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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Introduction
Genesis Vision
Learning Planet
Organic Universe
Earth Life Emerge
Genesis Future
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X. Online Introduction 2004 - 2014: A Cosmic Copernican Revolution

Introduction 2004

This initial section surveys the themes and outline upon which the website is based. Its working premise is that the whole earth through humankind is presently coming to its own cognizance and knowledge. From this perspective, in the first decade of a new millennium, a Copernican Revolution of cosmic proportions seems underway. A 19th and 20th century pointless, expiring, mechanical model is being replaced by a biological universe whose innate qualities develop into life, intelligence and creative persons. Rather than a new Newton or Darwin, today a collaborative discovery by all people seems in occurrence, “in the air” so to speak. At the same time that civilizations clash and climates change, in our midst appears a salutary genesis narrative, if we might just look for it.

Our intent is to respectfully propose, introduce and document this event and achievement. To reflect its planetary occasion, it is posted as an annotated bibliography and anthology, not a long essay. This format can gather, arrange, and report both common, independent principles and their manifest evidence everywhere, which can be situated within a storyline instead of an alphabetic list. From our titles, Natural Genesis implies an embryonic, still-developing cosmos by a synthesis of an incarnate genotype program and emergent phenotype novelty. Worldwide Discovery means the advent of earth’s own cerebral capacity, while a Creative, Organic Universe implies an evolutionary gestation whereof human beings are vital, phenomenal participants.

As a caveat up front, although terms such as genesis, order, progress are unavoidable and appropriate, no “intelligent design” or doctrinal agenda is intended. An effort will be made to show a deep accord between the new cosmology and traditional religion. But its emphasis will be on an identity and value for this earth and all its inhabitants, now and in the future. At a climactic historical hour, we wish to broach an alternative vision based on wide range of print and electronic resources as an integral humanity might be realizing them. While the world seems bent on going back to the dark ages, a grand new Light Age dawns on the horizon.

Natural Genesis: The phrase is chosen to resolve two sequential conceptions of our earthly presence now at odds. Until circa 1859, the world was variously considered an ordained, animate, sympathetic abide. With roots in scripture, this persuasion was known as natural philosophy, essentialism or natural law. In the late 19th century, traditional belief gave way to a Darwinian view of an ancient, capricious evolution by natural selection alone. In the 20th century as a mechanical paradigm took hold, our home planet became a seemingly insignificant speck in a hostile, expanding multiverse.

Natural genesis connotes a rising, composite view of life’s evolution as a nested development that converges on sentient, intelligent beings. No longer an arbitrarily branching bush, an overall direction is traced by a ramifying scale and vector of body, brain, knowledge, individuality and community. Original religion was mostly static in time and hierarchical in space. An evolving cosmos revealed a temporal dimension but banished coherence or purpose. This sourcebook looks toward a 21st century image of a conducive cosmos as its valiant earth life reaches the verge of collective self-awareness. And notably, the website will not only list many works as evidence but go on to show how the recurrent pattern and process they find can advise a much kinder, gentler future.

In 1994, an article of mine, “Environmental Ethics and the Question of Cosmic Purpose,” was published in the journal Environmental Ethics. (16/4) It contended that we cannot have a living planet in a dead universe, that the materialist pessimism whereof life and people are of no account will undercut efforts toward an ecologically sustainable society. We are still beset by this negative, machine model. It is necessary to first get the encompassing cosmos right for all else follows from it. This endeavor is a response some ten years later.

A Worldwide Discovery: A prime reason is that earth’s viable biosphere and noosphere of the mind seems to be reaching its own realm of knowledge, largely unbeknownst to the individual members who accomplished it. Here we touch on its critical moment in time, the mindfulness to imagine such a discovery, a bicameral humankind and a Rosetta cosmos whereby every testament and version can translate into each other.

The Decisive Hour of Earth: The decades before and after the millennium are curiously coincident with a spherical closure of history. The fall of communism circa 1990 initiated a global burst of commerce, travel and communication. But in its wake came environmental impact and weather extremes, along with internecine conflict, disenfranchisement, spreading terror. These interlinked effects increasingly threaten human civility and planetary life support systems. The absence of a cosmological relevance for daily life contributes to fundamentalisms, overconsumption and a cacaphony of economic, political, social and ethical problems. Earth is a finite globe, a fact often lost, upon which humanity is at the threshold of somatic and cognitive unity in diversity. We seem poised between a successful metamorphosis by our own acumen, initiative and self-selection or an irreversible, terminal decline.

The Discovery Event: For most prior ages, people dwelt within an organic, variously meaningful realm. But due to a modern indifferent, moribund cosmos, along with world wars, genocide, totalitarian regimes and other horrors, the quest for a knowable reality has been given up. A postmodernism argues that each mythic, religious, literary, philosophical or scientific rendition is culturally relative and incompatible, a grand narrative no longer possible. A reductive, mechanistic science goes on to say there is nothing to know anyway. In a volatile, still nuclear age, we need to affirm that children, women and men are crucial, intended participants in an unfinished creation.

But at this propitious moment, it may be equally possible to decipher what the universe and the human might be and become. A large step is the very idea that such a question can be asked and answered. The cosmos is said to have begun in an instant explosive singularity. Some 14 billion years later, on a special bioplanet, could a second singularity occur through such a discovery? If there is a quality that most distinguishes the human presence it seems an awesome capacity to learn. Surely there should be something to find.

A Learning Planet: In this incendiary post-millennium decade, a new occasion and source of knowledge on earth would be of great service. Rather than due to one individual as earlier, today it is all persons together whom seem to be coming to their own edification. In an evolution which will be seen to proceed as a nest of cellular wholes from microbes to societies, a further advance often predicted is a superorganic global phase of both beneficial unity and liberated diversity. A consequence is an enveloping brain-like faculty able to recognize and explain the genesis universe from which it arose. Please see Mindkind: A Global Knowledge for doucmentation.

The Learning Planet logo might stand for what the multi-billion year ascent of life and mind on earth seems to be about. The worldwide convergence of theory, experiment, and intellect becomes the way the developing, personalizing cosmos can achieve its own self-recognition. From our retrospective vantage, an intended role of human beings is to quantify, transcribe, discover – and complete - sidereal and earthly nature. If our disparate findings and voices might be gathered into a common dispensation, a novel understanding and affinity of universe and human may just now be available.

A Rosetta Cosmos: For millennia stories, myths, testaments, and philosophies have tried to express and justify existence. But many societies are now rent by conflicts between interpretations. Yet should not each testimony reflect the same story, albeit often tragic, and be translateable as languages one into another? Instead of “incommensurable” versions as postmodernism claims, ought not the hero/heroine with a thousand faces, network theory, psychic individuation, the Kabbalah, fractal self-similarity, Sufism, the Bible and so on each reflect one greater reality? And as tradition teaches, their Rosetta code would be the gender complementarity of human life. Once an adult man was the icon, today in an embryonic genesis it would be ones full life course of self-actualization. At a time when so many peoples are beset by poverty, disease, oppression, and violence, when biosphere and climate are overstressed, the rediscovery of a wisdom and identity to complement heritage, wherein one can be both ethnic and earthling, would be of immense value.

A Creative, Organic Universe: From this holistic vista, the over fifteen hundred references posted here can testify to a once and future encounter with an embryonic, numinous universe. Science began by reading nature as a sacred book. The endeavor went on to explore and catalogue atom, cell, species and star. But its necessary method of looking down into matter and back in time reduced and lost life along the way. Earth and human were removed from privileged regard to a rare, contingent blossom not to appear again. This physical agenda, lately in search of a quantum theory of everything, seems almost Ptolemaic in its efforts to shore up an inadequate model and misplaced emphasis.

As the references attest, a growing number of researchers and scholars advocate a quite different scenario. An organically self-organizing universe is increasingly understood which can return life and intelligence to a central significance. In a biological cosmos whose innate properties give rise to sentient beings on cellular planets, its essence is most evident from whom they may become. No longer a random tangent, the manifest emergence of life, mind and informed selves can define a vectorial arrow of cosmogenesis. People are once more of cosmic notice, this time as its leading, creative, spiritual edge.

A Cosmic Code: As the universe takes on an organic quality, a genetic-like source is also being found. Such a feature resided at the heart of wisdom whereby the natural realm was arrayed in a congruent scale and ascent from microcosm to Divine macrocosm. In the East variously as an anthropocosmic vision, Indra’s web, yin and yang, to Thomas Aquinas it was an “analogy of proper proportion.” For Judaism and Islam, such a mirror identity again serves to relate creature and Creator.

This resonance likewise vanished in evolutionary time and celestial space. But new sciences of complex, nonlinear, self-creating systems seem to again reveal an independent, universal pattern and process, this time in a temporal gestation. The same component elements and dynamic relations are perceived to recur over and over at each stage from quarks to molecules, cells, neurons, ecosystems, communities, economies and clusters of galaxies. Once known as emblematic, resonant or correlative, today its scientific terms are fractal, holographic, iterative. The recovery of the realization that the cosmos comes with a transparent code, that everything springs from and exemplies a singular principle and impulse, is a crucial insight. And as ever it is epitomized by procreative human gender. By such an ingrained feature, aware beings on a infinitesimal planet may yet be able to comprehend their supernal niche and august purpose.

An Integral Gender Complementarity: As many observers note, for centuries science and society have been masculine in kind. Their investigative project has taken the universe apart and it lies mostly in pieces. As Thomas Berry writes, nature is treated more as an insensate collection of objects, rather than a communion of subjects. If fertile Earth is to succeed as a locus of awakening cosmic life, a new phase of holistic reassembly, more feminine in essence, able to connect dots, is required to complete the picture.

A reciprocity of male and female principles imbued tradition and indeed reappears in the new sciences. As a theme to be repeated often, we mention particle and wave, elemental node and relational link, agent and system, gene and genome, left and right brain, animus and anima. A step or leap here taken is to equate the autonomous agents and their relational interaction of complex adaptive systems with these archetypal principles. Part IV, A Universal Code, has much more on this. After ages of exclusion, a woman’s empathic, contextual sensibility is vital to heal, demilitarize and save an imperiled home. A grand accomplishment of a bicameral humankind is to identify in a cosmic genesis an inherent feminine quality, equal and complementary with the masculine.

An Earthkind Future: All the references of theory and evidence are of little avail if they do not prescribe a much better, peaceful, just, healthy world. As whole earth became visible from space, our special, precious planet appears as a center of life, mind and selfhood. In this ovular image, a transition to a successful, cooperative earth community is imperative. Yet in the old mindset, ethnic, racial, political, religious and economic domains increasingly fragment, polarize and implode. If a symbiotic individual/group reciprocity can be observed at each nested stage, this natural theme can be intentionally carried forth as a model for self-organized urban and rural neighborhoods. Please see Part VII, Sustainable Ecovillages for current examples. The rarely used term Earthkind is proposed for all biospheric fauna and flora including human beings.

A Learning Planet Outline: Within our humankind scope are then collected an extensive range of research papers and summary overviews as a representative sample of the literature. Each chapter and section comes with an introduction. An attempt is made to list text citations and websites which contain copious references or links. As a periodical review, new contributions will be posted in the Recent Additions section.

The outline basically follows how a natural genesis might be recognized, encompass and develop. Part I, The Genesis Vision, cites synoptic glimpses of an organic, incomplete universe. A background frame of reference is provided in Part II, A Planetary Learning Experience. This contains Original Wisdom which notes The Book of Nature as a familar metaphor. It goes on to show how the scientific enterprise proceeded to result in a cumulative sphere of knowledge just now emerging.

Part III, An Animate, Amniotic Cosmos, contains resources that testify to an embryonic universe made for life and people. With this supportive milieu in place, Part IV, A Universal Genetic Code, enters its formative, self-organizing source. Part V, A Quickening Evolution, covers a much revised understanding of the course of life and mind via a sequence of nested stages, as informed by complex systems science and many other advances.

The rest of the website, Part VI, Earth Embryogenesis: Developmental Stages of Life, Mind, Self and Knowledge, reports how the independent, creative complements are manifestly evident at every plane. Here is presented life’s earthly course from geology to Gaia, brain’s procession to self-awareness, an ascendent informational quality, enhanced individuality and new parallels between evolutionary phylogeny and personal ontogeny.

In this view, the human phase likewise embodies the cosmic code. Integral Persons spans infant and child development to archetypal psychology. The Phenomenon of Humankind notes its occurrence with regard to language, complex societies, a superorganic globe, east/west and south/north complements and bicameral world religions. From our late vista, a new witness of macrohistory as a process of personal individuation can be compiled.

If we might avail ourselves,these repetitive phases can inform and guide a changed world as suggested in Part VII, An Earthkind Future. The critical condition of life’s support systems is the subject of The Old Earth. At the same moment, A New Earth Creation is apparent, for example, as a webwork of diverse, sustainable villages, cities and bioregions of great benefit to their members. An open future of celestial expanse awaits a successful Earthkind, as noted in The Greening of the Galaxy.

