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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
Table of Contents
Genesis Vision
Learning Planet
Organic Universe
Earth Life Emerge
Genesis Future
Recent Additions

VI. Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

With evidence in place for an organic conducive macro-cosmos, (Part III) and an overall evolutionary developmental gestation (Part V), this extensive chapter goes on to document how its independent, genetic-like complex self-organizing system (Part IV) becomes exemplified for each micro strata, phase, and entity. It opens with Universal Principles that can now be gleaned and distilled as they manifestly repeat and reiterate everywhere. Life’s Nested Gestation of anatomy and physiology is chronicled in nine sections from fractal geology to a Gaian biosphere. Subsequent modules then record a progressive cognition, sentience and self-recognition, as brain and mind rises in tandem with body. Human beings and humankind altogether are similarly found to represent individually and collectively the universal complementary code.

A. A Survey of Common Principles

Many references which introduce and describe common principles and phenomena are cited in Parts III: Organic Universe, IV: A Cosmic Code and V: A Quickening Evolution. This natural genesis found by a worldwide science develops from a singular, independent creative system distinguished by agent and relation, individual and group, masculine and feminine-like complements. Their dynamic activity gives rise to an emergent, self-organized evolutionary nest of complexity and sentience. In this manner, the universal source becomes manifestly exemplified at each stage of a living nature. From non-random genomes to desert biotas, human commerce, global climate, and the interstellar raiment, the same pattern and process repeats over and over. Modularity, symbiosis, autopoiesis, complementarity, synchronicity, self-similarity, scale-free, power-law networks occur in every instance.

As noted above, Part VI: Earth Life Emergence will report how self-organizing complex adaptive systems are in effect everywhere from universe to human. A natural cosmos which springs from and epitomizes a gender creativity forms the essence of traditional wisdom. Its 21st century rediscovery reveals a luminous property by which this extant realm seems made to be known. The Sustainable Ecovillage section of Part VII: A Genesis Future will offer an example a new earthly abide guided by these salutary principles. We next post a 2019 mission statement of the Santa Fe Institute.

SFI researchers endeavor to understand and unify the underlying, shared patterns in complex physical, biological, social, cultural, technological, and even possible astrobiological, worlds. Our global research network of scholars spans borders, departments, and disciplines, unifying curious minds steeped in rigorous logical, mathematical, and computational reasoning. As we reveal the unseen mechanisms and processes that shape these evolving worlds, we seek to use this understanding to promote the well-being of humankind and life on earth.

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B. Nested Emergence of Communal Creatures

A tour of the sequential, multilevel scale of animate entities from their geological substrate to a self-regulating bioplanet. The import conveyed here is that each phase such as Microbial Colonies or Dynamic Ecosystems, as a paradigm shift in each domain, is becoming found and understood to express in form and process the independent self-organizing principles.

1. Geosphere and Atmosphere

All aspects of earthspheres from land, sea and sky are just the same being found to exhibit and be formed by invariant, self-organized topologies from rivers, deltas, coastlines, continents, and earthquakes to the cascade dynamics of fractal weather patterns. See also Global Climate as a Complex Dynamical System for even more.

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2. The Origin of Life

Around 1960 when I began my readings, an opaque discontinuity stood between the presence of evolving earth life and the extant physical cosmos. In the years since and especially the last decade the dissonance has been mostly bridged. Researchers have reconstructed many of the primordial components and steps such as rudimentary genetic molecules and protocell vesicles. Three main features are now seen to define living systems – a vital metabolism, bounded compartments, and information programs. A significant advance has been to identify the universal self-organizing dynamics at work in the guise of autocatalytic networks, hypercycles, autopoiesis, and so on. By these lights the occasion of emergent life, mind and selves can be ever more deeply rooted in an increasingly fertile, amniotic universe.

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3. Microbial Colonies

Individual bacteria, such as the amoeba or paramecium we met in school, were long thought to act as isolated, competive entities. But as lately advised by the nonlinear theories, microbes are now understood to exist and prosper within social assemblies engaged in constant chemical dialogue. Such microbial communities are often seen as an exemplary model of a complex adaptive system. This image of a self-organizing bacterial community is from the website (http://star.tau.ac.il/~eshel/gallery.html) of the prime researcher in this regard Eshel Ben Jacob, Maguy-Glass Chair in Physics of Complex Systems at Tel Aviv University, Israel.

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4. Cellular Holobiont Symbiosis

When this section went online in 2004, the presence of a bacterial symbiosis was relegated to the sidelines, often questioned whether in effect at al. But the natural, creative propensity for mutual, reciprocal benefits and import was long championed by Lynn Margulis (1938-2011). As entries here, in Systems Evolution, and throughout well attest, since circa 2012 symbiotic unions across life’s evolutionary biology and sociality have at last become appreciated as a primary, integrative facilitator of a nested emergence, which is newly known as a symbiogenesis.

In the later 2010s, as noted by the title, due to Scott Gilbert, Jan Sapp, Seth Bordenstein, Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg and Eugene Rosenberg, Joan Roughgarden and other advocates, a novel perception of organisms, and our human selves, as a unitary assembly of bacterial, micorbiome multitudes has come into favor. In regard, these symbiotic selves have been dubbed as holobionts, with a relative hologenome, to note their true communal membership. See also the Anthropocene section for wider, salutary visions (Anna Tsing, et al) of this symbio-autopoietic vitality.

