists on its own (a woman’s ecosmos) can illuminate natural bigender principles, an ecosmic complementarity, as they array across, distinguish and inform a familial procreation.
This radical difference can be viewed from a number of once and future areas. As noted in Cosmome Code and throughout, an independent generative source which repeats in kind everywhere is now known as a dynamic interplay of two prime modes of relational linkages and nodal agents. As the nonlinear sciences of self-organizing complex adaptive networks abstractly express, each scale and instance from cosmos to culture is composed of dual dot, particle, entity component and relational, communicative, modular, associative modes, roles or phases. One may cite particle and wave, neuron and axon, DNA nucleotides and AND regulation, an Ubuntu me + We = US, and so on over an infinite recurrence.
From another aspect, an evolutionary radiation across creaturely forms from earliest rudiments of a double neural faculty is now well proven, see Emergent Bicameral Brain. Moreover, the same left side specific detail focus and right contextual field holds from invertebrates to our sapiens. We next record a perennial philosophy with a core essence of an anima/animus reciprocity from microcosm to macrocosm. Yin + yang = Tao, each with a modicum of the other, may be the most familiar. Another emergent manifestation seem in effect on a civilizational scale by the quantified presence east and west, south and north archetypal hemispheres. Moving on, confluence of studies and accounts contribute more evidence. On average male brains are larger than females, but their left and right hemispheres are less connected. Women, however, have a larger corpus callosum and are found to avail both sides in concert. As a result, women’s brains have a superior composite faculty since they need to take in both trees and the whole forest. Might one suggest a contrast phrase of Warrior and Worrier?
2020: Again, we do not seek to categorize but to offer a novel basis and guide, just now set within a natural universe to human complementarity. A reciprocal unity of women and men can fulfill both halves of the world, sky and a genesis ecosmos, for Children’s sake.
Adenzato, Mauro, et al. Gender Differences in Cognitive Theory of Mind. Nature Scientific Reports. 7/41219, 2017.
Cahill, Larry. An Issue Whose Time Has Come. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 95/1-2, 2017.
Cochran, Tracy, ed. The Divine Feminine. Parabola: The Search for Meaning. 41/1, Spring, 2016.
Feminist, Alternatives. My Dream is to be Bold: Our Work to End Patriarchy. Cape Town, RSA: Pambazuka Press, 2011.
Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, ed. Societies of Peace: Matriarchies Past, Present and Future. Toronto: Inanna Publications, 2009.
Grosz, Elizabeth. The Incorporeal: Ontology, Ethics, and the Limits of Materialism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2017.
Gur, Ruben and Raquel Gur. Complementarity of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 95/1-2, 2017.
Keresztes, Laszlo, et al. Identifying Super-Feminine, Super-Masculine and Sex-Defining Connections in the Human Braingraph. arXiv:1912.02291.
MacGregor, Sherilyn, ed. Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment. London: Routledge, 2017.
Orrell, David. Truth or Beauty: Science and the Quest for Order. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
Tadic, Bosiljka, et al. Functional Geometry of Human Connectome and Robustness of Gender Differences. arXiv:1904.03399.
Wang, Robin. Yinyang: The Way of Heaven and Earth in Chinese Thought and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
View the 99 Bibliographic Entries
6. Our Microcosmic Personal Selves
As evolutionary life stirs to self-awareness, the broad field of human psychology sought to understand our human mental milieu, behaviors, emotions, and more with reference to anatomical, biochemical and genetic substrates. A first concern was to identify and mitigate the psychic maladies that inflict night and day. In the 1980s a confluence of neuroscience, linguistics, comprehension, artificial intelligence, and philosophy became known as cognitive science. Humanistic and transpersonal versions began shift the focus from deficits to positive enhancement.
This project often divided into camps of nature vs. nurture. One side, under rubrics of nativism, essentialism or rationalism, argues that preset programs govern. The other, variously as behaviorism, constructivism or empiricism, contends people hold to external influences and make life up as they go along. In the 1990s and 2000s an “evolutionary psychology” traced Darwinian roots for paternal investment, mate choice, altruism, rank, prejudice and so on. Another take conceived mental capacity as a congress of “modules” or “mental organs,” so to solve adaptive problems or deal with new experience. And as observers note, knowledge of ourselves does not determine but can in fact liberate.