Reader Recommendations: As another caveat, the site is surely an on-going, communal process, as it attempts to glimpse what humankind may be learning on its own. In this regard, please contact us at earthlearn@charter.net with books, articles, chapters, websites, organizations, movements and so on. A brief annotation would be helpful. Recommendations that find their way into the bibliography will acknowledge whom proposed it. Many thanks in advance.

A. Anthropo Sapiens: A 2004 - 2014 Decadal Review

Ten years after the initial website posting, a half-century since the project began, we introduce this survey of science and society over the years from 2004 to 2014, and necessarily set within a wider span of 1990 – 2020. By a retrospect, an historic transformation of personal, planetary, and even cosmic import can be perceived. In regard, it seems evident that a further stage of the major evolutionary transition scale from local human to global humankind is underway. We will note by turns, its Homo, Anthropo, Sophia, and Cosmo Sapiens identities. The value of this view is to realize a fledgling planetary progeny as learning on her/his collaborative own. Again, this is the basic, guiding premise of the annotated anthology site, so as to reveal a revolutionary procreative organic universe there for the asking and seeing.

The decadal review is arranged in three stages. This Part I is posted as Anthropo Sapiens: The State of a Personsphere and Noosphere, and Cosmo Sapiens: Our Unification and Discovery of a Genesis Universe. The first current events section will lightly list and chronicle, while the science segment arranges and elaborates at some length. In the latter section, via Earthkinder, after centuries of particulate reductions and spatial explorations, a guiding motif will be a grand reassembly, revival and reunion of disparate fields, theories, myriad facets, unto an integral conducive cosmos.

Another suitable image might be availed from Charles Dickens, which I used in a lead slide for presentations on the home page. The first worldly phase could be A Tale of Two Planets, to help us gain a sense of turmoil as reciprocal readjustment between ethnic peoples and an Earth community goes on. A Tale of Two Universes follows as similarly posed between a past paradigm of Accelerated Expansion whereof human beings have no place, and Convergent Genesis whence children, women and men are vital participants.

This preamble opens with time divisions over the thirty period as humankinder rises, merges, and closes over a round, finite precious biosphere. Historic phases of Homo, Anthropo, Sophia, and Cosmo Sapiens set a scene for a worldwise persona, bicameral brain, aware mind, unto our intended self-discovery of a procreative family ecosmos.

Part II then posts an array of select condensed references from each outline chapter and section to document a decade of progress and confirmation. Thirdly, a separate chapter with a working, mutable title Great Earth: The Fittest Planet and UniVerse will attempt to broach a natural philosophy of a revolutionary new uniVerse and future creation we are now invited to witness, choose, and continue. As an initial caveat, a “singularity” term is apt and will be cited, but we do not in any way intend or endorse the near technology takeover it popularly implies.

Up front, we are aware that a human condition of rising to and merging into a semblance of a planetary organism-like person is being evoked. Another caveat, informed by an innate, archetypal, recurrent, biological reciprocity of free individual and supportive whole, this does not imply a loss or compromise of individual liberties. With many names – creative union, ubuntu, competitive coherence, metastability, mutual aid, symbiotic democracy – by one’s membership in a viable community, such as an ecovillage, a person can gain actual liberty and creative fulfillment.

Our 1990 – 2020 EarthKinder Event

In this exercise, we are trying to gather in some format the many facets and advances of our consummate age. As a 2014 retrospect, we seem betwixt a doomsday apocalypse or boomsday promise, dark or light age, a tale of two futures. It serves to sort into certain periods.

1990: With the supposed end of the superpower Cold War, an expansive onset of global travel, commerce, migration, communication, media, education, and so on, began. An enveloping world web of electronic communication and computation took rudimentary form. As the theme and content of this site advises, an ascent of human persons to a further phase of a super-organic planetary progeny had commenced. OK

2000: How fitting and provident it is, not at all coincidental, that an occasion of this magnitude arrives at the turn of a millennium. Indeed, the word “apocalypse” originally did not mean final destruction but transformative passage to a new numinous creation.

2004 – 2014: Over these subject years, the evolutionary transition to a humankinder progeny became an actual occurrence, at least as to a bicameral mind, learning endeavor, and composite knowledge. It began with few journals and books online, little social media, no iPhones (2008) or tablets (2010), but now closes with the shift completed to every publication accessible in digital and phased out in paper. Here is the valiant worldwise emergence in our midst for the asking and the answers we need.

2014: The present year is of especial note whence humankind’s cumulative collaboration seems to have attained a critical depth, breadth and robust veracity not possible much earlier. An aim of this review is to introduce, declare and document this grand accomplishment across every area from a creative organic cosmos to a sustainable earth community.

2020: Six years ahead can form a convenient bracket as a deadline, indeed a lifeline, to achieve. “2020” also means a clear sight and vision of binocular left and right bilateral balance and coherent unison. And this is a story which we are given to contribute to and choose whether it ends or has a new beginning. May we each one and altogether be able to imagine, perceive, survive and thrive as a second genesis, before it is too late.

An Emergent Worldwise Personsphere

As readers well know, we seem beset by problems and issues which defy solution within any old mindset. In our singular moment, everything is happening at once. Our guiding premise is the convergent evolutionary formation over round Earth of a common humanity, a self-sapient species, a prodigious progeny. This simple step or leap might open unto a natural, palliative knowledge we so need. As a tacit arrangement, we pose an range of identities for our fledgling earthkinder. OK

Anthropo Sapiens: As Natural Genesis tries to convey throughout, and especially in Mindkind: A Global Knowledge, an epochal change and ascent has occurred in the human condition. No longer isolate individuals or confined groupings, peoples are now members of a composite planetary personage, at once ethnic and earthling. Over the thirty year span, intense modes of social interactivity, jet travel, cable TV, instant communication and reportage, sacred and secular, extremisms from civilizations to climate, seem to impact, roil and daunt all at once

As I edit this in November, a recent posting on Nature Scientific Reports describes how coral reefs form and survive if their “biogenesis” can attain a modicum of “self-recognition” (search Hennige here and on that site). Surely we altogether need to do the same. While bodily anatomy and physiology remain in critical peril, an enveloping noosphere leads with a nascent intelligence unto knowledge. Complementary East and West, South and North hemispheres are in place, and the arc of Islam in both cases where a corpus callosum would be. But the guns and missiles of 2014 a century later are now nuclear and profuse, a televised barbarism, carnage, elective warfare, horrifies. Surely is time to awaken and take back the universe for children of the future.

Sophia Sapiens: But an imperative essence and quality need be appreciated and restored for this remediation to succeed. As well known, the old material machine multiverse, and a consequent world at perpetual conflict, is totally male in character, a left brain particulate excess sans any vision, a fatal aberration. Women, half the sky and cosmos, have been denigrated, brutalized and dismissed in every way out of existence. A co-recipient of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize is Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani teenager who was shot by terrorists for her advocacy of female education. And this glaring omission eludes us. Has anyone noticed that if Isis, the iconic, ultimate Goddess of feminine health and wisdom, is so banished, then a male “ISIS” version will rear unrestrained in her stead to rule and rampage.

However the past decade of systems neuroscience can contribute a profound new resolve. While gentlemen predominately use one dots only brain mode, ladies actually engage both sides to achieve a right and left brain/mind reciprocity of parts and scenes, trees in a forest, entity and empathy. By such an integral acumen, a greater genesis reality and destiny, which eludes myopic men, can be realized. Such a gender distinction and cognitive fulfillment, a woman’s wisdom, a mother cosmos, can change our state and fate from death to life, night to light, separatists to eco-communities. The restorative importance and inclusion of feminine empathic contributions cannot be overstated.

Homo Sapiens: If we might ever stop fighting, valiant, cooperative human beings may lately aspire to an individual and communal empowerment, dispensation, knowledge, and purpose here and now. No longer passive penitents or contingent accidents, in a family ecosmos, phenomenal persons can become active discoverers and co-creators.

By this true birthright, at a singular natal moment, a novel mindfulness can be entered. The past mindset since the 19th century has denied any encompassing actuality that exists and develops on its own, of which peoples are an intended, central phenomenon. Into the 21st century, as if awakening from a long fetal sleep and dream, with every alarm is going off, we may become empowered and enlightened as anthropo, Sophia, and cosmo sapiens, so as to learn to read, embrace, resolve, survive and begin anew.

Cosmo Sapiens: Again by these perspectives we are in the midst of an epochal Copernican revolution about the nature and future of universe and human. Our earthkinder vista can orient and inform the whole discussion, which seems to daunt individuals alone. In this expanse, our flickering cognizance might have a relevance as the universe’s way of achieving its own self-discovery and selection. To properly do so, 2004 to 2014 ought to be situated in a wider span of scientific advance of circa 1950 to 2020.

A Tale of Two Universes: A Cosmic Genesis Revolution

As way to illustrate and convey, here is a topical list of contrasts between past, waning 17th to 20th century version and a nascent, future 21st century scientific genesis vision.

Historic stage: Particle Ptolemaic 1600s – 1850, 1900, 1950, today - Organic Copernican 1980s – 2000, 2004, 2014

Scientist mode: Human individuals, small groups, male - Humankind collaborative, global, fellows and mellows

Procedural scope: Reduction to and analysis of objects, parts, bones, fragments - System relations, networks, entities synthesis, emergence

Visual orientation: Down into atoms, Back in time, Out in space - Temporal evolutionary, complex, cognitive, teleological, development

Overall reality: None, denied, indifferent, hostile, nothing - Phenomenal universal gestation of life, mind, free selves in community

Concept model: Mechanical, contingent, computer, accident, dead - Organic, familial, fertile, reproductive, alive

Science spiral: Divergence objects, subfields, strata, methods, terms - Convergence reassembly, revival, unify physics, biology, quanta, classical, Ecosmos

Natural infinities: Two - large cosmic and small atomic - Third Infinity of emergent biocomplexity and persona

Material Basis: Inert, inorganic, passive, sterile, mechanism in motion - Proactive, living, self-organizing spontaneity

Generative Code: None chance, accident, selection alone - Implicate mathematical, algorithmic, informational

Quantum realm: Arcane micro stage vs. macro classical nature, society - Inclusive as deeper complex informative network system

Earth significance: None rare, precarious, dying, stochastic mote - Special planet for cosmic decipherment and discovery

Life’s evolution: Aimless contingent, no source, direction or goal - Embryonic a proactive quickening, developmental gestation

Mind, consciousness: Spurious, only appears from complex brains - Fundamental milieu for a living, personal cosmos

Human beings: Arbitrary accidents, no place or purpose - Phenomenal people for cosmic witness, knowledge and selection

Brain hemispheres: Left only - discrete detail sans any context - Whole right image + left pixel = integral wisdom

Gender basis: Men to women ten to one, less, or excluded - Complementary teams of women and men

Communication venue: Local, paper books, journals, slow publication - Worldwide online instant posting, feedback, revision, access


ANTHROPO SAPIENS: THE EMERGENCE OF A PERSONSPHERE AND NOOSPHERE

1.0 Noosphere: The Formation of a Global Cerebral Faculty

2.0 Sociosphere: Divergence and Convergence

2.1 A Major Evolutionary Transition
2.2 A Complementarity of Civilizations
2.3 The State of Religious Belief Systems
2.4 The State of Conceptual and Philosophical Thought
2.5 The State of a Worldwise Collaborative Science

3.0 Biosphere: Our Critical Life Support Condition
3.1 Global Climate as a Complex Dynamical System
3.2 Sustainable Ecovillages
3.3 An Organic, Symbiotic Democracy
3.4 A Viable Gaia

4.0 Knowsphere: A New Natural Creation

The authorship for this annotated anthology is the evolutionary formation over the Earth of a global organic entity, akin to people, whom can be seen gaining her/his own knowledge. Here are some appearances over the past years of a relative body, brain, culture, and collaborative ability. Cosmo Sapiens: Our Unification and Discovery of a Genesis UniVerse will follow with a scientific story. Both sections have as a main theme the occasion of historic unifications, Cosmo of the many natural fields, and for Anthropo a social anatomy, physiology and neural cognizance.

A valuable guide can be a perception of a worldly stage of the popular “major evolutionary transition scale” in the guise of our humankinder progeny. While bodily metabolism, health and welfare delay, a robust cerebral capacity with similar bicameral complements and its own cognitive intelligence and comprehension is well along. We respectfully gather, arrange, and report some key trends, current events, stuff happening, much progress and dire problems. And as a caveat upfront, as the whole site well documents across creaturely kingdoms, one’s membership in a viable, supportive community is actually seen to enhance personal freedom and prosperity, an individual can be both ethnic and earthling.

In addition, by a wealth of palliative, material, innovative advances, if ethically engaged, a new genesis creation of benefit to life, person, planet, and universe may commence. As another caveat, this does not imply, nor do we endorse, the near “singularity” technological takeover. Rather, as wise women know and propose, our embryonic earthkinder is in fact at the verge of a nativity event. But a whole anatomy and physiology body, or coherent sanity, does not accompany. Biospheric vitality, beset by archaic violence, rapacious consumption, environmental wastelands, the long litany, is approaching a critical condition.