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5. Multicellular Fauna and Flora Organisms

We next move on to complex creatures of every plume and stripe. As we have seen, once again impelled by self-organization and selection, unitary cells continued to clump, associate by way of symbiotic mergers into larger multicellular animal and plant communities. Along the way, dedicated modular organs were formed which altogether evolved into unitary variegated, mobile, oxygen-breathing, sea to land-dwelling, airborne creatures with nervous systems, brains and proactive behavior. Diverse, adaptive environmental vegetation, which contributed in turn to a supportive atmosphere, similarly flourished.

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6. Cooperative Societies

As multicellular animals evolved in somatic and cerebral intricacy, they ever increasingly gathered into social assemblies. A major revision of evolutionary theory over the past few years has been the realization that Darwinian competitive survival of the fittest is mediated by and in fact secondary to an inherent proclivity for mutual cooperation. This effect is variously known as quorum sensing or reciprocal altruism, and is founded on a salutary complementarity of individual and community. As a result, these metabolic and cognitive groupings, with rudimentary properties of an organism, are then perceived as a new level of selection. A tacit, albeit precarious, balance of conflict and accord, often along gender lines, is now seen to distinguish and enhance animal societies, especially within the primate phylum. This natural attribute of competitive coherence, creative union, mutual aid, and so on is further seen as a universal principle that serves evolving life from microbes to ecovillages.

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7. Dynamic Ecosystems

Intricate natural environments such as rainforests, prairies, coral reefs, and every biota are no longer held to seek an equilibrium or balance state, but to exemplify self-organizing, complex adaptive systems and nested networks in constant flux over many invariant scales from biofilm microbes to communities of organisms to whole bioregions. These novel understandings of dynamic ecosystems of flora, fauna, and their resident realms are aiding our human respectful endeavors to maintain and foster their viability.

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8. Multiple Ancestries of Homo Sapiens

Evolutionary schemes and complex system perspectives are also being employed by the fields of primate studies, archaeology and anthropology to better explain how simians became hominids and social humans. This multiplex emergence is considered to occur through a co-evolution of increasing brain size, dexterous tool making and especially social interactions facilitated by novel language abilities. These diverse citations report reconstructions of the meandering, interlinked pathway. No longer a linear march to homo sapiens, it is replete with branching and interbreeding. Who then is late collaborative humankind to finally commence on this retrospective? What is a self-revealing genesis universe trying to learn and achieve through our phenomenal education, witness and co-creation?

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9. A Living Gaian Bio-Ecosphere

Earth’s biosphere is now known to have regulated itself for some billion years in a homeostatic fashion so as to sustain favorable atmospheric and geochemical conditions for life’s continued survival. Since the 1970's, the British geochemist James Lovelock, with Lynn Margulis and many others, have provided theoretical and experimental support for life as a planetary phenomenon. Lovelock's country neighbor, the author William Golding, suggested the name of the earth goddess Gaia. The concept has received intense scrutiny, often rejection, over past decades but is now generally understood and accepted as an innovative model. Its proof is an actual worthwhile service to global ecological research programs. This section also contains references for the field of Earth systems science and Earth’s formative history.

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C. A Quickening Encephalization and Sensibility

The nested, recurrent stages of skeletal, anatomic complexity from life's origin to we peoples just surveyed can then be seen by our worldwide compass to facilitate a progressive encephalization, the embryonic body gains a bilateral brain. Metazoan creatures across invertebrate, aquatic, amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian scales evolve a mosaic, modular cerebral capacity, enhanced communicative cognition, proactive behavior, relative consciousness and in this human phase a communal, reflective corpus of remembered knowledge.

1. The Evolution of Brain Anatomy and Cognizance

While a general increase in bodily complexity and dexterity from trilobites to humans is admitted, what is in tandem process (and there really is something going on) is an essential ramification of cerebral capacities. By attributes of bilateral asymmetry, semi-specialized modules, which array in concerted and mosaic modes, crowned by a frontal lobe neocortex, brains evolve by much expanding the size of these components in place from the earliest neural stirrings. This steady course of life’s encephalization adds a further component to trace a central evolutionary axis and vector.

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2. Animal Intelligence and Sociality

As these anatomical, physiological, and neural faculties evolve and ramify they further achieve an increased measure of cognitive acumen and retained memory, appropriate to an organism’s certain ecological niche. Before the 21st century, a standard, preferred view was that only humans possessed a conscious knowledge. Animals were automatons, and treated as such. A revolutionary advance since is the admission and quantification of the presence of similar, relative intelligence, sentience and self-cognizance coursing throughout the entire animal kingdom from primates to dolphins, crows, parrots, zebra fish, to colonial invertebrates. The late Donald Griffin of Harvard University was a pioneer advocate of clever creatures, as our furry, feathery, finned companions teach us each day, which has now been robustly proven.

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3. An Emergent Bicameral Brain

Another notable aspect of the vectorial evolutionary rise of encephalization and sentience is the appearance of an asymmetrical brain into left and right hemispheres. Each bicameral half has characteristic abilities of a finer detail or coarser spatial focus. Until recently these features were thought to only be evident in humans. But new research findings of the past decade has identified common, similar bilateral qualities throughout the animal kingdom from primates to birds, reptiles, amphibians, and even invertebrates and insects. To this 2002 cover volume, we add the 2013 work Divided Brains to confirm this remarkable discovery. By this cerebral complementarity, the universal creative system is equally manifest in our cognitive faculties.