Into the 2010s, a rising integration within a genesis cosmology draws upon the sciences of complex systems which promises deeper understandings of myriad human mores. The integral psyche is seen to mature and be sustained by the same self-organized, fractal, network dynamics as the development of the living universe. Ones selfhood is likened to an autopoietic process which refers to, maintains and creates its own, personal identity. As 2020 nears, an integral image of a symbiotic, holobiont, microcosmic selfhood is coming into view.
Cosmides, Leda and John Tooby. Evolutionary Psychology: New Perspectives on Cognition and Motivation. Annual Review of Psychology. 64/201, 2013.
Damasio, Antonio. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. New York: Pantheon Books, 2010.
Feinberg, Todd. From Axons to Identity: Neurological Explorations of the Nature of the Self. New York: Norton, 2009.
Gergen, Kenneth. Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Harter, Susan. The Construction of the Self. New York: Guilford Press, 2012.
Markus, Hazel and Shinobu Kitayama. Cultures and Selves: A Cycle of Mutual Constitution. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 5/4, 2010.
Moura, Joelson, et al. Theoretical Insights of Evolutionary Psychology. Evolutionary Biology. January, 2020.
Prinz, Wolfgang. Open Minds: The Social Making of Agency and Intentionality. Cambridge: MIT Press,, 2012.
Thagard, Paul. The Self as a System of Multilevel Interacting Mechanisms. Philosophical Psychology. 27/2, 2014.
View the 97 Bibliographic Entries
7. Archetypal Psychology
This Integral Human review has shown how somatic and neural net development, a gender mutuality, and self-organized personality arise from and exemplify the phenomenal naturome code. This final section will consider our arduous, lifelong struggly for psychic unity. In regard (to gloss a vast literature) we enlist the archetypal psychology of Sigmund Freud’s younger contemporary Carl Jung (1875-1961). Drawing upon a rich corpus of mythic, alchemical, shamanic and religious wisdom, a life passage can be traced from a maternal embrace which must be parted with so to enter a treacherous external world in search of a ones own distinct persona. Phases of experiment, test and loss, in symbolism a cathartic disintegration, eventually leads to palliative reunification. Opposites of feminine anima and masculine animus separate in allegorical death and rebirth on the way to sacred marriage as a whole person.
Mythic dimensions bring illustrative value. A male “hero” is more involved with aspects of conflict and quest, the female “heroine” evokes beneficent synthesis. Masculine phases align more with a transit between levels while the feminine resides at origins and futures. And there is a crucial point for a natural genesis narrative. In their classic essence, Buddha, the Grail Knight, Dante, pilgrim, shaman, and each candidate must ultimately come to their own witness and discovery. The guides retire, the task cannot be done for them. In order to attain new being the seeker need realize for themselves a reception of wisdom. As Carl Jung, Pierre Teilhard, Freya Mathews and others have proposed, human, earthly and cosmic psychogenesis are, as they must be, one and the same.
Berzonsky, Carol and Susanne Moser. Becoming Homo Sapiens Sapiens: Mapping the Psycho-Cultural Transformation in the Anthropocene. Anthropocene. Online November, 2017
Cambray, Joseph and Leslie Sawin, eds. Research in Analytical Psychology: Applications from Scientific, Historical, and Cross-Cultural Research. London: Routledge, 2018.
Drob, Sanford. Kabbalistic Visions: C. G. Jung and Jewish Mysticism. New Orleans: Spring Journal Books, 2010.
Horowitz, Mardi. Identity and the New Psychoanalytic Explorations of Self-Organization. London: Routledge, 2014.
Nicolaus, Georg. C. G. Jung and Nikolai Berdyaev: Individuation and the Person. London: Routledge, 2011.
Skar, Patricia. Chaos and Self-Organization: Emergent Patterns at Critical Life Transitions. Journal of Analytical Psychology. 49/2, 2004.
View the 46 Bibliographic Entries
G. The Phenomenon of HumanKinder
The first four sections of Part VI, Earth Life Emergence, documented how common, genome-like self-organizing forms and functions underlie, impel and distinguish a nested evolution from original conceptions to a viable biosphere. New parallels were then noted between our species phylogeny and individual ontogeny. Integral Persons contained much evidence for bigender persons as active exemplars of and participants in a self-making Earthly and cosmic genesis.
A further, sequential transition seems to be going on to an integral super-organic phase as if a planetary progeny. Earth is a finite globe and niche which serves to compress our hyper-interconnected humanity into a whole somatic and cerebral physiosphere, along with a collaborative knowledge, and fledgling self-identity. This multipart section covers aspects of a linguistic cultural code, human societies as complex adaptive systems, a worldwide anatomy and metabolism, east/west and south/north bicameral civilizations, as also evident in world religions. The stage is then set to consider, in retrospect, how the long travail of world macrohistory may appear as a relative psychic individuation.