We realize this section recites daily news that readers are familiar with. The difference would be to orient these occurrences within a global coalescence of a planetary progeny forming by their own. We begin with a cerebral and cognitive presence in the semblance of the worldwide electronic webwork. Civilizational, societal, cultural trendings with a glimpse at future potentials then follow.

1.0 Noosphere: The Formation of a Global Cerebral Faculty

In 2005 when I spoke at Palacky University in the eastern Czech Republic, attendees told me that this bibliographic resource from Massachusetts was helpful because their access to the literature was limited. Scientific journals and books were not then available online. Around 2010 everything changed with the historic shift from paper to screen, or as noted from Gutenberg to Google. An encyclopedic repository of periodicals and volumes is now instantly accessible to almost anyone, everywhere. Since circa 2004, a profusion of every kind of web venue and genre, some trillion postings and pages, whelms, informs, and inspires. A vast electronic Internet grows into cloud computing, deep learning, massive open online courses, knowledge mining, big data, as if a nascent eEarth. Indeed an iPad tablet device today could fulfill the apocryphal expectation of an Aleph locus whence all spatial and temporal creation can be seen in one place and time.

The study of social networks is, in fact, part of a much broader assembly project in modern science. For the past four centuries, swept up by a reductionistic fervor and by considerable success, scientists have been purposefully examining ever-smaller bits of nature in order to understand the whole. But across many disciplines, scientists are now trying to put the parts back together – whether macromolecules into cells, neurons into brains, species into ecosystems, nutrients into foods, or people into networks.

The networks we create have lives of their own. They grow, change, reproduce, survive, and die. Things flow and move within them. A social network is a kind of human superorganism, with an anatomy and physiology – a structure and function – of its own.
The great project of the twenty-first century – understanding how the whole of humanity comes to be greater than the sum of its parts – is just beginning. Like an awakening child, the human superorganism is becoming self-aware, and this will surely help us to achieve our goals. (Connected, Christakis and Fowler, 2009)

Yet perhaps as we become parts of the “Intermind,” we will also develop a new intelligence, one that is no longer anchored in the local memories that are housed only in our own brains. As we are freed from the necessity of remembering facts, we may be able as individuals to use our newly available mental resources for ambitious undertakings. And perhaps the evolving Intermind can bring together the creativity of the individual human mind with the Internet’s breadth of knowledge to create a better world – and for the set of messes we have made so far. (Wegner and Ward, 2013)


A external library of cosmos accrues with the shift to increasingly digital private, and public, and academic libraries. Alas human scale paper script disappears from schools and colleges, we are prompted to scroll in a one way operation. Surely we can peruse many journals in a sitting, almost any article ever in print can be found, at machine speed. Facebook, Twitter, Bluetooth, Flickr, and so on, as if a central nervous system, connects and captivates. People seem to be morphing into composite beings, as if mutual human and humankind symbionts. iPhones unite and entertain, while GPS locates and maps. But as neurons in networks in our brains need to each have their own input, a vital human pace and opinion is lost.

Going on, the same webwork architecture and self-organized dynamic criticality that graces a human brain is similarly evident in this enveloping world cerebrum, both for development and cogitation. As the citations in Mindkind attest, global brain and collective intelligence metaphors are rife, but not taken further. A new evolutionary entity in transition envelopes and suffuses, whom we really need in a reciprocal, salutary way, to recognize, engage and foster. But the step or leap not yet taken would be to imagine this planetary personage coming to her/his own knowledge of a revolutionary genesis universe. If this might be so availed, we might learn how to save the fraught, courageous beings and precious bioworld from whence she and he came.

What is the expected impact of a new transition, biological or other, on human society? It is evident that even over the short time period of human evolution, various new networks have emerged and transitions occurred. A recent and perhaps most revolutionizing network in terms of human experience is the internet. As the complexity of the internet increases, is it possible to live through a phase transition such that the internet acquires some form of intelligence or consciousness? Also, consciousness is certainly an emergent phenomenon arising from the neural network connectivity of the brain. Could the human species undergo yet another phase transition? (Bela Suki, 2012)

2.0 Sociosphere: Divergence and Convergence

2.1 A Major Evolutionary Transition
We advantage this model, explained more in the Science review, to help encounter the social froth in every aspect of our lives. By this vista human beings seem poised between a prior individual phase and collective association with an organism-like persona. As this emergence may go forward, drawn by a global cerebral capacity, it causes all sorts of historic impacts, stresses, contradictions, as entities and allegiances try to accommodate human and humankind, self and personsphere. But as long as we remain unawares of such an earthly destiny, in absence of a greater appropriate reality, a retreat backwards goes on. Of course we can only gloss, we here cite a doctoral study by Selin Kesebir, a Turkish-American scholar, and Roger Downs, Penn State geographer.

Looking at human societies through a superorganism lens allows for a clearer appreciation of the full scope of human existence. A unifying narrative emerges for phenomena that are treated piecemeal within an individualist paradigm. According to this narrative, cultural meaning systems, shared intentionality, norm compliance, deference to authority, social identity processes, religiosity, and morality can be understood parsimoniously as manifestations of the same dynamics that create superorganism-like social structures. Superorganisms thus offer a useful heuristic around which to organize our understanding of human sociality. (Selin Kesebir, The Superorganism Account of Human Sociality)

The geospatial revolution has two human implications. First, as knowing actors, people make choices based on the analysis and presentation of geospatial data. Second, as known subjects, people’s choices become data as their behavior is monitored through real-time tracking. As a consequence, the geospatial revolution is reshaping the worlds of education, business, entertainment, government, security, and travel. The impacts are felt by individuals, families, and societies. The effects can be discretionary and voluntary, or imposed and unavoidable; some are empowering and liberating, others restraining and subjecting. (Roger Downs, Coming of Age in the Geospatial Revolution)


2.2 A Complementarity of Civilizations
Over the decade and over the world, Rudyard Kipling’s classic East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet has lately been quantified to reveal, rather than an opposition, a true archetypal complementarity. A leading proponent is Richard Nisbett, a University of Michigan psychologist, with many international colleagues. Daphna Oyserman, Ari Norenzayan, Helen Markus, Thorsten Pattberg and others cited in this section contribute to its verification, properly understood. As long intimated, a spatial semblance of planetary bilateral hemispheres appears quite in place.

There is recent evidence that perceptual processes are influenced by culture. Westerners tend to engage in context-independent and analytic perceptual processes by focusing on a salient object independently of its context, whereas Asians tend to engage in context-dependent and holistic perceptual processes by attending to the relationship between the object and the context in which the object is located. (Nisbett and Miyamoto, 2005)

The written human language is one of the most important examples of complex systems in nature. Words are the simple elements that combine to form complex structures of this system. If we consider each word as a vertex and their interactions as links between them, then the written human language can be modeled by complex networks. (2561) The above results together indicate that the hub-like words in the English text play a more important role of structural organization than in the Chinese text, while the connections between Chinese characters have larger intensity and density than between English works, which means phrases prevail more in Chinese language than in English. (Sheng and Li. 2009)


In the same period and before, as noted in World Philosophy, Rosetta Cosmos and elsewhere, the presence of a similar South and North reciprocity has been illuminated. Particulate, mechanical northern options and southern organic, integral propensities again form bicameral halves. And senior scholars such as Sachiko Murata, William Chittick and Tu Weiming find the prism of Islam to be an actual blend of both persuasions. In our midst, if we just might observe, the span from Morocco to Indonesia is where a relative corpus callosum inter-connection would be for each east/west and south/north instance.

From ancient African tradition, a common natural principle of reciprocal mutuality is conveyed by the Ubuntu phrase “I am because We are” as more membership in a supportive community actually increases a person’s free wellbeing. Can we imagine and abide a Ubuntu universe to save us?

Complementary reflection makes recourse to the principle of complementarity as a philosophical paradigm concerning the type of solution needed in our world today. It reformulates this principle, which it borrows from the ambience of traditional African philosophy and makes it a tool of explanation and understanding in a comprehensive, total, and universal manner. (Innocent Asouzu, 2005)

2.3 The State of Religious Belief Systems
As I write on October 14, in the news is an announcement of Pope Francis’ historic tolerance to all manner of single, divorced, remarried, gay, lesbian peoples, whom it is noted provide “precious support” to each other. Surely a good sign, but the past decade as we know, has been one of extreme intolerant, violent, barbaric conflict between religious, sectarian, ethnic, factional, tribal allegiances. Centuries of injustices, genocides, separatists, rogue nations, warlords, fraudulent invasions, and more roil and boil on an electronic planet. Churches, weddings, funerals, civilians, bazaars, apartment houses, are righteous targets for ground and aerial bombardment. Dichotomies of divinity and humanity, heaven and earth, transcendence and immanence, apocalypse or sustainability, all clash in our consummate age.

In some regard, I was co-editor with theologian Donald St. John, and many colleagues such as Thomas Berry, Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John Grim, of Teilhard in the 21st Century: The Emerging Spirit of Earth (Orbis Books) which was the Catholic Press Association 2003 book of the year. It was chosen out of hundreds for glimpses of a new vista whereof people and planet, here and now, are of central, participatory import and destiny to a numinous cosmic procreation.

But in late 2014, the cradle of civilization and its millennia of internecine war seems to have reached a final frenzy. By way of misinterpreted scriptures it has become a senseless, brutal orgy of machine weaponry and social media. We note in passing that a Part III of this review will allude to, along with much else, a 21st century worldwise fulfillment of the long anticipated second “book” of a natural testament.

A hopeful theological turn of the past years is Pan-en-theism, a composite term and concept that neatly resolves an ancient opposition and contradiction. Rather than an otherworldly deity at odds with this earthly realm, it allows both the presence of a transcendent creator God, along with a sacred, worldly immanence, an earlier pantheism. One might even then perceive a paternal and maternal essence. Sources are in Bicameral World Religions, see especially Panentheism: The Other God of the Philosophers by John W. Cooper.

In the West panentheism is known as the view that the world is contained within the divine, though God is also more than the world. I trace the history of this school of philosophy in both Eastern and Western traditions. Although the term is not widely known, the position in fact draws together a broad range of important positions in 20th and 21st century metaphysics, theology, and philosophy of religion. I conclude with some reflections on the practical importance of this position. (Clayton, 2010)

2.4 The State of Conceptual and Philosophical Thought
A general surmise has been that the academic pursuit of philosophical inquiry and reflection has taken leave of any reality, and removed itself from the discussion. A 2013 lecture series at close by Amherst College was titled “Is Philosophy Nonsense?.” Since the 1980s a “postmodern” school has pervaded critical literary theory and beyond with a conclusion that no self-existing “metanarrative” exists, nor should be permitted. Of course, this dereliction is rejected by many thinkers as inane, but it persists and taints. For some beacons we note the British moral philosopher Mary Midgley in her The Solitary Self (2012) and the philosopher of science Philip Kitcher (search both) who advocates in Metaphilosophy (2012) a major course correction.

Nevertheless, the unified theory ultimately is closer to modernist approaches that postmodern ones. This is primarily because the unified theory is directly at odds with one of the tenets of postmodernism, anti-foundationalism, which is the explicit rejection of any overarching set of ideas that will effectively and accurately organize knowledge in the human sciences. The unified theory, as implied by its name, is foundationalist to the core. It proclaims universal truths about the universe and the human condition, and it connects human science to the natural sciences. (Gregg Henriques, 2011)

But a postmodern relativism sans any conceivable basis, has seeped into physics and cosmology as well. For one example see Why Does the World Exist?, (2012) from interviews with male physicists delving into string or multiverse theories. It received a scathing review by Freeman Dyson (search) who lamented the loss of a natural philosophy guidance with which science began long ago. In 2005, I shared a podium with Dyson at Marist College. He gave an afternoon talk on the future of the universe (human beings takeover evolution for the better), and in the morning my talk was Cosmic Genesis in the 21st Century (posted on the home page). There is much work for us all to do, only if we can allow a Sophia sapiens of woman’s wisdom.

In more recent centuries, philosophers were still leaders of human destiny. Descartes and Montesquieu in France, Spinoza in Holland, Hobbes and Locke in England, Hegel and Nietzsche in Germany, set their stamp on the divergent styles of nations as nationalism became the driving force in the history of Europe. Through all the vicissitudes of history, from classical Greece and China until the end of the nineteenth century, philosophers were giants playing a dominant role in the kingdom of the mind. Holt’s philosophers belong to the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Compared with the giants of the past, they are a sorry bunch of dwarfs. They are thinking deep thoughts and giving scholarly lectures to academic audiences, but hardly anybody in the world outside is listening. They are historically insignificant. At some time toward the end of the nineteenth century, philosophers faded from public life. (Freeman Dyson, 2012)

Another apropos theme was a recognition that this sorry state, both of academe in both cultures, and a consequent imperiled planet, could be attributed to a dominance of the left brain hemisphere. With a partiality for fine detail, dots sans connections, it results in a mechanical scheme incapable of considering any meaningful authenticity. A major volume was The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World (2009) by the British psychologist Iain McGilchrist. The “master” or original source is the right side, of which the left half detaches and takes leave of sanity. This view informs Rabbi Jonathan Sacks in The Great Partnership: Science, Religion, and the Search for Meaning (2012) as he seeks a palliative solution. A good companion work is Truth or Beauty: Science and the Quest for Order (2012) by the Canadian physicist David Orrell who delineates two asymmetric universe models, and goes on to give a gender-based explanation.