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4. Organisms Evolve Rhythmic Protolanguage Communication

As our Earthwise retrospect expands its temporal and spatial compass, we add a 2018 section to report abilities to recover, reconstruct and quantify how all manner of creatures conspecific chatters, emostly for sustenance, reproduction and survival in manifold groupings. While Microbial Colonies, cites quorum sensings via chemical signals, here we are concerned with audible vocalizations across aquatic, reptilian, amphibian, mammalian, primate classes onto hominids and proto-homo sapiens. While A Cultural Code reports on diverse languages and linguistic discourse, we cite here studies about how our voluble literacy arose from evolutionary life’s distinctive feature of cross-talk by many means. In regard, birdsong serves as an iconic exemplar, a distant parallel with both human wordy alphabets and rhythmic prosody for meaningful conveyance.

As indication of these studies, a new Oxford Journal of Language Evolution began in 2016. Special issues on the origins, evolution, and neuroscience of communication language also appeared in journals such as the Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (24/1, 2017), Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences (21/1, 2018), and Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Review (81/B, 2017).

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D. The Ascent of Genetic Information: DNA/AND

In Part III, The Information Computation Turn, we saw how space, time, matter and energy is becoming seen as suffused by an informative, program-like quality. Part IV, Cosmic Code, went on to document such an independent procreative system, while Part V, A Quickening Evolution, reported humankind’s nascent integral synthesis of the oriented, gestation of life, mind and self-cognizance. This extensive Part VI, Earth Life Emergence, will attempt to show how these innate, genetic-like, complementary principles are in similar manifestation everywhere. To continue this scenario, its most familiar exemplar, of course, is the genome code that informs the form, function and life span of every organism and person. Since circa 2001, with the sequencing of the human genome, a whole scale revision has been underway as to what constitutes genetic phenomena, broadly considered, which is still being worked out. This section will try to chronicle the many concerted efforts, see also Systems Biology and Genetics above.

While the last half of the 20th century from the 1953 DNA double helix sought to find the nucleotide and associated biomolecules, as readers know, a “systems” turn has begun to study the equally present dynamic regulatory networks that connect all the pieces. In regard, what defines a “gene” is still in abeyance, e. g. strings of codons. With this expansion, a new aspect known as “epigenetics” has opened opens to many external, environmental influences in effect beyond a point molecular locus. So once again the universal complex archetypes of a discrete elemental mode - DNA, along with the interactive relations - AND, with their informative content and communication, are well exemplified.

With these advances, as readers know a multitude of “-omics” have sprung up and taken across every organic scientific field and stage. Proteome, metabolome, cellular interactome, a neural connectome, are among many, each distinguished by an interplay of nodes and links. Thus an emergent genetic phenomena accrues as a fertile cosmos becomes graced with a genome-like essence everywhere. As an example, the popular “major evolutionary transitions” emergence by John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmary (search & shown next) whence life’s episodic procession from suitable biochemicals to our human phase is at each step facilitated by a novel informative basis. Its linguistic version, one could even say “languagome,” is covered in A Cultural Code.

Stage Process Carrier
Atomic chemical compounds amino acids
Molecular genomic system deoxyribonucleotides
Symbiotic intercellular communication eukaryotic cells
Organism epigenetic dynamics mammals
Neuronal neural networks CNS and brains
Primate signal based protolanguage chimpanzees
Humankind language and knowledge people

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1. Paleogenomics, Gaiagenomics, Cosmogenomics: Natural Ancestry

This 2015 section is posted to gather novel advances of genetic research as human beings proceed to decipher, sequence and avail nature’s cosmos to children code. By this vista, a temporal “paleo” evolutionary retrospect, a current breadth of biospheric creatures from insects to sapiens, and a spatial “cosmo” milieu from universe to us can be perceived. As the entries describe, incipient attempts began in the 1980s and 1990s to recreate the DNA genomes of hominids and primates. After the 2001 Human Genome project, aided by sophisticated instruments and computer informatics, it became increasingly possible to sequence any present or past entity from Neanderthals and monkeys to dinosaurs and invertebrates. A revolutionary new method and window is thus opened for our whole scale evolutionary reconstruction.

A companion effort is the ENCODE: Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project, which began in 2003 and proceeds apace with extensive, advanced genome sequencing. In February 2015 a similar discernment of the multifaceted Human Epigenome was announced. Together with the molecular nucleotide substrate, this much expanded appreciation of genetic phenomena promises many benefits. If we might reflect upon and extrapolate these august abilities, scollaborative human beings over the Earth seem to be the universe’s way, billions of years on, to achieve a whole-scale self-sequence its own natural genetic code.

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2. The Deep Affinity of Genomes and Languages

Around 1970, the linguist Roman Jakobson and the biopsychologist Jean Piaget opined that these prime informational domains ought to have common similarities. The familiar phrase Book of Life, along with analogous usage of language terms in genetics went on even earlier. Over the subsequent decades, as gathered here, parallels in between grew in veracity and value, often serving as insightful cross-comparisons. We now enter this 2016 section because several recent contributions strongly confirm an innate, natural similarity. A March 2016 issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A on “DNA as Information” (search Cartwright) braces this result by novel rootings of genome phenomena in mathematics, physics and chemistry. As our worldwise humankinder personsphere arises to learn on her/his own, a truly textual, poetic scriptome narrative code, which was the Magnum Opus quest of perennial tradition, is at last being fulfilled, revealed and proven.