1. A Cultural Code: Systems Linguistics
This is an eclectic section much about human language and communication, across its many versions. A companion resource would be Rosetta Complex Literary Systems. A significant import is that this seemingly far removed domain could yet be appreciated as still another manifestation the universal dynamic, self-organizing, fractal system. Of course, as ultimately genetic in nature every natural cnd cultural aspect is holistically guided this way. Its influence presence is noticed in the evolution of human language, with regard to constructive grammar and syntax, along with its informational content, and on to script and speech complements. Social conversation and literature are also found to have a deep congruence with the molecular genetic code, as if a "languagome" (IV. B. 2). In general regard, we suggest a Systems Linguistics approach.
Atkinson, Quentin. The Descent of Words. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110/4159, 2013.
Beckner, Clay, et al. Language as a Complex Adaptive System. Language Learning. 59/Supp. 1, 2009.
Blythe, Richard. Symmetry and Universality in Language Change. arXiv:1508.05297.
Diessel, Holger. The Grammar Network: How Linguistic Structure is Shaped by Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Hurford, James. The Origins of Grammar: Language in the Light of Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Kirby, Simon. Culture and Biology in the Origins of Linguistic Structure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 24/1, 2017.
Loreto, Vittorio, et al. Statistical Physics of Language Dynamics. Journal of Statistical Mechanics. 4/P04006, 2011.
MacWhinney, Brian and William O’Grady, eds. The Handbook of Language Emergence. New York: Wiley, 2015.
Progovac, Ljiljana. Evolutionary Syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Steels, Luc. Agent-Based Models for the Emergence and Evolution of Grammar. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 371/20150447, 2016.
Youn, Hyejin, et al. On the Universal Structure of Human Lexical Semantics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113/1766, 2016.
View the 112 Bibliographic Entries
2. Complex Network Societies
This is an umbrella section for many exemplary aspects of smaller and larger human habitations. As the case with psychologies noted above, the growing application of nonlinear science to the multi-faceted field of sociology has also led to a notice of a common, innate mathematical basis. Rather than one thing after another sans any deeper context, a global vista can retrospectfully perceive how complex dynamic systems likewise self-organize into an exemplary shape and interaction of groups, assemblies, settlements and cities. A steady, nested scale then ranges from a few members to a metropolis. As introduced in Organic Societies earlier, bounded communities again seem to evolve toward a composite organism-like cognitive coherence. As various papers report, from political elections, sporting events, social media, financial commerce, to migrations, and even battlefield chaos, can yet be found a constant mathematical format.
Amazeen, Poleminia. From Physics to Social Interactions: Scientific Unifications via Dynamics. Cognitive Systems Research. 52/640, 2018.
Blanton, Richard and Lane Fargher. How Humans Cooperate. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 2016.
Drozdz, Stanislaw, et al. Complexity in Economic and Social Systems. Entropy. April, 2020.
Hall, Gavin and William Bialek. The Statistical Mechanics of Twitter. arXiv:1812.07029.
Kesebir, Selin. The Superorganism Account of Human Sociality. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 16/3, 2012.
Mesoudi, Alex. Prospects for a Science of Cultural Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114/7853, 2017.
Muthukrishna, Michael, et al. The Cultural Brain Hypothesis. PLoS Computational Biology. November, 2018.
Perc, Matjaz, et al. Statistical Physics of Human Cooperation. Physics Reports. Online May, 2017.
Schweitzer, Frank. Sociophysics. Physics Today. February, 2018.
Thurner, Stefan. Virtual Social Science. arXiv:1811.08156.
Whiten, Andrew, et al. The Extension of Biology Through Culture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114/7775, 2017.
View the 139 Bibliographic Entries
3. Planetary Physiosphere: Anatomics, Economics, Urbanomics
Historians, architects, and writers have often noted that our composite human societies, especially in urban settings, might be seen in their material circulations, skeletal infrastructure, and cognitive cultures to take on a likeness of the anatomy, metabolism and nervous system of a developing organism. As the title cites, into the 21st century settlements from villages to cities have equally been described dynamic exemplars of nature’s complex, fractal, cellular, network self-organization. A corollary is then their intentional recreation in an organic way (car arteries, speed limits as blood pressure), but seems inhibited by older mechanistic models. So once more in our homo to anthropo sapiens emergent transition, our abidances are vibrant manifestations of life and mind writ larger. This section also reports a shift in finance and commerce from equilibrium models as another dynamic complexity revision, aka econophysics.