If one had to encapsulate the principal differences in the experience mediated by the two hemispheres, their two modes of being, one could put it like this. The world of the left hemisphere, dependent on denotative language and abstraction, yields clarity and power to manipulate things that are known, fixed, static, isolated, decontextualized, explicit, disembodied, general in nature, but ultimately lifeless. The right hemisphere, by contract, yields a world of individual, changing, evolving, interconnected, implicity, incarnate, living begins within the context of the lived world, but in the nature of things never fully graspable, always imperfectly known – and to the world it exists in a relationship of care. (McGilchrist)

The left brain favors rational intellect over intuition, linearity over complexity, stability over change, analysis over a holistic approach, and objectivity over subjectivity. In aesthetic terms, it favors simple symmetry and straight lines. To say – in a rational, objective kind of way – that science tilts in favor of the left brain would not be a risky statement. What would the implications be for different areas of science, including physics, biology, and economics, if our scientific quest for beauty engaged both side of our brain? (Orrell)


2.5 The State of a Worldwise Collaborative Science
As earlier noted, an epochal shift has been the reallocation of our intellectual project from human individuals and paper pages to a collective humankind with available content in Internet cyberspace. A pivotal year seems to be 2010 going forward when journals and books became fully available online, often to their first issue. While a user gains instant, total access, library shelves became empty, a human scale of meditative reading and wonderment is lost.

But for scientific research, a burst of regional and international collaboration was fostered. When I spoke in the eastern Czech Republic in 2005 I was told this site Massachusetts was a useful resource, because they were not able to retrieve such material. Nowadays it is not uncommon to see an article by a multiple team of authors, say from Slovenia, China, and Mexico. As a result of this emergent evolutionary transition, a grand worldwide collaborative endeavor and method has just commenced, that we here try to glean and report.

A further aspect of this 21st century scientific revolution is a rapid acceleration of the pace of research, communication, publication, feedback, debate and discovery. Along with instrumental and computational advances, from galaxies to genomes what took many years before is now condensed into months or minutes. An especial beneficiary is medical progress where this global knowledge repository can be increasingly accessed and facilitated to heal the fraught beings from which it arose.

In Reinventing Discovery, Michael Nielsen argues that we are living at the dawn of the most dramatic change in science in more than 300 years. This change is being driven by powerful new cognitive tools, enabled by the internet, which are greatly accelerating scientific discovery. There are many books about how the internet is changing business or the workplace or government. But this is the first book about something much more fundamental: how the internet is transforming the nature of our collective intelligence and how we understand the world. (Publisher) A similar pattern of discovery is being used across science. Scientists in many fields are collaborating online to create enormous databases that map out the structure of the universe, the world’s climate, the world’s oceans, human languages, and even all the species of life. By integrating the work of hundreds or thousands of scientists, we are collectively mapping out the entire world. (Michael Neilsen, 2011)

3.0 Biosphere: Our Critical Life Support Condition

While an overarching brain may be in place and proceeds, a bodily biospheric homeostasis and sustainability is not, and may be in a terminal condition. Our human Anthropocene phase now responsible for its environmental maintenance splits on many fault lines. Religions still deny the value of this worldly sojourn, businesses worry about remediation costs, a rapacious militarism distracts, resources are wasted, you know the litany. In 1947 Pierre Teilhard wrote The age of nations is past, the task before us now, if we would not perish, is to build the earth. But the years since have been just the opposite of incessant cold and hot wars. Instead of uniting, converging, and emerging over a common finite, precious sphere, in this 100 year anniversary of WW I, nothing seems to have changed or been learned. Instead of new age of life and light, we are bent on going back to a dark age. However might we become proud planetary patriots?

Advances have surely been made in local and regional energy usage, urban ecology, sensible consumption, recycling centers, and so on. An Environmental Performance Index, (Google) based on air, water, and sanitation quality, agriculture, forests, energy usage, and so on, lists Switzerland, Australia, Singapore, Czech Republic, mostly European countries, in the top ten. But the United States, Russia, Brazil, and China are rated 33, 73, 77 and 118. After about rank 80 some 100 destitute lands are cited from Morocco to Pakistan to sad Somali. United Nations Environmental Programme conferences are well intentioned, yet unable to break with national sovereignties. The large resource section A Genesis Future: The Old Earth offers many contributions, voices, and pathways if we are to revive, survive and sustain.

If humanity is to achieve a transition to sustainability, it will likely require a fundamental shift in the prevailing view of the world: from linear, compartmental, mechanical to complex, interconnected, living. In this, Gaia may provide some hope and some answers. (Hans Schellnhuber, 2004)

In conclusion, I have argued that the way forward for bio-inclusive environmentalism in the era of climate change is not merely biophysical, in the Gaian-type sense, involving the engineering of the physical conditions requisite for life on the planet; not merely biomimetic, in some sense replicating, in our technologies, the patterns of organization characteristic of life; but bio-synergistic, in the sense of entering into active partnership with actual ecosystems to ensure both the regulation of the climate system and the sustainable provision of our own needs. (Freya Mathews, 2011)

Astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, offers profound insights into human sustainability. This paper develops three topics connecting astrobiology to sustainability: constraints on what zones in the universe are habitable, the absence of observations of extraterrestrial civilizations, and the physical fate of the universe. These topics have major implications for our thinking and action on sustainability. While we may not be doomed, we must take certain actions to sustain ourselves in this universe. The topics also suggest that our current sustainability efforts may be of literally galactic importance. (Seth Baum, 2010)


3.1 Global Climate as a Complex Dynamical System
This section was added in 2011 to gather various approaches to reinterpret, as every other domain, this realm of ultra-intricate regional and world weather in such nonlinear terms. Scientists from physicists to geographers such as Tim Palmer, Valerio Lucarini, Hans Schullnhuber, Timothy Lenton, Carolyn Snyder, Shaun Lovejoy, Marten Scheffer, and others press the limits of test and theory. As any complex system, atmospheric, polar, glacial, oceanic, bioregional climates are oscillating between record extremes, with more signs of a tipping point to an abrupt change of state. Global warming by a few degrees is a serious misnomer. On this November 18 in New England, a midwinter cold wave is in effect. Super storms, droughts, tornados, heat waves, forest fires, floods and worse often lead the TV news. Yet we tarry, the recent U.S. election having swung to the Republicans brought renewed cries this is all is a hoax.

The climate is an excellent example of a forced, dissipative system dominated by nonlinear processes and featuring non-trivial dynamics of a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. The understanding of the climate's structural and multiscale properties is crucial for the provision of a unifying picture of its dynamics and for the implementation of accurate and efficient numerical models. In this interdisciplinary review, we are guided by our interest in exploring the nexus between climate and concepts such as energy, entropy, symmetry, response, multiscale interactions, and its potential relevance in terms of numerical modeling. We focus on the very promising results on the statistical mechanics of quasi-equilibrium geophysical flows, which are extremely useful in the direction of constructing a robust theory of geophysical macro turbulence. (Lucarini, et al, 2013)

3.2 Sustainable Ecovillages
As the section documents, by this title is meant a generic model of intentional human communities of an average 100 members, who own, plan, and lightly guide their settlement. Prime attributes are a much reduced economic burden, a balance of personal space and communal sharing, egalitarian tolerance, and true sustainability. Over the decade, hundreds of new rural and urban assemblies have appeared in the United States and Canada, with thousands worldwide. Google the Global Ecovillage Network and links for information. An especial prevalence is forming in West Africa, which accords with their ubuntu tradition. In this 21st century it might be It Takes an Ecovillage.

Unlike earlier intentional communities and back-to-the-land experiments, ecovillages are not isolated enclaves. They tend to be active in local, national, and transnational politics. Most of the ecovillagers I encountered saw themselves as engaged participants in planetary socioecological systems rather than as utopian fugitives. On a principled level, they view their lives as pragmatic responses to the interrelated global dynamics of North-South inequity, global commodity chains, structural violence, and fossil fuel consumption. At the level of action, ecovillage activists have been prominent players in the movements for peace, human rights, and global justice. (Karen Litfin, 2012)

3.3 An Organic, Symbiotic Democracy
For another societal issue, populaces in every land seem unable to attain any equitable governance that serves peoples rather than itself. In many cases, parties, factions, ideologies ever divide into archetypal right/left, red/blue, me vs. We, gender-like polarities. Elections come out almost exactly in half. The 2000 presidential vote was down to a few dozen out of a hundred million between Republican and Democrat, and so many tragedies were the result. The 2014 Massachusetts governor count was 49 to 48 percent. The same opposites persist around the world such as France, Mexico, Germany, and India. This is anything but democratic.

Yet it is amazing that an academic political scientist, or any pundit, can not see an obvious Yang – Yin complementarity. Our public cerebral hemispheres remain trapped in either/or, win/lose gridlock. Whenever there is a major investigation, the panel is formed half and half from each party. By way of our worldwise humankinder and a genesis family comsos, life’s deep constant principle of personal and communal mutuality, of freedom in community, can intentionally be availed to heal, resolve and unite going forward.

4.0 Knowsphere: A New Natural Creation

At the same while, in the future lane, an incredible scientific, technological, and medical progress could infer that the cosmic material and cognitive development is meant to be taken up by our creative continuance. With the occasion of full online communicative sharing, a cornucopia of discoveries, advances, inventions, with no limit in sight, is rushing upon us. For one example, the British site Nature Scientific Reports has daily postings from around the world whose articles can run from quantum computers and better batteries to proteomics, connectomes, and curative medicinal remedies. We homo, anthropo, Sophia, and cosmo sapiens then become phenomenal participants in a new genesis.

As a caveat, the popular near “singularity” view of a technological takeover is just the opposite of what we are trying to say. At present, without any encompassing vision of who and why we are, the very idea eludes and daunts, there is no greater guidance about what to do and make of such abilities and potentials. The capability of human inquiry and ingenuity, lately of a global scale, to gain systemic knowledge from multiverse to quantum, and as equally able to intentionally, respectfully, begin a new nature must be of awesome inclusion and import.

Engineered materials such as chip-grade silicon and fiber-optic glass underpin the modern world. Yet designing new materials has historically involved a frustrating and inefficient amount of guesswork. Streamlined versions of the equations of quantum mechanics – along with supercomputers that, using those equations, virtually test thousands of materials at a time – are eliminating much of that guesswork. Researchers are now using this method, called high-throughput computational material design, to develop new batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, computer chips, and other technologies. (Ceder and Persson, The Stuff of Dreams, 2013)

My gut feeling is that, despite limitations of space and time, we humans can suddenly start to evolve thousands of times faster than the impressive Cambrian era, and that we can direct this diversity toward our material needs instead of letting it occur randomly. (73) As a general goal I propose that, as a minimum, we ought to avoid the loss of all intelligent life in the universe. The genome should become not the genome of one lonely being or one planet. It should become the genome of the Universe. (244) (George Church, 2012)


As a synopsis so far, from our Anthropo vantage may be realized a major evolutionary transition to a humankind personage with a nascent bicameral brain learning on her/his own. By virtue of such novel knowledge we seem in the midst of a cosmic Copernican revolution from pointless mechanism to an organic procreative genesis, to be reviewed next. A worldwide collaborative science has achieved material, technological, biological, and medical advances that presage a new, palliative, sustainable creation, if we can so get talks, walks, and acts together and so choose.

But the timeless words of Charles Dickens next about a city could not be more apt today for around precious Earth. The ethnic body politic remains fractured and trapped in a past human phase of traditions and beliefs we seem unable to get release from or move beyond. While a noosphere may awaken with answers, the abiding biosphere lies in a critical life support condition, close to terminal, obsessed by an epidemic of internecine conflicts. We offer this website resource as a narrative of a true natural creation with its own worth and numinous futurity.