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3. Genome Wide Complex Network Systems

As our worldwise sapiensphere proceeds to learn on her/his own, we add a 2015 section akin to other Systems units because genetic phenomena, broadly conceived, are now being seen and treated by the same informational, self-organized, complex modular network criticalities as everywhere else. In an Omics era whole genomes appear as another exemplar of this independent mathematical source. Nodal DNA nucleotides + connective AND regulatory networks across dynamic scales serve to inform and guide each myriad creature, life’s evolutionary gestation, ourselves, and a nascent celestial ovoGenesis. Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) which connect nucleotides and miomolecules are receiving concerted notice, which we here give much notice. Precursor work is also included as this significant, iconic domain becomes more rooted in a conducive physical multiUniVerse.

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E. An Enhanced Autonomous Individuality

Evolutionary transitions in individuality may provide the clearest examples of multilevel selection in nature. Canonical cases are the aggregation of prokaryotic cells into eukaryotic cells, cells into multicellular organisms, and multicellular organisms into colonies or societies. In each case, the dominant level of selection, and the level which is most “individuated,” shifted from the members to the aggregate as a whole. Carl Simpson, “The Evolution of Reproduction during Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality”

As bodily complexity, proactive cerebral intelligence and represented knowledge proceeds in evolution, another quality and directional parameter is each organism’s self-awareness and sense of personal identity. From our retrospect, the arc of life’s emergent genesis might be seen as a long, embryonic stirring toward a conception an individual, and collective, selfhood. And lately we seem to have reached the verge of a cognizant global individuation, a planetary progeny.

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F. New Parallels of Phylogeny and Ontogeny: Universal Gestation

In the 19th century, before and sometime after Darwin's The Origin of Species, a recapitulation between an organism’s embryonic development and the evolutionary course of species was widely accepted. The comparison was discarded around 1900 as anatomical studies came to find contradictions to the older close parallels. Today after a century of intensive, quantified research, a much better understanding of and broad agreement between ontogenetic development and phylogenetic evolution is accepted in several areas. In addition to fetal gestation, its necessary occurrence is recognized for cognitive, behavioral and especially linguistic qualities. From our late retrospect, the entirety of earth life’s somatic, cerebral and societal evolution increasingly seems to take on the similar appearance to the development, motor learning, mental achievement, and acquisition of language of a human individual. The title phrase "universal gestation" is said to represent this 19th century natural philosophy view, in which Charles Darwin was immersed. So a grand accord, as every other age and cultures knows, may again be realized between personal and planet, a vital discovery by humankinder.

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G. Integral Human Persons

As we now reach our very own ourselves in this long evolutionary traverse, it is worthwhile once more to review the website’s outline. Parts III, IV and V documented an amniotic cosmos, its genetic-like code, and life’s embryonic quickening on Earth. This extensive Part VI goes on to report how each nested phase from geological strata to whole humankind reflects the universal complementary system in its discrete and relational modes and their spiral path of self-making.

The present multi-section considers how human beings appear as a true microcosmic exemplar, this time set in a temporal procreation. Our personal development of body, brain and education from infancy on, regnant awareness, gender identity, modular personalities, and lifelong course of individuation, each express the archetypal, genomic icon. And notably, from what humankind is learning about its constituent members, phenomenal people are meant to appreciate themselves as co-participants in a greater genesis.

1. Systems Physiology and Psychology: Somatic and Behavioral Development

By a novel “developmental systems theory” approach, cited herein, the same complex dynamics found to self-organize cosmos and evolution seem to be in similar effect to guide an infant’s and child’s advance in bodily maturation, visual perception, kinetic agility, behavior and sequential stages of cognition.

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2. Systems Neuroscience: Multiplex Networks and Critical Function

When this section to document 21st century advances about every aspect of our brain anatomy and cognitive performance was first posted in 2004, the fields of scale-free networks, self-organizing complexities, neuroimaging techniques, computational capacities, genetic influences and consciousness studies were at an early stage, just getting going. Circa 2108, neuroscientist researchers have now achieved a good grasp of how we think, learn, remember, speak, experience, feel, respond, cooperate and be creative. A brain’s development and active cognizance is seen to arise from a dynamic hierarchy of multiplex neural networks, modules, communities, hubs and linkages, poised in an optimum critical state. Around 2010 this sensory system was dubbed a “connectome,” akin to other -omic phases. Whole brain studies and integrations are moving toward global workspace, integrated information, and predictive expectation working model explanations.

To personalize the endeavor, among many contributors we note Giorgio Ascoli, Danielle Bassett, Gyorgy Buzsaki, Antonio Damasio, Steven Grossberg, Karl Friston, Michael Gazzaniga, Suzana Herculano-Houzel, Christoph Koch, Sebastian Seung, Hava Siegelmann, Olaf Sporns, and Giulio Tononi, everyone herein, and other sections throughout. Indeed, to fulfill this promise, national and international collaborative brain projects, akin to the human genome, are underway in the United States, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. In regard, this neural network intricacy and acumen has become an iconic microcosm to an extent that, as Earthificial Intelligence notes, its deep learning abilities are used to analyze and discover from quantum to cultural realms. By this view, an AnthropoCosmo sapiensphere could even be seen to retrospectively quantify, and palliate, the myriad evolved personal organic brains from which it altogether fitfully arose.