2020: As metropolises swell and fester, suburban sprawl consumes, along with war and climate driven migrations, an occasion of natural geonomics guidance so that we may heal and reconceive ourselves in organic, bigender, communal ways is so vital. As the pandemia may wane, we have an historic and imperative opportunity to altogether sustain and save our Earthmost abide.
Baccini, Peter and Paul Brunner. Metabolism of the Anthroposphere. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012.
Bardoscia, Marco, et al. Statistical Mechanics of Complex Economies. Journal of Statistical Mechanics. Online April, 2017.
Batty, Michael. Inventing Future Cities. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018.
Cogdell, Christina. Toward a Living Architecture?: Complexism and Biology in Generative Design. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2019.
D’Acci, Luce, ed. The Mathematics of Urban Morphology. Springer: Birkhauser, 2019.
Helbing, Dirk, et al. Saving Human Lives: What Complexity Science and Information Systems can Contribute. Journal of Statistical Physics. Online June, 2014.
Netto, Vincius, et al. Cities, from Information to Interaction. Entropy. 20/11, 2018.
Pumain, Denise and Juste Raimbault. Perspectives on Urban Theories. arXiv:1911.02854.
White, Roger, et al. Modeling Cities and Regions as Complex Systems. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.
View the 131 Bibliographic Entries
4. A Complementarity of Civilizations
“East is east and west is west, and never the twain shall meet” wrote Rudhyar Kipling long ago. Nowadays many research studies in comparative social psychology report that western and eastern cultures do indeed generally reflect polar autonomous individual or communal group attributes. This website module serves to document how the universal archetypes are manifestly evident even on a global stage. But these reciprocal phases are rarely appreciated and often set in opposition with strife and injustice. If civilizations that are long bent on “clashing” could be seen as natural complements, a path to their salutary mutual reconciliation might result.
And another, equal area of continental contrast with much violence and strife is post-colonial Africa, along with South America. A lesser known but crucial finding is that the same complements seem hold for Southern and Northern hemispheres (Stephanie De Oliveira, Richard Nisbett). A resolve might also accrue here, with an especial avail for better racial understandings (see World Philosophy, Molefi Kete Asante, Maulana Karenga, Messay Kebede, et al). Such instances among many cry out for a dispensation and promise of a nascent worldwide wumankinder knowledge.
2020: This note is written in late May when a polar standoff between the USA and China intensifies, and while racial injustice rages across American cities. As MIT’s Thomas Malone notes in Superminds (search), and on You Tube, a realization and avail of this collective intelligence may be our only hope and solution.
Bao, Yan, et al. Complementarity as Generative Principle. Frontiers in Psychology. Online May, 2017.
De Oliveira, Stephanie and Richard Nisbett. Beyond East and West: Cognitive Style in Latin America. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 48/10, 2017.
Hwang, Kwang-kuo. Foundations of Chinese Psychology: Confucian Social Relations. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.
Kessler, Klaus, et al. A Cross-Culture, Cross-Gender Comparison of Perspective Taking Mechanisms. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 281/20140388, 2014.
Nisbett, Richard. Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking. New York: Farrar, Strauss, Giroux, 2015.
Poppel, Ernst. East of West, West of East: A Matter of Global and Local Identity. Cognitive Processing. 19/S.1, 2018.
Targowski, Andrew. The Limits of Civilization. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific, 2016.
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5. Bicameral World Religions
The great Asian and Abrahamic world faiths arose in a first “axial period” circa 500 B.C. to 700 A.D. Within the website theme, it is offered that a worldwide complementarity might also occur between Western and Eastern belief and doctrine. As scholars note, these spiritual hemispheres align with basic responses or dichotomies of God and the human, heaven or earth, linear or cyclical time, and so on. For Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism, in broad survey, the numinous cosmos is animate in kind, a viable organism. A quintessence is original and ascendant mind, harmony and balance exist on their phenomenal own. As noted above, Eastern cultures are more communal or wave-like with an emphasis on group vaues.