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way (Charles Dickens, 1859)

B. Cosmo Sapiens: A 2004 - 2014 Decadal Review

COSMO SAPIENS: OUR UNIFICATION AND DISCOVERY OF A GENESIS UNIVERSE

The Two Infinities of a Particulate Multiverse
1.0 Infinite Cosmic Breadth
2.0 Infinitesimal Atomic Depth

A Third Infinity of Life, Code, Complexity, Mind, and Symbiotic Selves

1.0 A 21st Century Systems Synthesis

2.0 Ecosmos: A Fertile Spacescape

2.1 Physics and Biology Reunite
2.2 Astrochemistry and Astrobiology
2.3 Quantum-Classical Integration
2.4 Statistical Mechanics and Complexity Science
2.5 Active Matter
2.6 Systems Cosmology
2.7 Organism as Machine Metaphor
2.8 Cosmic Consciousness
2.9 Universal Darwinism

3.0 Habitable Heavens: A Proliferation of Planets

4.0 Cosmome: A Mathematic Materiality

4.1 An Information Milieu
4.2 Algorithmic Computation
4.3 Cellular Automata
4.4 Nonlinear Complex Self-Organization Sciences

5.0 A Genesis Evolutionary Synthesis
5.1 A Skeletal Scaffold
5.1.1 The Origins of Life
5.1.2 The Major Transitions Scale
5.1.3 A New Evolutionary Synthesis

5.2 A Natural Genotype

5.3 Embryogeny: Evolution and Development
5.3.1 Anatomy and Physiology
5.3.2 A Constant Convergence
5.3.3 Encephalization – A Neural, Cognitive, Learning Experience
5.3.4 The Prevalence and Primacy of Cooperation

5.4 Animal Consciousness, Intelligence, Personality, Behavior, Sociality, Culture

5.5 A Ubuntu Universe: Our Symbiotic Selves

6.0 A Human and Humankinder Epitome
6.1 Phenomenal Persons
6.1.1 Systems Physiology and Psychology
6.1.2 Systems Neuroscience: Our Mindful Microcosm
6.1.3 Our Conscious Knowledge

6.2 An Emergent Humankind
6.2.1 Cultural Code: Systems Linguistics
6.2.2 Complex Symbiotic Societies
6.2.3. A Planetary Physiosphere: Anatomics, Economics, Urbanomics
6.2.4 Systems History: Planetary Individuation

With introductions to our resident planetary progeny in place, we move on to humankinder’s current witness of an organic procreative Ecosmos. For this vista, as the Human and UniVerse table glimpsed, an overall theme and motif becomes evident. While the 20th century and earlier was a prior, necessary scientific phase of taking matter, life, earth, and nature apart for reductive, particulate analysis, splitting into many topical fields, today a subsequent systems reunification unto a gravid genesis and phenomenal people is much underway.

At the outset it serves to contrast past and future models, paradigms or scenarios. To do so we draw upon a working “three infinities” view. An initial exploration and research sought to plumb large cosmic and small atomic dimensions. Presently, a “third infinity” or stage has been engaged to study life’s emergent complexity and consciousness. Presciently cited by Pierre Teilhard in the 1930s, this phrase is the title of a 2013 Max Planck Institute conference on the Physics of Biological and Complex Systems (search Domany). It is this latter turn that we are most trying to express and document.

We begin with a look at The Two Infinities of a Particulate Multiverse. Beyond this prior matrix, we survey A Third Infinity of Life, Code, Organization, Mind, and Symbiotic Selves. This waxing phase has general sections of Systems Shift, Organic Life and Substantial Cosmos, Earth and Heavens, Mathematics and Materiality, Genesis Evolutionary Synthesis, UniVerse and Human Epitome.

The Two Infinities of a Particulate Multiverse

Two days after the 2014 Nobel physics prize, Nigel Goldenfeld (search) spoke at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst where he announced “Biology is the physics of the 21st century.” We seem in the midst of an epochal traverse between an old and new universe, which Natural Genesis attempts to collate and document.

Surely readers are familiar with the legendary chronicle from the 17th century scientific revolution to explore and experiment. The project proceeded to this day to collect, identify, name, characterize, and sort all the parts and facets from quarks, bosons and quasars to elements, chemicals, fossils, creatures, continents, bubble cosmoses, every last thing. This initial, necessary stage of object emphasis sought all the “cosmic Legos” building blocks, per Max Tegmark (2014). But the pursuit has stopped there, unable to connect the dots, so concludes nature is pointless and signifies nothing. To a large degree, any systemic relations in between, or an implicate generative source, a systems physics, has remained outside its machine model. We next register Infinite and Infinitesimal aspects, which in the past two years have reached closure with findings of the Higgs Boson and signs of original gravitational waves.

1.0 Infinite Cosmic Breadth

What a fantastic journey human beings have been on from a home world once at the center of starry raiment to orbiting a sun, Milky Way galaxy, then myriad galaxies, a singular point of cosmic origin, and now a multitude of vicarious universes. Whoever are we altogether to be able to do and learn this, surely there must be a reason and discovery of cosmic significance.

As an entry we cite an arXiv:1402.0527 eprint entitled Inflationary Cosmology after Planck 2013 where the Russian-American physicist Andrei Linde posts his latest views of an initial expansive event. Linde, with Alan Guth, were prime conceivers of this theory in the 1980s. In September 1983 I attended Linde’s first public lecture in the United States at Harvard, where he spoke of bubbling fractal cosmoses. He remains on message decades later, as does Guth who I have also heard. But speculative versions still vie, often as opinions and/or metaphysics, with little or no reference to an independent mathematics or greater reality. Our human acumen that can quantify such reaches are rarely factored in or given a place and purpose.

And readers know, in March 2014 it was announced as front page news that the BICEP2 (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) project at the South Pole seemed to detect gravity waves from the early universe that if real would prove an inflationary start, and the overall cosmological scenario. Its main posting is arXiv:1403.3985. In the meantime this report has come under much scrutiny, for example in Physics Review Letters Editorial: Signals from the Dawn of Time? (112/240001, 2014) – is it just dust or what.

For another angle, from a string theory school, whence physical particles are seen as one-dimensional objects called strings, (search Google) these latest quantum cosmology results are taken as confirmation of a numberless flickering universes, maybe parallel or serial, a multiverse milieu. (This evident scenario will be seen in the Part III posting to have a genesis essence.) But alas our habitable cosmos is then a rare, accidental concatenation. Quite up for grabs, for example The Singular Universe (December 2014) by physicist Lee Smolin and philosopher Roberto Unger contend they only occur one at a time but remain inane happenstance.

2.0 Infinitesimal Atomic Depth

At the other extreme, the ever deeper descent begun by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, a renowned cast, from opaque atoms to a proton/neutron center and orbital electrons onto a colorful zoo such as baryons, muons, gluons, leptons, charmed quarks in scalar or nested forms. We mention Nobel laureates Murray Gell-Mann, Sheldon Glashow (who I heard speak in October), Steven Weinberg, and Abdus Salam, amongst thousands of contributors. A grand triumph in 2012 was the detection in the ten billion dollar Large Hadron Collider built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) of the subatomic Higgs boson, whose finding was crucial to the particle physics standard model. This finding confirmed a long period of theory and test, but is seen as bringing an end to that stage. Commentators have wondered what might it signify, if anything, and whatever to do next.

So this historic exploration of the opposite breadth and depth environments, with valiant earthlings in between has much run its course. But in some Ptolemaic way, as lately noted, some critical quality is missing to explain sentient peoples able to traverse such magnitudes. Into the 21st century, as if a parallel paradigm, by a worldwise science and scholarship, a network systems cosmology, physics, chemistry, and developmental evolution, along with every realm, a Copernican revolution is well along. Uniquely facilitated by the enveloping collaborative Internet, nature’s material substance is again becoming active, fertile, a conducive matheMatter spacescape. We next introduce a third infinity of life’s quickening complexity and consciousness.

A Third Infinity of Life, Code, Organization, Mind, and Symbiotic Selves

An overall theme can distinguish this occasion. By our humankinder vista, circa 2014, the many disparate domains from interstellar to social media are in the midst of a holistic reassembly and reunion unto one whole animate dynamic universe. What was first necessary to take apart as a machine, is now being put back together in an organic way. A measure is the complex network systems turn underway in every field from biology and genetics to quantum and cosmos. It is then apparent that an iterative repetition of the same pattern and process occurs in relative kind at each stage and instance. As a consequence, an independent, mathematical, recurrent universality, intimated through history, is at last proven.

In regard, as a ready name we offer “uniVerse” with a capital V to indicate its heretofore missing narrative script. Another term might be “Ecosmos” for an ecological spacescape. We next arrange this global unification into general sections: Systems Synthesis, Ecosmos: An Organic UniVerse, Earths and Heavens, Mathematics and Materiality, A Genesis Evolutionary Synthesis, UniVerse and Human Epitome.

1.0 A 21st Century Systems Synthesis

A familiar entry would be the systems biology turn from a prior emphasis on biomolecular components to equally important relations, interactions, webworks and cross-communication in between. In 2001 leading human genome sequencers such as Francis Collins, Craig Venter, Leroy Hood, and others were quick to say that finding the discrete genes was only half the task. While the goal of one gene to one trait or disease has not worked out, much progress since has discerned interconnective modules and nested networks for nucleotides, proteomes, epigenomes, metabolomes, onto neural connectomes and more.

The Natural Genesis resource site tries to document this course correction and holistic completion, which now has an “–omics” interpretation from cosmos to cultures. It is reflected in the outline across Quantum, Astrobiology and Chemistry realms to Neuroscience, Psychology and History as well, and in cases as Systems Physics when not yet at the fore. A 2014 volume A Systems View of Life by Fritjof Capra and Pier Luigi Luisi is an excellent survey, which we cite next.

Such a new understanding of life is now emerging. At the forefront of contemporary science, we no longer see the universe as a machine composed of elementary building blocks. We have discovered that the material world, ultimately, is a network of inseparable patterns of relationships; that the planet as a whole is a living, self-regulating system. The view of the human body as a machine and of the mind as a separate entity is being replaced by one that sees not only the brain, but also the immune system, the bodily tissues, and even each cell as a living, cognitive system. (Capra and Luisi)

Within our humankind purview, to express the extent of this revolution we note its copious scope in scientific fields such as astrobiology and traditional chemistry which have seen fit to reinvent themselves as Systems studies.

What is Systems Chemistry? It’s the study of complex systems, or networks, of molecules. Tools for analyzing complex networks are being developed and employed in fields as diverse as computer science and sociology. By applying these tools to systems of interacting molecules – molecules that might link together into larger superstructures, or catalyse one another’s formation – chemists can investigate how interactions between members propagate through networks, allowing complex behaviour to emerge. (Jonathan Nitschke)

We have attempted to illustrate how systems astrobiology assumes a new role in the science of astrobiology. In our theory of life in the universe, we have underlined several stages that are analogous with the standard systems biology, namely: 1. The theory: the universe is treated as a complex system with evolutionary convergence. 2. The computational modelling: statistical correlations of astronomical data are needed from Kepler and subsequent missions and spectroscopic data from the HST and the next generation of space telescopes. 3. A testable hypothesis: the Earth-like exoplanets in HZs of MS stars will yield anomalous fractions of biogenic gases in the spectroscopic analyses of their atmospheres. 4. The complex system: the universe itself is interpreted as a complex system. (Julian Chela-Flores)

This radical, imperative shift across the sciences is evident by noting that social studies, psychology and linguistics, many other fields, have also strongly endorsed. While environmentalists perceived intricate eco-systems from the early days, economies and cities are now likewise viewed as animate organizations, as A Planetary Physiosphere reports. Another affirmation is expressed by Temple University psychologist Willis Overton, and colleagues, in the next quote. Similarly Clay Beckner, speaking for an extended team, applies the same “complex adaptive systems” model to language and dialogue.

This chapter argues that the Cartesian-split-mechanistic scientific paradigm that until recently functioned as the standard conceptual framework for subfields of developmental science (including inheritance, evolution, and organismic—prenatal, cognitive, emotional, motivational, sociocultural—development) has been progressively failing as a scientific research program. An alternative scientific paradigm composed of nested metatheories with relationism at the broadest level and relational developmental systems as a midrange metatheory is offered as a more progressive conceptual framework for developmental science. (Overton, 2013)

Language as a CAS involves the following key features: The system consists of multiple agents (the speakers in the speech community) interacting with one another. The system is adaptive, that is, speakers’ behavior is based on their past interactions, and current and past interactions together feed forward into future behavior. The structures of language emerge from interrelated patterns of experience, social interaction, and cognitive mechanisms. The CAS approach reveals commonalities in many areas of language research, including first and second language acquisition, historical linguistics, psycholinguistics, language evolution and computational modeling. (Beckner, 2008)


This Systems re-unification by a bicameral humanity, if to admit the very vista, is a main feature of our revolutionary reconception from a barren material mechanism to an quickening organic development, which we review next.

2.0 Ecosmos: A Fertile Spacescape

In our planetary purview, an independently innate organic, proactive presence is being encountered from several approaches. Among these are the vital reunion of physics and biology, astrochemistry and astrobiology, a quantum-classical synthesis, an “active matter” appreciation, “systems physics” as statistical mechanics joins complexity theory, and much more.

2.1 Physics and Biology Reunite
As the Revolution Table shows, since the 17th century, an inane dichotomy has existed between an inhospitable physical cosmos and the presence of living, evolving, personal, sentient beings. This disconnect and impediment is at last being resolved, as it must be, by our global genius. The Systems Physics, Active Matter: The Reunion of Biology and Physics, Systems Cosmology sections, and elsewhere cite many contributions that quantify and approve. Among advocates and theorists are William Bialek, Sriram Ramaswamy, Cristina Marchetti, Andrea Cavagna, Irene Giardina, Nicholas Ouelette, Erwin Frey, and Nigel Goldenfeld, who we quote next.