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3. A Complementary Brain and Thought Process

An Emergent Bicameral Brain above (VI.C.3) reported a consistent trajectory of reciprocal cognitive faculties across evolutionary animal lineages. This present section records their full manifestation in human beings with distinctive left and right hemisphere qualities. While long intimated, a scientific proof began in the 1960s by the CalTech neuroscientist Roger Sperry, followed by wide 1970s, new age interest. After decades of clinical study, aided by advanced neuroimaging, a bilateral, asymmetric verification has been well quantified. In general, the left side focuses on finer, discrete objects out of context, with a right complement connects the dots within a holistic field of view.

Into the 21st century, additional sources and explanations for two alternative, cerebral archetypes arose. A “dual process” model due to Jonathan Evans, Daniel Kahneman, and others proposed a slow and fast thinking version. These phases proceed in our temporal cognizance, and occur in an evolutionary and historic train of original image perception and later quick detail attention. Another model is based on dorsal and ventral streams, see Marianne Wolf, Stephen Grossberg, Tara McHugh, Randall O’Reilly and others herein. Again the ventral way attends to What aspects such as separate words or events, while the dorsal path is attributed with a vital Where, Why contextual realizations and their meaning. A similar reciprocity is also conveyed by the 2010s core-periphery multiplex networks, check Danielle Bassett, Mason Porter, et al.

A further aspect and corollary is that conversational language is likewise facilitated by script and score complements. Along with literal speech and alphabetic text, often cast as a left brain specialty, a right brain musical prosody is a vital contribution for the communicative flow of discourse. We note for starters Tecumseh Fitch, Nicola Clayton and Kevin Laland, whence bodily hand and dance movements are needed to convey for one’s overall message. And once more, these modes appear in a rhythmic and linguistic evolutionary sequence, while also appearing in world religions and civilizations (see sections).

In summary, a constant litany of agent and relation, entity and empathy, network node and link, particle and wave, conservative or liberal is now well affirmed across an organic procreative cosmos. The grand, once and future, insight may be that this universal code is ultimately composed of masculine and feminine bigender complements. In support of a natural, parents to children, genesis, these consolidations by our worldwise bicameral sapience can serve to confirm that me and We peoples, in tradition yin, yang and Tao, are indeed a micorcosmic exemplar of a familial macorcosm.

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4. Conscious Integrated Information Knowledge

Due much, it is said, to the 17th century Cartesian divorce of mind from body, knowing consciousness has been mostly set aside as a spurious epiphenomenon. But into the 21st century, by way of novel turns and advances in philosophies of mind and neuroscience capabilities, mindful awareness has become a legitimate subject for research and validation. David Chalmers and Thomas Nagel, both at NYU, are among leading commentators. A stirring sentience is now perceived to arise through life's long evolution to human acumen, as also noted in the An Intrinsic Consciousness and Intelligence, Animal Intelligence and Awareness, sections and throughout.

Into the later 2010s, two main approaches have come to the fore – a whole brain Global Workspace Model (Bernard Baars, et al), and especially an Integrated Information Theory due to Giulio Tononi, along with Larissa Albantakis, Christoph Koch, Masafumi Oizumi and a growing list. As Pierre Teilhard noted seven decades ago, life’s developmental gestation can be seen to advance as an episodic tandem of relative sensation and complex knowledge. In regard the image is from an international conference held at the University of Arizona.

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5. Gender Complements: A Woman's Wisdome

As we continue to consider individual persons, the most significant feature of anyone’s life is surely their gender. As we well know, feminine and masculine identity roles have historically been replete to this day with self-serving cultural agendas, distortions, definitions, and resultant abusive injustice, that is to say defined by men. We are aware, for example, of the September 2017 Scientific American Gender issue and do not wish to add one more opinion. Rather, into these later 2010s, via an emergent, bicameral humankinder, it might be finally possible to cite a natural, cosmic phenomenal basis for egalitarian complementarities, which by this advance may at last be properly understood. As this sourcebook tries to document, the worldwise discovery of a greater organic genesis which exists on its own (truly a woman’s ecosmos) can reveal innate, constant bigender principles, as they array across, distinguish and inform a familial procreation.

This radical difference can be evinced from several once and future areas. As noted in Cosmome Code and throughout, an independent generative source which repeats in kind everywhere is now known as a dynamic interplay of two prime, archetypal modes of relational networks and elemental agents. As the nonlinear sciences of self-organizing complex adaptive networks abstractly express, each scale and instance from cosmos to culture is composed of dual node, component, dot, particle, entity and connective, link, communicative, modular, communal modes, roles or phases. One may cite neuron and axon, DNA nucleotides and AND regulatory networks, an Ubuntu me + We = US, and so on over an infinite recurrence.

From another aspect, an evolutionary radiation across creaturely forms from the earliest rudiments of a bilateral neural faculty is now well proven. Moreover, the same left side specific detailed focus and right field of view holds from invertebrates to sapiens. We next record a perennial philosophy of traditional teachings with a core essence of an anima/animus reciprocity. Yin + yang = Tao may be most familiar, an iconic family from microcosm to macrocosm. Still another recently emergent manifestation appears on an civilizational scale by the quantified presence of complementary east and west, south and north hemispheres.