In our broad gloss, Western values and creeds mostly take to an opposite, particulate, material mode. A person is separate, apart from God, the earth somehow flawed, fallen. To equate oneself with God is heretical. For Judaism, Christianity and Islam, the Divine is transcendent but remote; one is a sinful mendicant, the world has little value in itself. At the Western pole, an extroverted individual supersedes social concerns. A unique instance may be the Muslim milieu, which although an Abrahamic faith sees itself as ‘neither east nor west’ (William Chittick, Tu Weiming). If we might extend the brain hemisphere analogy, Islam’s geographical location from Morocco to Indonesia is somewhat where an interbridging ‘corpus callosum’ would be. And such speculations are respectfully offered as an example of what might be gained from a humankind vista.
In addition, this outline section for global belief systems also records a 21st century theological resolution known as Pan-en-theism. Rather than older Pantheism for an encompassing divine essence, it is being realized that numinosity must abide both in paternal transcendence and maternal procreative immanence. Prime works in regard are Panentheism by John Cooper, and Panentheism Across the World's Traditions, edited by Loriliai Biernacki and Philip Clayton.
Biernacki, Loriliai and Philip Clayton, eds. Panentheism Across the World's Traditions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Choi, Kwang Sun. Ecozoic Spirituality. New York: Peter Lang, 2015.
Cohen, Adam, et al. Religion and Culture: Individualism and Collectivism in the East and West. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Online August, 2016.
Jaeshik, Shin. Mapping One World: Religion and Science from an East Asian Perspective. Zygon. 51/1, 2016.
Knysh, Alexander. Sufism: A New History of Islamic Mysticism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.
McGilchrist, Iain. God, Metaphor, and the Language of the Hemispheres. Chilton, Paul and Monika Kopytowska, eds. Religion, Language, and the Human Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.
Shanta, Bhakti Niskama. Life and Consciousness: The Vedantic View. Communicative & Integrative Biology. 8/5, 2015.
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6. A Survey of Religion and Science
An historic reconvergence of scientific and religious encounters has been underway but the project is daunted because a current materialist, Ptolemaic verdict cannot be reconciled with belief in and proof of a Divine creator and Earthly purpose. Signs of an ordained design by way of the “anthropic principle” are a prime endeavor. Glimpses of an innately self-organizing cosmos occur but the waxing realization of a genesis universe whereof Earth and human have their own intrinsic value has not yet registered.
Conradie, Ernst, ed. Creation and Salvation. Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2012.
Conway Morris, Simon. Darwin’s Compass: How Evolution Discovers the Song of Creation. Manning, Russell Re and Michael Bryne, eds. Science and Religion in the Twenty-First Century. London: SCM Press, 2013.
Gilbert, Scott. Wonder and the Necessary Alliances of Science and Religion. Euresis Journal. Volume 4, 2013.
Pruett, Dave. Reason and Wonder: A Copernican Revolution in Science and Spirit. New York: Praeger, 2012.
Rutman, Joel Yehudah. Why Evolution Matters: A Jewish Approach. London: Valentine Mitchell, 2014.
Sacks, Jonathan. The Great Partnership: Science, Religion, and the Search for Meaning. New York: Schocken Books, 2012.
Sloan, Phillip, et al, eds. Darwin in the Twenty First Century: Nature, Humanity, and God. Norte Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2015.
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7. Systems History: Personal and Planetary Individuation
An ambition of historians and philosophers has long been to discern the topologies, forces and trends, if any, that might underlie, move, and trace the course of human affairs, peoples, cultures, nations, creeds, and civilizations. Because these efforts, in their partiality, were often socially misapplied, not due to theory but its misuse, the project of seeking such a ‘metanarrative’ is now abandoned. The difference proposed here is a 21st century perception of a self-organizing genesis universe found by humankind. A first step is to admit that intrinsic generative forces exist at all. For an exemplary 2010s source view the content of Cliodynamics: Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History. An ability to gain novel knowledge via such sciences of complex complementarity could provide beneficial guidance for a kinder, more sustainable world, as Part VII next will suggest.
Another theme of this website has been an accord of human beings in both their gender identity and a person’s life course with the nested, recurrent, emergence of a procreative family cosmos. By an holistic retrospect, the arduous wax and wane of civilizations might then appear as a composite cerebral and psychic individuation. Scholars describe an initial animate, maternal milieu followed by patriarchal millennia as anima and animus interact, separate and vie. As well known, masculine mentalities rule to this day with war-obsessed competitions, vitally in need of empathic feminine mediation. As Richard Tarnas, Suzanne Kirschner, Freya Mathews, Arne Naess, and many others herein advise, each individual, earth life and whole cosmos seem to be engaged in a similar journey of personal self-witness, empowerment, and actualization.
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