With the growing recognition of the importance of collective phenomena in evolution, but also in ecology, immunology, microbiology and even global climate change, it is timely to assess the extent to which a condensed matter physics perspective—with its unifying principles of collective behavior arising from interactions—can be illuminating in biology. Equally fascinating is the notion that biology may extend the frontier of non-equilibrium physics, revealing principles of self-organization that seem absent in purely physical processes such as pattern formation. (Goldenfeld/Woese, 2011)

2.2 Astrochemistry and Astrobiology
In a July 2011 TED talk “The Stuff of Life: Making Matter Come Alive,” Lee Cronin (search), a University of Glasgow professor of chemistry advised that cellular beings seem to be as encoded into the universe as the stellar galaxies. Over the past decade, an interdisciplinary cross-fertilization has led to an ever deeper rooting of living systems into an increasingly conducive cosmos. As reported throughout Organic Universe, an innate natural propensity is being found and quantified from elemental nucleosynthesis to an array of complex biochemicals across the interstellar medium. A gravid cosmic genesis is now known to form bioprecursors for evolving organisms and cognitive sapiens by its own quintessence.

But there's a problem, because up until maybe a decade ago, we were told that life was impossible and that we were the most incredible miracle in the universe. In fact, we were the only people in the universe. So as a chemist, I wanted to say, "Hold on. What is going on here? Is life that improbable?" And this is really the question. I think that perhaps the emergence of the first cells was as probable as the emergence of the stars. And in fact, let's take that one step further. Let's say that if the physics of fusion is encoded into the universe, maybe the physics of life is as well. (Lee Cronin)

2.3 Quantum-Classical Integration
Another untenable divide has persisted for a century between this infinitesimal, subatomic domain and overt macroscopic forms and phases. Technical terms such as entanglement, superposition, uncertainty, decoherence, nonlocality led to an arcane, off-putting strangeness, daunting efforts to unify and make sense of things. Around 2003 this began to change by realizations that quantum phenomena seems to be most characterized by information and its processing. With an incentive of quantum computers, these real properties are much researched and employed, as noted in the Information Computation section.

But since 2010, as every other natural and social strata, the complexity turn spread to these depths as it became clear that nonlinear complexities are just as prevalent there. Here is a good example of a mostly unnoticed advance that can be apparent by our humankind ken. One can now search arXiv e-prints for “quantum” self-organization, networks, modularity, and get a growing number of responses. A 2014 posting there by the Nobel laureate Gerard ‘t Hooft (search) is an emphatic statement not only of this merger but of the necessary existence of a greater intelligible reality from which all arises. A Quantum Complex Systems section has been added for this literature. International conferences such as Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2011 and 2013 (Google “EmQM” and search here), and the Heinz von Forester Self-Organization and Emergence Congress (2011) did much to establish their presence and basis. OK

We hope to inspire more physicists to do so, to consider seriously the possibility that quantum mechanics as we know it is not a fundamental, mysterious, impenetrable feature of our physical world, but rather an instrument to statistically describe a world where the physical laws, at their most basic roots, are not quantum mechanical at all. (‘t Hooft, 2014)

Another significant aspect then came to light. As the micro-macro rift is healed, it is being concluded this is where the turtles bottom out, no further material stage lies beneath. Rather both quantum and classical realms can be understood as arising from a deeper, non-material, mathematical source. In the other direction, as nonlinear quantum complexities are explored, the presence of quantum-like effects has become evident in regnant nature and society. Recent books such as Quantum Effects in Biology Decision by Masoud Mohseni and Yasser Omar discuss equivalent effects in biological, psychological, cognitive, and societal aspects.

In a historical train, it is worth notice that two prescient, sage scientists are often referred to. John Archibald Wheeler’s (1911-2008) famous “It from Bit” phrase whence “under and behind quantum mechanics lies some deep and wonderful principle yet to be discovered” (Tegmark 2014) is availed as an overall model. Similarly David Bohm (1917-1992) described a dual reality of an independent “implicate” order from which “explicate” manifest worlds spring and exemplify. And of course homage is paid to Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) who wrote that the book of nature must be read in terms of its mathematical language, which maybe we can at long last decipher. OK

2.4 Statistical Mechanics and Complexity Science
Around 2007 the traditional fields of statistical, condensed matter, many-body physics began an assimilation and accommodation with nonlinear systems theories because it was realized they studied the same phenomena from different approaches. The endeavor presently comes under Interdisciplinary, Biological Physics, Econophysics, Soft Matter, and so on labels, not really suitable. The nascent synthesis can be seen in journals such as Annals of Physics, Physical Review, Reviews of Modern Physics, Europhysics Letters, Physics Reports wherein complex biological or social phenomena were rarely included. Today more than half of the articles pertain to this subject. For example, the August 15, 2014 contents of Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications is mostly listed as Dynamical processes, Biological, ecological and evolutionary systems, Econophysics, Other complex systems, Networks, and Systems biology.

2.5 Active Matter
This phrase to denote a material spontaneity proceeding on its own was coined in a 2010 paper in the Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics by Siram Ramaswamy of the Indian Institute of Science. Since it aptly described natural self-organizing phenomena that many researchers were studying, it has become widely used. For an example, Andrea Cavagna and Irene Giardina of the University of Rome (2014) see fit to interpret dynamic bird flocks in this way. A common implication is an independent, universally applicable source that serves to structure and guide nonequilibrium animation from sensitive colloids to creaturely colonies. The new Active Matter section contains current references.

Even more active is a colony of bacteria, each member of which can carry out sustained motion as well as complex signaling and coordination with others. Or think of a flock of birds or herd of migratory animals. Despite obvious differences, these systems all share a similar character as collectives of interacting and self-propelling elements with internal sources of energy. It’s natural to think of all of these as examples of a more general kind of “active” matter – a new frontier where ideas from physics on the principles of order and organization are proving very useful. (Mark Buchanan)

2.6 Systems Cosmology
This is title phrase was added in 2012 to Fractal SpaceTimeMatter with the posting of paper on Network Cosmology by Dmitri Krioulov, et al. The concurrent work of Markus Aschwanden and colleagues on self-organized criticalities in astrophysics such as interstellar webs and solar flares, and similar citations, contributes to this novel sense of a celestial ecosystem. This section engages the two, far removed, infinities of quantum and cosmos to show how they are better understood in terms of the same nonlinear dynamical patterns as everywhere in between. Here you will find reports of self-similarity from subatomic charged pions and quantum fluids to particulate clouds and galactic clusters. If to collate these separate accounts within a humankind purview, in our midst a revolutionary systems spacescape akin to a living environment is just being realized.

2.7 The Organism as Machine Metaphor
Since this is a natural philosophy endeavor, it is vital that a long-standing conflation with and description of living entities and activities in mechanical terms needs to be addressed. We began this Systems Synthesis with Fritjof Capra and Pier Luisi’s confrontation of the dichotomy. In biological, genetic, and even ecological articles and books, it is standard fare. We read of nucleotide or protein machinery, cells are factories, evolution as a thermodynamic engine. Books have titles such as The Mind’s Machine (psychology) and The Earth Machine (geosciences). Type machinery into the search box on the home page to get more examples. This is an unhelpful contradiction, a fundamental misnomer, yet little if any notice or correction is made.

In regard, we want to cite a recent effort by Daniel Nicholson, an Israeli-British philosopher now at the University of Exeter, who confronts this erroneous usage in evolutionary and developmental paradigms in Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (search). A 2012 essay is entitled Organisms ≠ Machines, and in 2014 as The Machine Conception of the Organism in Development and Evolution.

The machine conception of the organism (MCO) is one of the most pervasive notions in modern biology. However, it has not yet received much attention by philosophers of biology. The MCO has its origins in Cartesian natural philosophy, and it is based on the metaphorical redescription of the organism as a machine. In this paper I argue that although organisms and machines resemble each other in some basic respects, they are actually very different kinds of systems. I submit that the most significant difference between organisms and machines is that the former are intrinsically purposive whereas the latter are extrinsically purposive. (Nicholson, 2012)

Although both organisms and machines operate towards the attainment of particular ends - that is, both are purposive systems - the former are intrinsically purposive whereas the latter are extrinsically purposive. A machine is extrinsically purposive in the sense that it works towards an end that is external to itself; that is, it does not serve its own interests but those of its maker or user. An organism, on the other hand, is intrinsically purposive in the sense that its activities are directed towards the maintenance of its own organization; that is, it acts on its own behalf. The intrinsic purposiveness of organisms is grounded on the fact that they are self-organizing, self-producing, self-maintaining, and self-regenerating. (Nicholson, 2014)


2.8 Cosmic Consciousness
Still another animate quality comes from novel recognitions of an immanent mindfulness that both suffuses natural materiality and ascends with our evolutionary gestation. We revive this phrase from a century ago to evoke this reunion of matter and mind, rather than an incongruous separation. An admission that aware, informed, knowing sentience is not an “epiphenomenon” but a legitimate subject of science and philosophy is now established. Through sophisticated neuroimaging, international collaborations, better theories, wakeful cognizance is real and amenable to study. This cerebral faculty is seen to arise, as long intimated, by relative degrees through life’s creaturely sequence. While Conscious Knowledge reports on its validity in human persons, Intrinsic Consciousness and Intelligence attests to a natural universe graced with primordial, procreative mind from its original vitality.

Major affirmations were independently made in the 2010s. Mind and Nature by the philosopher Thomas Nagel makes states that by virtue of our own reflective awareness, a cosmic milieu and source must exist from which this acumen arose. A significant parallel has also been drawn between consciousness and a relative knowledge content. The integrated information and global workspace theories of Giulio Tononi, Christof Koch, Bernard Baars, Antonio Damasio, Todd Feinberg, and colleagues, are much along to a mature synthesis. An episodic tandem of and neural complexity and knowing sentience, as Pierre Teilhard once advised, does indeed track and distinguish life’s developmental embryogeny. These same authors, together with physicists Max Tegmark, Alwyn Scott, and Henry Stapp, philosophers Nagel, Francoise Tibika, Menas Kafatos, and Elizabeth Swan, linguists such as Yoshimi Kawade, and a growing chorus now affirm a mindful cosmos which then arises and awakens through nested individuations to ourselves.

We examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, with distinctive information processing abilities. Our approach generalizes Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for neural-network-based consciousness to arbitrary quantum systems, and we find interesting links to error-correcting codes, condensed matter criticality, and the Quantum Darwinism program, as well as an interesting connection between the emergence of consciousness and the emergence of time. (Tegmark, 2014)

2.9 Universal Darwinism
This is a new section in Autumn 2014 for an array of concurrent research methods that are being employed to study a locally stochastic yet globally lawful nature. The working title comes from one view that an evolutionary self-organization and selective optimization may even apply across the celestial reaches. The citations are drawn from the site and convey various interpretations. By turns, Bayesian statistics or inference, genetic and algorithmic computations, Markov processes, neural connectionism, multiple variation and selective retention, iterative maximizations, and so on, are being sensed from quantum and biological phases to planetary, solar and galactic realms.

A 2004 – 2014 survey of an Ecosmos: A Fertile Spacescape can well verify a “Creative, Organic Universe” revolution that the website first set out to document. Before we get to its genetic code source, we enter the grandest discovery of the period, as readers know, of a conducive cosmos, a natural nursery, filled with as many planets as stars.

3.0 A Proliferation of Planets

Although anticipated by visionaries long ago, we had to wait until 1995 for the first actual detection of an orbiting planet in a solar system other than our own. By various methods, independent observatories, and international teams, the number grew into the hundreds in the 2000s. But since the 2009 NASA Kepler Planet Finder Satellite launch, thousands of orbital orrerys from gaseous giants to rocky Earth-analogs have been found everywhere. A radical profligate universe is revealed which by its own energetic and material propensities spawns a profusion of solar systems and bioworlds.

Circa 2012, astronomers have been homing in on a true earth-like neighbor. Solar system depictions in popular magazines and even textbooks come with an intermediate “habitable zone” of favorable thermal and environmental conditions for organic life to originate and evolve. With Nobel laureate Christian de Duve, a fertile raiment is “pregnant” with life, and now with planets, which is not an accident. With more license, a heavenly hatchery seems filled with “solar incubators” for a personal and communal intelligence to emerge and wonder in retrospect. And this epic revolution has hardly dawned upon us.

A major question is whether planets suitable for biochemistry are common or rare in the universe. Small rocky planets with liquid water enjoy key ingredients for biology. We used the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kepler telescope to survey 42,000 Sun-like stars for periodic dimmings that occur when a planet crosses in front of its host star. We find that 22% of Sun-like stars harbor Earth-size planets orbiting in their habitable zones. The nearest such planet may be within 12 light-years. (Erik Petigura)

The known odds of something — or someone — living far, far away from Earth improved beyond astronomers’ boldest dreams on Monday. Astronomers reported that there could be as many as 40 billion habitable Earth-size planets in the galaxy, based on a new analysis of data from NASA’s Kepler spacecraft. One out of every five sunlike stars in the galaxy has a planet the size of Earth circling it in the Goldilocks zone — not too hot, not too cold — where surface temperatures should be compatible with liquid water. (Dennis Overbye)


This celestial community and neighborhood, often front page news, would imply a gravid genesis of starry galaxies with ovular bioplanets. But a major, explanatory aspect is missing to fulfill an organic familial procreation. The prior scientific project is mostly engaged with overt objects much as resultant “phenotypes.” But over past years, the presence of a natural “genotype” is being realized from many approaches which we review next.