Moving on, a recent confluence of studies and accounts altogether achieve a cogent, conclusion. On average male brains are larger than females, but left and right hemispheres less interconnected. Women, however, have a larger interconnective corpus callosum and are found to avail both left and right brain hemispheres in concert. As a result, women’s brains could be seen to have a superior double faculty since as generalists they need to take in both tree parts and the whole forest. Might one suggest a contrast phrase of Warrior and/or Worrier? Our horrifically stupid, violent, critically imperiled nuclear world is the result when a woman’s brain, mind, vision and wisdom is so subjugated, silenced, and disallowed.

Again, we do not seek to categorize gender but refer to a novel appreciation of actual archetypal principles, within their natural universe to human complementarity. In reality, as epitomized by Yin, Yang and Tao, each mode is meant to contain and be leavened by a degree of the other. An individual person, while biologically female or male, is a composite of the long litany of compete/cooperate, war/peace, self/society qualities. The eternal goal of personal (and collective) psychic individuation is then their beneficial balance and sacred marriage. These traits of independent interdependence or creative ubuntu unity will later serve to advise and inspire sustainable ecovillages.

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6. A Symbiotic Personal Self

Over the last century, the field of psychology sought to clarify and understand our human panoply of mental domains, behaviors, emotions, and a lot more, with a reference to their neuroanatomical, biochemical and genetic substrates. A prime concern was to identify and mitigate the psychic maladies that inflict night and day. In an initial analytic stage, many subsets and factions, along with its subject matter inhibited general theories. In the 1980s a confluence of neuroscience, linguistics, cognition, artificial intelligence, and philosophy became known as cognitive science. Humanistic and transpersonal psychologies in turn sought to shift the focus from deficits to positive enhancement.

This project has often divided into camps of nature vs. nurture. One side, under rubrics such as nativism, essentialism or rationalism, argues that innate, preset programs govern. The other, variously as behaviorism, constructivism or empiricism, contends people are molded by external influences and make life up as they go along. Approaches are converging on a middle ground but have labored without a unifying vision to (re)connect person, planet and cosmos. In the 1990s and 2000s an “evolutionary psychology” traced Darwinian roots for paternal investment, mate choice, altruism, rank, prejudice and so on. A further effort conceived mental capacity as a congress of “modules” or “mental organs,” evolved to solve an adaptive problem or handle a novel activity. And as observers note, such knowledge of ourselves does not determine but can in fact liberate.

Into the 2010s, a rising integration within a genesis cosmology draws upon the sciences of complexity and promises a better understanding of our diverse human mores. The integral psyche is seen to mature and be sustained by the same self-organized, fractal, network dynamics as the development of the living universe. Ones selfhood can be likened to an autopoietic system which refers to, maintains and creates its own, personal identity. As 2020 nears, an image of a truly symbiotic self due to Lynn Margulis, Scott Gilbert, Donna Haraway, and others is in full verification, see the Cellular Holobiont Symbiosis section. While this expansive vista applies to our internal beings, it is also serving to inform a simbiogenesis of viable groupings such as ecovillages and ubuntu villages.

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7. Archetypal Psychology

Throughout our lives, we are always participating in a biological and spiritual individuation process that has taken billions of years. Helene Shulman

This review of human somatic and neural development, a gender mutuality, and self-organized personality can now engage our dynamic, arduous, lifelong course of psychic individuation. In this regard we enlist the archetypal psychology of Freud’s younger contemporary Carl Jung (1875-1961). Drawing upon a rich corpus of mythic, alchemical, shamanic and religious wisdom, a life passage is traced from a maternal embrace which must be parted with to enter the treacherous external world in search of a ones own distinct persona. Phases of experiment, struggle, test and loss, in symbolism a cathartic disintegration, eventually leads to palliative reunification. Opposites of feminine anima and masculine animus separate and clash in allegorical death and rebirth on the way to sacred marriage in the conception of a whole person.

Mythic dimensions bring illustrative value. A male “hero” is more involved with aspects of conflict and quest, the female “heroine” evokes beneficent synthesis. Masculine phases align more with a transit between levels while the feminine resides at original and future abodes. And there is a crucial point for a natural genesis narrative. In their classic essence, Buddha, the Grail Knight, Dante, pilgrim, shaman, and each candidate must ultimately come to their own witness and discovery. The guides retire, the task cannot be done for them. In order to attain new being the seeker must be able realize their own reception of wisdom. Finding the Grail vessel is not enough to restore the kingdom, Parsifal must mindfully ask the Grail question. In such unity, a person can both acknowledge and reconcile mother and father and be faithful to oneself.

An endeavor to (re)join human and universe in a temporal, secular age would involve a correspondence between the spiral path of personal individuation and the generic way that complex systems organize themselves as complements vie and cohere into an emergent whole. Ones daily round may then become a microcosmic exemplar of and contribution to a developmental, personalizing cosmos. As Carl Jung, Pierre Teilhard, Freya Mathews and many others have proposed, human, earthly and cosmic psychogenesis are, as ever, one and the same.