4.0 Cosmome: A Mathematic Materiality

At the outset, the scientific perception of an intrinsic formative source is so significant that it ought to have an appropriate name. As a suggestion, “matheMatter” for a spontaneous substantial cosmos with its own informed organization and vitality. Another coinage, noted earlier, is “uniVerse” as an easy way to cite a once and future doubleness that adds to manifest entities and earths a heretofore absent narrative, genetic script.

After the large and small infinities, as if a transitional version and phase, a number of theorists contend that some kind of computational, generative process does seem to be in effect. We mentioned John A. Wheeler’s It from Bit, David Bohm’s implicate/explicate modes, and a quantum rising from a deeper, immaterial basis. We next tour some aspects and schools that presage a cosmic code - an Information Milieu, Algorithmic Computation, Cellular Automata, Nonlinear Complexity Self-Organization, Natural Networks, Complex Adaptive Systems, and a Universality they each infer.

As an entry, the Cosmic Code chapter opens with a 30 page history, topical glossary, and synthesis for the new sciences of complex living systems. Circa 2004, the field remained an eclectic array of facets, emphasis, techniques and approaches being worked through, with arcane terms and little consilience. Here is a list: Agent-Based Modeling, Autopoiesis, Biosemiotics, Cellular Automata, Chaos Theory, Complex Adaptive Systems, Computational Information, Developmental Systems Theory, Dissipative Structures, Dynamical Systems Theory, Econophysics, Ecosystems, Emergence, Fractal Geometry, General Systems Theory, Hierarchy Theory, Multi-Agent Systems, Neural Networks, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, Nonlinear Phenomena, Renormalization Group Theory, Scale-Free Networks, Scale Invariance, Self-Organized Criticality, Self-Organization, Small-World Network, Statistical Physics, Swarm Intelligence, Symbiosis, Synergetics, Synergy, Universality. But by this 2014 a unification is underway which we now try to convey.

4.1 An Information Communicative Milieu
Into the 21st century, novel realizations have arisen that physical domains are suffused with a prescriptive content, a prime quality along with and prior to space, time, matter and energy. As James Gleick did for chaos theory in 1987, his 2011 opus The Information lucidly chronicles its occasion. A technical entry could be Information and the Nature of Reality (2010) edited by Paul Davies and Neils Gregersen, and other works in the subject section. To fill out, we note some certain facets such as quantum computation, biological communication, an algorithmic nature, as they form a consensus.

A reformation of Quantum Physicsis is much underway with information and conveyance as its distinctive feature. Vlatko Vedral, Christopher Timpson, Seth Lloyd, Jeffery Bub and others find it theoretically imperative to admit and include something deeply textual about ponderable things. The promise of super quantum computers is a large factor driving the effort.

Another engagement is concerned with internal and external biological messaging known as Biosemiotics. The term is due to Thomas Sebeok (1920-2001) from “semiotics” or science of signs to express constant communications in organic, animal, and human phases. A major advocate has been Marcello Barbieri, who is editor of a journal with this name, along with expositors such as Jesper Hoffmeyer, Claus Emmeche, Wendy Wheeler, and a prolific Danish-Estonian-Scandinavian nexus. A burst of books can be found at the International Society for Biosemiotic Studies website. Please see the new Life as Biosemiotics section for these many references.

4.2 Algorithmic Computation
A companion effort, often with an information rubric, treats natural, viable, evolving complexity as emerging from a necessary software-like program. This is a “digital universe” view whereof appropriate software-like equations calculate, iterate, and generate from cosmoses to cultures. With the Alan Turing centennial in 2012, many conferences and publications provided endorsements and explanations. A leading advocate is the Serbian-Swedish philosopher Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, along with Mark Burgin, Barry Cooper, Gregory Chaitin, Hector Zenil, a host of others. A good start could be Turing’s Cathedral by George Dyson. For much more, we have just added a dedicated section, Natural Algorithms, to the main site.

4.3 Cellular Automata
The contributions of polymath physicist Stephen Wolfram also merit notice. As his 2002 tome A New Kind of Science describes, this is a technical term for nonlinear programs which as they run produce emergent, animate complexities. On Wolfram’s Blog this approach is “computational knowledge, symbolic programming, dynamic interactivity, algorithm ontology and discovery, we must be on to Something Very Big.” But a greater independent reality, which Wolfram does aver, remains machine or hardware-like, not yet alive and well. To bracket our decade, a 2014 arXiv entry The Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics by Nobel laureate physicist Gerard ‘t Hooft, noted earlier, affirms a unified, coherent uniVerse made sensible by such insights.

Our models suggest that Einstein may still have been right, when he objected against the conclusions drawn by Bohr and Heisenberg. It may well be that, at its most basic level, there is no randomness in nature, no fundamentally statistical aspect to the laws of evolution. Everything, up to the most minute detail, is controlled by invariable laws. Every significant event in our universe takes place for a reason, it was caused by the action of physical law, not just by chance. This is the general picture conveyed by this report. (‘t Hooft)

With these various entries in place, we can introduce a huge transformative advance, namely the sciences of complex, self-organizing network systems, which quite exemplify an organic and genetic MatheMatter.

4.4 Nonlinear Complex Self-Organization Sciences
A suitable name for the scientific study of nature’s nonlinear dynamic network spontaneities, with many abstract terms, has not yet arisen, to its deficit. As noted, at the request of Yale University colleagues in 2010 I wrote an extended introduction to Part IV: Cosmic Code to arrange and introduce these multiple entries as they try to quantify and express a lively nature that is organizing, developing, becoming by itself. Apropos, Part VI: Universal Principles goes on to report findings of a similar, recurrent pattern and process at each scale and instance from cosmos to civilization.

Our decade neatly brackets a consolidation and maturity of this “theory of everywhere,” more true to life, alternative. While an incipient notice began in the 1980s and earlier, such as general systems theory, from the 1984 Santa Fe Institute to the early 2000s was a preparatory working through its myriad intricacies and facets. For example, ubiquitous scale-free networks only came to light with Albert-Laszlo Barabasi and Reka Albert in 1998.

The situation in 2005 might be conveyed by a book Self-Organization and Evolution of Social Systems, edited by Charlotte Hemelrijk. With e-books, or publisher’s sites, not yet online, one had to find a paper copy. As library catalogs were just on the web, I located one at Yale University. The volume (search CH) was one of the first collections to gather and realize that similar dynamics were in formative effect from microbial colonies to animal groups and even to linguistic discourse. Just nine years later, we mention Yale computational biophysicist Nicholas Ouellette (search) who advised in a talk it didn’t matter which critter or species he choose to study in his laboratory from midges (his choice) to starlings or wildebeests since they each exemplify the same phenomena.

This book contains a collection of studies of social behaviour that are mainly biologically oriented and are carried out from the perspective of emergent effects and self-organization…..the entire range of organisms (from single-celled organisms via slugs, insects, fish and primates to humans). The book treats the broadest range of organisms as regards self-organization and social behavior that has been treated so far in one book. (Hemelrijk, 2005)

As readers know, the whole scene and project has radically shifted into worldwide cyberspace. Printed books are on the wane, paper journals gone from shelves, a revolution dubbed “from Gutenberg to Google” by Peter Burke has overtaken us. With the University of Massachusetts at Amherst close by, at their libraries, or at home, one can log on, access, and print from many thousands of texts and periodicals. Along the way complexity departments or groups have formed across academia and institutes such as the Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research at Indiana University, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, and a Complexity Science Initiative at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

In the interim years, ubiquitous nonlinear phenomena have now been well researched, terms clarified, with every subject field from cosmology and chemistry to sociology and history redefined and better understood by way of these theories. Mostly independent of each other, planetary motions, river topologies, bacterial films, child psychology, human migrations, and so on are newly appreciated as dynamic complex network systems. The promise of universal, totally repetitive, natural principles has at last been fulfilled. This is an historic discovery which has not registered because it need be attributed to our composite worldwise humankind. With so many constant overt exemplifications in place, it is becoming increasingly evident that there must be an independent mathematical source in generative effect which they manifest.

Complexity science is the study of systems with many interdependent components, which, in turn, may interact through many different channels. Such systems – and the self-organization and emergent phenomena they manifest – lie at the heart of many challenges of global importance for the future of the Worldwide Knowledge Society. The development of this science is providing radical new ways of understanding many different mechanisms and processes from physical, social, engineering, information and biological sciences. (Boccaletti, et al, 2014)

From about 2012 on, papers usually have a lead paragraph saying that just as everywhere else from interstellar media to protein webs and social media, our certain area, say neural memory, evinces the same model. For examples we quote from Individual and Meta-Immune Networks by Sharron Bransburg-Zabary, et al (2013). Its Physical Biology journal is just ten years old. Another is Epidemic Processes in Complex Processes by Romualdo Pastor-Satorras, et al. at the e-print site arXiv:1408.2701.

Complex networks can be found everywhere, in man-made systems and in human social systems, in organic and non-organic matter, in natural and anthropogenic structures as well as in biological systems. Examples include linked molecular or cellular structures, climate networks, communication and infrastructure networks, social and economic networks, gene networks, neuron networks and immune networks. (S B-Z)

In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and socio-technical systems. Here we present a coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. (R P-S)


For another input, the physicist philosopher Geoffrey West testified in a talk (2011) that the same complex scale invariance recurs over 50 orders of magnitude from microbes to a metropolis. In our online 2014, one can access a conference summary, “25 Years of Self-Organized Criticality” by Markus Aschwanden, et al, that proclaims not only a “universality” of one creative dynamics everywhere, especially in astrophysics, but the strongly implied presence of an independent, mathematical origin.

In another view, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, whose lineage goes back to the 1930s, is now more filled with “Organics” with rubrics as soft condensed matter, dynamical processes, biological, ecological and evolutionary systems, econophysics. A July 2014, Volume 405, sample of papers attests to a global witness of the same something going on at every stage and instance from universe to us: An Introduction to the Physics of Active Matter, Fractals and Self-Organized Criticality in Proteins, Continuum Modelling of Pedestrian Flows, Evolutionary Model of Stock Markets, Evolutionary Model of Stock Markets, and Diffusion of Knowledge and Globalization in the Web of Twentieth Science.

From these divergent and convergent findings, the phrase “Complex Adaptive System” has come into most popular use. In general, it stands for many discrete agents or entities in interaction, guided by tacit rules, in response to variable environments, which altogether self-organize and emerge into a viable whole. Such components could be a prokaryotic bacterium or a financial investor, while communicative interconnections are chemical quorum sensing for microbes, or no insider trading for markets. An important quality to appreciate is that they abide a reciprocal mutuality by semi-autonomous components within a supportive, bounded grouping. And as noted in Systems Science (Yi Lin, et al, 2012) written be Chinese scientists, these dual modes of agent and community can be seen as a 21st century confirmation of Yang and Yin as they form an archetypal gender complementarity.

A good introduction would be Complexity: A Guided Tour by Melanie Mitchell which clearly explains nature’s propensities for scale-free networks, power laws, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, cross-conversation, evolvability, and so on, along with founders and researchers. For websites, one could visit the New England Complex Systems Institute, Complexity Digest, Santa Fe Institute, and others around the world.

Altogether as humankind learns by her/his self these decadal findings and reports are an epochal discovery in our midst. Instead of barren, accidental, blind matter and mechanism, a animate, quickening genesis with its own procreative code and phenomenal people to read and realize is just adawning. Such a conducive, expectant spacescape is a fertile ground or womb for life’s emergent development, which we review next.



5.0 A Genesis Evolutionary Synthesis

Within our cosmic revolution theme, older and newer versions of evolutionary theory are similarly in contention. The 1950s Modern Synthesis which joined Darwinian natural selection with Mendelian genetic mutation is seen in need of much updating and extension, if not replacement. But this has not yet occurred and a strident minority claims that chance and winnowing are all that is necessary, or going on. This textbook misinterpretation denies any teleological drive, direction or purpose, which is at the root of a religious or popular rejection. The problem is not so much evolutionary science but this elective distortion and misinterpretation.

Again the two options involve a prior emphasis on particulate objects or a novel sense of informed systemic interconnections. Naturalists first explored and collected the creaturely, cellular, and lately molecular components, the phenotype entities from skeletal fossils to living forms. The voyages and writings of Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, and Alfred Russel Wallace are legendary. But although the genomes of individual organisms have now been sequenced, evolutionary theory still proceeds without any equivalent natural genotype, much because life is situated in a mechanical, moribund cosmos. By our biological uniVerse or ecosmos coming into view and veracity, this missing concept and quality can be realized as an active matheMatter takes on a genetic essence.

The 21st century advent of a third infinity of animate complexity and consciousness (by literary license we might attribute to a Charles, and Mary EarthWin), is based upon confirmations across a wide array of disciplines and discoveries. Among these are the origin of life, intrinsic self-organization, algorithmic computation, epigenetics, evolution and development aka evo-devo, constant convergence, social cooperation, a major transitions scale, modules and networks everywhere, a deep homology, structural morphogenesis, neural anatomy and intelligence as encephalization, proactive autonomy and behavior, integral symbiotic selves, biosemiotic dialogue, and much more. These topics, as they come to life altogether, are noted here, supported by Part II references, and the whole sourcebook site. A grand achievement of our time can be to realize that life’s long nested maturation is truly an embryonic gestation.