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H. The Phenomenon of HumanKinder

The first four sections of Part VI, Earth Life Emergence, documented a nested evolution of organic entity, sentience, formative program, and awareness from bacteria to biosphere. A parallel was then noted between this overall phylogeny and individual (human) ontogeny. In Integral Persons, we saw much evidence for people as active exemplars of and participants in a self-organizing earthly and cosmic genesis.

A further, sequential emergence now seems underway to an integral super-organic phase as if a planetary progeny. The earth is a finite globe and niche which serves to compress a hyper-interconnected humanity into a composite somatic and cerebral physiosphere, collaborative knowledge, and fledgling self-identity. This multipart section covers aspects of a linguistic cultural code, human societies as complex adaptive systems, a worldwide anatomy and metabolism, east/west and south/north bicameral civilizations, also evident in world religions. The stage is set to consider, in retrospect, how the long travail of world macrohistory may appear as a relative psychic individuation. A global cognitive faculty, a noosphere coming to its own recognition, knowledge and discovery, was reviewed earlier in the Part II, Mindkind section.

1. A Cultural Code: Systems Linguistics

For still another manifestation, as it must, the universal dynamic, self-organizing, fractal system is found to infuse in the evolution of human language, with regard to constructive grammar and syntax, along with its informational content, equally for script and speech. This latest mode of social communication is now seen to have a deep congruence with the molecular genetic code, as if a "languagome." And so once more a Systems Linguistics can be initiated. This congruence serves researchers in both domains and is another example of nature using the same procedure over and over. Circa 2012, with their increasing proliferation, citations that well perceive literary content and discourse as complex, scale-free networks are included in the Rosetta Cosmos section.

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2. Complex Local and Global Societies

As the case with the field of psychology noted above, the growing application of nonlinear science to the multi-faceted subject of sociology has also led to the discernment of a common, innate mathematical basis. Rather than one random event after another sans any deeper context, a global science is able to perceive how complex dynamic systems similarly organize the shape and interaction of groups, assemblies, settlements and cities, from a few members to a metropolis. As introduced in Organic Societies earlier, such communities proceed to evolve toward an organism-like cognitive coherence. A premier distinction at best is a reciprocal symbiosis between free individual and supportive group. By these insights, as various papers report, from political elections, sporting events, social media, financial commerce, to migrations, and even battlefield chaos, can yet be found a constant mathematical format. And if this unbeknownst mathematical dimension might be revealed and availed, fed back from humankind to its peoples, a better, more peaceful world might accrue.

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3. A Planetary Physiosphere: Anatomics, Economics, Urbanomics

Historians, architects, and scholars have often advised that societies, especially in urban settings, seem in their material circulations, skeletal infrastructure, and cognitive cultures to take on a likeness of the developing anatomy, metabolism and nervous system of an organism. As an intensifying human presence converges over and is compressed by the finite biosphere, a further evolutionary emergent phase is arising in the guise of a global super-organic personage. Its cerebrally collaborative ‘noosphere’ able to achieve such a perspective was documented in Mindkind, with additional personal qualities covered in Sustainable Ecovillages such as local "social protocells." This section also reports a shift in finance and commerce from a mechanical equilibrium model via another dynamic complexity revolution, aka econophysics, so as to imply a "Systems Economics."

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4. The Complementarity of Civilizations

“East is east and west is west, and never the twain shall meet” wrote Rudhyar Kipling long ago. Nowadays many research studies in social psychology report that western and eastern cultures do generally reflect polar autonomous individual or communal group attributes. For the purposes of this website, such quantified findings may then show how the universal archetypes seem manifest even on a global stage. But these reciprocal phases have rarely been understood and as set in opposition have caused much international strife and injustice. If civilizations that currently “clash” could actually be seen as naturally recurrent complementarity, a palliative path to their reconciliation might result. A unique role for Muslim culture as bridge between West and East is suggested in Bicameral World Religions.

During the cold war the United States and the Soviet Union went to the brink of nuclear conflict over individualism vs. communism. Before September 11, 2001, the U. S. was squaring off with China over the same dichotomy. An obvious solution would be a salutary reciprocity of both dispositions. Another area of much violence and hardship is post-colonial Africa. A lesser known but crucial finding is that the same complements equally hold for Southern and Northern hemispheres. A resolve might also accrue here, with especial avail for better racial understanding. (The Old Earth section records the fatal impediments of weapons proliferation, male warlords, and economic corruption which block constructive efforts everywhere.)

A further issue which has intensified in the 2010s is racial in kind, which again involves Southern and Northern complements. Many volumes of ancient and modern African wisdom are posted in World Philosophy, as they evoke an organic option to the reigning machine model. As recorded in the Writings section, we have written about Leopold Senghor’s emphasis on a “complementarity” of opposites or halves as the best resolution. See especially the work of Molefi Kete Asante, Maulana Karenga, and Messay Kebede, among many voices whom must be heard.

Such instances among many cry out for the promise of humankind’s own knowledge, which as MIT’s Thomas Malone (search) says, may be our only solution. An imperative transformation from this fanatical, militarist, inequitable, tribal, unsustainable world, descending into blunders, terror, and carnage, to an enlightened mutuality of personal welfare and caring community could be there for the asking. A further aspect which has intensified in the mid 2010s

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5. Bicameral World Religions

The comparative study of religious traditions is another project of composite humankind. The great world faiths, both Abrahamic and Asian, arose in a first “axial period” circa 500 B.C. to 700 A.D. Within the theme of this website, we suggest that a worldwide complementarity might also be found between Western and Eastern modes of belief and doctrine. As many scholars note, the spiritual sentiments these hemispheres hold to basic responses or dichotomies of God and the human, heaven or earth, linear or cyclical time, and so on. Surely this is a huge, vested subject and these brief thoughts and references try to broach ecumenical openings and rapport.

For Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism, in broad survey, a person and the Divine form a continuum, “God and man are one.” Within this sacred milieu human Atman is an embryonic divinity immersed in encompassing Brahman. Such unity holds because the numinous cosmos is animate in kind, a viable organism. Its quintessence is primal and ascendant mind, not lumpen matter. To theologian Peter Berger, these beliefs are more “interior” as turned to contemplation, the world accepted as given. Eastern cultures, as noted, seem more communal or “wave-like” with an emphasis on group values over discrete self.

Western creeds mostly prefer an opposite, particulate mode. An individual is separate, apart from God, the earth somehow flawed, broken or fallen. Again per Berger, a person is thrust to outward action in a “confrontational” role. To equate oneself with God is heretical. For Judaism, Christianity and Islam, the Divine is transcendent but remote; one is a sinful mendicant, the world of little or no value in itself. At the Western pole, an extroverted individual supersedes social concerns.

To press the analogy, such religious and societal contrasts could be seen to represent bilateral brain hemispheres on a planetary scale. In regard a special instance may be the Muslim essence, which although an Abrahamic faith sees itself as ‘neither east nor west.’ William Chittick’s essay “The Anthropocosmic Vision,” in collaboration with Tu Weiming, contends that Islam also aligns with Asian conceptions. One might note that Islam’s geographical location from Morocco to Indonesia is where an interbridging ‘corpus callosum’ would be. Such speculations are respectfully offered as an example of what might be gained from a humankind vista.

This outline section for global belief systems also records the 21st century theological resolution known as Pan-en-theism. Indeed, after all centuries, it is being realized that numinosity must abide both in paternal transcendence and a maternal procreative immanence. Prime works in regard are Panentheism by John Cooper, and Panentheism Across the World's Traditions, edited by Loriliai Biernacki and Philip Clayton.

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6. Religion and Science

An historic reconvergence of scientific and religious encounters is underway but the project seems daunted by trying to reconcile the old, materialist, Darwinian version with belief in and proof of a Divine creator. Signs of an ordained design by way of the “anthropic principle” are a prime endeavor. Glimpses of an innately self-organizing cosmos occur but the waxing realization of a genesis universe whereof earth and human have their own intrinsic value has not yet registered.

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7. Systems History: Personal and Planetary Individuation

An ambition of historians and philosophers has long been to discern the topologies, forces and trends, if any, that might underlie, move, and trace the course of human affairs, peoples, cultures, nations, creeds, and civilizations. Because these efforts, in their partiality, were often socially misapplied, not due to theory but its misuse, the project of seeking such a ‘metanarrative’ is now abandoned. The difference proposed here is a 21st century perception of a self-organizing genesis universe found by humankind. A first step is to admit that intrinsic generative forces exist at all. For an exemplary 2010s source view the content of Cliodynamics: Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History. An ability to gain novel knowledge via such sciences of complex complementarity could provide beneficial guidance for a kinder, more sustainable world, as Part VII next will suggest.

Another theme of this website has been an accord of human beings in both their gender identity and a person’s life course with the nested, recurrent, emergence of a procreative family cosmos. By an holistic retrospect, the arduous wax and wane of civilizations might then appear as a composite cerebral and psychic individuation. Scholars describe an initial animate, maternal milieu followed by patriarchal millennia as anima and animus interact, separate and vie. As well known, masculine mentalities rule to this day with war-obsessed competitions, vitally in need of empathic feminine mediation. As Richard Tarnas, Suzanne Kirschner, Freya Mathews, Arne Naess, and many others herein advise, each individual, earth life and whole cosmos seem to be engaged in a similar journey of personal self-witness, empowerment, and actualization.

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8. An Emergent Evolutionary Transition to a Personsphere Progeny

As this site tracks the scientific and academic literature, a growing trend is the widespread acceptance of this nested, repetitive scale as a way to define life’s episodic emergence from replicative biomolecules to human linguistic societies. It was first conceived in two volumes The Major Transitions in Evolution, (1995) and The Origins of Life (1999) by the theoretical biologists John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmary. They are reviewed in Systems Evolution, along with many reports on their presence across fauna, flora, neural, and group instances. The original seven stages are shown in Ascent of Genetic Information since each comes with a certain code. This robust 21st century version of an oriented sequence from which people arise now sets aside an old Darwinian aimless, contingency, which as yet remains in textbooks.

Herein this new 2015 section will gather entries from various perspectives that sight and explore a continuance of this pattern and process onto a nascent civilizational phase. Several entries cited elsewhere are included for a sense of biological and genetic rootings. We offer these novel examples as an outline of a hopeful humankinder whom can carry forth anatomical, physiological, and cerebral wisdoms to an individual, societal and planetwide super-organic viability. As for an Earthlish, Earthese, or Earthian language, throughout the website it seems this ought to be genetic in kind, as if a global genome.

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