As a general plan, our sapient reconstruction of how we came to be on earth as it is in heaven will be in four parts. An initial skeletal section looks at origins of life, major transitions, and an evolution revolution. Various receptions of an equivalent natural genotype are next. With this in place, the multi-faceted record of life’s developmental emergence via a deeply homologous and convergent morphogenetic anatomy, physiology, and neural system is entered. With body and brain in embryo, a quickening intelligence, personality, autonomy, knowledge, culture, and sociality follows. Finally, we note a 2010s symbiotic synthesis as an integral understanding of individual entities and ambient cooperative groupings.

5.1 A Skeletal Scaffold

5.1.1 The Origins of Life
As we saw in Ecosmos above, the occasion of rudimentary organisms has been traced ever deeper into biochemistry and biophysics. Before the 1960s an abysmal void separated living entities from a physical substrate. Through the 1970s and 1980s I heard researchers such as Cyril Ponnamperuma, Sidney Fox, Gunter Wachtershauser, and Harold Morowitz as they and colleagues methodically explored, filled in and articulated the ancient scenario. Into the 2000s a turn toward experimental and theoretical integration began.

Readers have seen attempts to define “life,” often with a long list of features. Around 2010, by philosophers Carol Cleland, Mark Bedau and others, three aspects came to the fore – physiological metabolism, a replicative, informational program, and membrane containment, a minimal vesicle or cell. Another issue settled was a priority and primacy of either RNA nucleotides or of metabolic functions. Actually both modes appear in some concerted way, see for example How did Metabolism and Genetic Replication Get Married by Vic Norris, et al (2013).

A viable explanation was then completed by factoring in the effect of implicate nonlinear self-organizing imperatives such as autocatalysis. For some examples, see Self-Organization at the Origin of Life as broached by Athol Cornish-Bowden and Maria Luz Cardenas (2008) and Theory, Modelling and Simulation in Origin of Life Studies by Peter Coveney, et al (2012).

5.1.2 The Major Transitions Scale
At the same time that scientific controversy goes on over whether life has an inherent drive or a teleological direction, evolutionary theory, as now pursued by a composite humanity, has actually entered a whole new phase of integral coherence. Instead of gradual, aimless drift, an organizational procession traces an emergent, nested succession or hierarchy of stages from biomolecules to animals to human sociality. Originally conceived by John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmary in the 1990s over atomic, genetic, cellular, neuronal, organism, primate, and people phases, each with an information carrier from chemicals to language, it has lately come into much use and embellishment.

An overall evolutionary progression to replace aimless blind variation and selective retention is thus well in place. A recent volume is The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited (2011) edited by Brett Calcott and Kim Sterelny. Another example among many would be Geometry Shapes Evolution of Early Multicellularity by Eric Libby, et al (PLoS Computational Biology 10/9, 2014) which opens with the sentence Organisms have increased in complexity through a series of evolutionary transitions, in which autonomous entities become parts of a novel higher-level entity.

A concurrent effort is contained in Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life (2005/2014) by Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb. Again for each stage, with some subdivisions, a code quality is seen to accompany and inform the ascent. So a sharp dichotomy, indicative of a Copernican revolution, is quite in our midst if we might attend, which seems to need a good push to make happen.

In an influential work, Maynard Smith and Szathmáry argued that the majority of the increase in complexity is not gradual, but it is associated with a few so-called major transitions along the way of the evolution of life. For each major transition, they identified specific mechanisms that could account for the change in complexity related to information transmission across generations. In this work, I propose that the sudden and unexpected improvement in the functionality of an organism that followed a major transition was enabled by a phase transition in the network structure associated with that function. (Bela Suki, 2012).

The theory of major transitions has the merit of defining evolutionary increases in complexity both at the phenotypic-organizational (the newly evolved super-units) and genotypic-informational (the new methods of transmitting biological information) levels. Major transitions and the rationale they present for evolutionary increases in complexity suggest that Darwin’s belief in evolutionary progress was not completely unjustified. (Lucio Vinicius, 2010).


5.1.3 A New Evolutionary Synthesis
As Part V: Systems Evolution documents with some 250 entries, research findings from many areas make a novel holistic theory of life’s oriented gestation increasingly imperative. But a vested paradigm and cadre claims that post selection upon passive organisms is the only force necessary or responsible. A mantra has been that “if the tape was played over again” since all is contingent happenstance, human-like beings would not appear a second time.

At the same while, if the wealth of these independent advances via humankind are gathered together, they attest to a quite different picture. An episodic tandem reiteration of bodily form, morphogenesis, cooperative behavior, recapitulations, cumulative cerebration and knowledge gain, and so on from the earliest rudiments now explain life’s evolutionary course much as an embryonic development. This is a huge, corrective achievement which has not yet registered.

A further addition, the crucial missing piece, is an innate formative agency for the myriad phenotypes. Researchers now increasingly assume some manner of intrinsic self-organizing, algorithmic dynamics at work across the systemic, modular and network topologies of the organic kingdoms. A pioneer theorist has been physician and biologist Stuart Kauffman who has long pressed a view that includes both self-organization and selection. In late 2014, an strong affirmation was entered by University of Zurich biologist Andreas Wagner in Arrival of the Fittest wherein nature’s pervasive network propensities serve to complete Darwin’s project by explaining how species appear in the first place. Another instance is a paper The Evolution of Phenotypic Correlations and “Developmental Memory” by Richard Watson, et al (2014) who propose life’s maturation as akin to how a brain forms and learns. Here are samples among a rising chorus. OK

We trace the history of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, and of genetic Darwinism generally, with a view to showing why, even in its current versions, it can no longer serve as a general framework for evolutionary theory. The main reason is empirical. Genetical Darwinism cannot accommodate the role of development (and of genes in development) in many evolutionary processes. We go on to discuss two conceptual issues: whether natural selection can be the “creative factor” in a new, more general framework for evolutionary theorizing; and whether in such a framework organisms must be conceived as self-organizing systems embedded in self-organizing ecological systems. (Depew and Weber, 2012)

Our basic claim is that biological thinking about heredity and evolution is undergoing a revolutionary change. What is emerging is a new synthesis, which challenges the gene-centered version of neo-Darwinism that has dominated biological thought for the last fifty years. (Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb, 2005/2014)

Self-organization permeates the universe so completely that most of us don’t even notice it. Much older that life and natural selection, self-organization is how stars and solar systems form, how the earth accreted, how it acquires a moon, oceans, and an atmosphere, and how the continents started to shift. We shouldn’t be surprised to find self-organization in life’s precursors, because it is everywhere else too. (57) Genotype networks are yet another example of pervasive self-organization – the same phenomenon that pervades both the living and nonliving worlds, from the formation of galaxies to the assembly of membranes. They exist in the timeless eternal realm of nature’s libraries. But they certainly have a form of organization so complex that we are just beginning to understand it, and this organization arises all by itself. (Andreas Wagner, 2014)

That is, the direction of selective pressures on individual relational loci described above has the same relationship with a selective environment that the direction of changes to synaptic connections in a learning neural network has with a training pattern. In other words, gene networks evolve like neural networks learn. Bringing together these two observations with this new in-sight explains the memory behaviors we observe in an evolved network of recurrent nonlinear interactions. (Watson, 2014)


5.2 A Natural Genotype
Again, our premise is that as an evolutionary transition itself fledgling humankinder is proceeding to learn and discover on her/his collaborative own. By this worldwise perspective an animate generative agency prior to, and in concert with, selective effects is being identified and proven. Such an equivalent cosmic genetic code is the crucial missing explanatory element needed to integrate and inform life’s evolutionary gestation in an organic uniVerse.

Over the decade, studies have variously engaged its presence and effect through complex system, algorithmic venues and more. As Cosmome: A Mathematic Materiality above reports, this global project has taken a dual dimension. Across creaturely kingdoms from microbes to sapiens, their exemplary presence and activity is evident at each plane and instance. As a consequence, it has become obvious that some common, independent source must be at work. Generic complex adaptive systems via many agents or entities in communicative interaction appear as self-organized criticalities, gene regulatory networks, and neural connectomes, nested modular communities, and so on as they display a recurrent scale invariance. As prior sections note, these lineaments are further seen in accord with and to spring from with statistical physics phenomena, renormalization groups, algorithmic programs, whatever is their true translation.

One result is the spread and usage of biological –omics designations everywhere such as proteome, metabolome, transcriptome, cellular interactomes, cerebral connectomes, microbiome, organome, phenome, onto culturomics, scientomics, the list goes on. Might we muse a naturome, cosmome, human epitome?

A companion aspect, recorded in the main Cultural Code, is a confirmation, intimated since the 1970s, that genetics and linguistics are deeply alike, as if equivalent projections, and can be studied by similar techniques (Atkinson, 2013). By our purview, they could appear as earlier and later instantiations of life’s informative, genomic passage, might one suggest “languagome.” In a further guise, the nascent field of biosemiotics (see 4.1) is effectively articulating evolution and development as a pervasive array of “organic codes.”

As a contribution to the history of scientific investigations, we trace here a sequence of steps of conceptual and experimental approaches to understand microbial evolution at the molecular level. This shall allow us to extrapolate to generally valid laws of nature guiding biological evolution by self-organization. (Nobel laureate Werner Arber, 2013)

The shared insight from these different approaches is that biological processes are inclined to self-organize, in which a network of localized interactions yields an emergent structure that subsequently feeds back on and strengthens the original network. Our analysis demonstrates that the networks of coregulated gene expression and chromosomal association are indeed mutually related during differentiation, resulting in the self-organization of lineage-specific chromosomal topologies. (Tom Misteli, 2009)

The Neo-Darwinian concept of natural selection is plausible when one assumes a straightforward causation of phenotype by genotype. However, such simple 1:1 mapping must now give place to the modern concepts of gene regulatory networks and gene expression noise. Both can, in the absence of genetic mutations, jointly generate a diversity of inheritable randomly occupied phenotypic states that could also serve as a substrate for natural selection. This form of epigenetic dynamics challenges Neo-Darwinism. It needs to incorporate the non-linear, stochastic dynamics of gene networks. (Sui Huang, 2012)

The contemporary concept of life forms as self-modifying beings coincides with the shift in biology from a mechanistic to informatic view of living organisms. Paralleling the contemporaneous transformation from a largely mechanical-industrial society to a densely interconnected information-driven society, the life sciences have converged with other disciplines to focus on questions of acquiring, processing, and transmitting information to ensure the correct operation of complex vital systems. (James Shapiro, Evolution: A View from the 21st Century, 2011)


5.3 Embryogeny: Evolution and Development
A vital re-integration of evolutionary phylogeny with developmental ontogeny, aka Evo-Devo, has been underway since the 1990s. Along with a missing genome, this reunification of embryology and evolution resolves the separation which took place at the turn of the 20th century. Its robust verification is aided by sorting the endeavor into three phases, namely body, brain and behavior, which are noted next.

5.3.1 Anatomy and Physiology
As an entry, evolutionary biologists Sean Carroll, Neil Shubin and colleagues coined the phrase Deep Homology to convey how animal anatomies and physiologies can be seen to ramify in kind all the way from pre-Cambrian rudiments. For an example, tetrapod, reticulated limbs can be traced from ourselves to amphibians. One might say, along with Shubin’s book title, that people are fish on feet. After a century apart, it is becoming evident that a basic bodily structure as an archetypal Bauplan was in place from the onset. Life’s evolutionary gestation, as each individual embryo, as now filled in, appears as an expansive elaboration via mosaic modules and concerted continuity from the earliest eons to homo and anthropo sapiens.

Homology, as classically defined, refers to a historical continuity in which morphological features in related species are similar in pattern or form because they evolved from a corresponding structure in a common ancestor. Deep homology also implies a historical continuity, but in this case the continuity may not be so evident in particular morphologies; it lies in the complex regulatory circuitry inherited from a common ancestor. The deep homology of generative processes and cell-type specification mechanisms in animal development has provided the foundation for the independent evolution of a great variety of structures. (Shubin, et al, 2009)

The companion experimental and theoretical study of anatomical development and its evolutionary course known as Morphogenesis likewise describes an ancient heritage of form and function. Salient contributions would be Morphogenesis: Origins of Patterns and Shapes (2010) edited by Paul Bourgine and Annick Lesne, and Life Unfolding: How the Human Body Creates Itself (2014) by the Scottish embryologist Jamie Davies. These recent achievements trace our corporeal soma to chemical and physical origins, which is seen to confirm the 20th century prescience of D’Arcy Thompson and Alan Turing.

The way in which adaptive self-organization allows non-living molecules to produce a living cell, and allows cells with very limited individual abilities to produce a very able multicellular body, will form a theme that runs through all of this book because it is the core of development. (Davies)

Another benefit is an appreciation of nature’s essential correspondence between an organism’s developmental ontogeny and life’s maturation as an evolutionary phylogeny. While “universal gestation” was a guiding principle in Darwin’s 19th century day and before, this view was later rejected in its preliminary stage. But as the website section documents, real parallels and recapitulations are now apparent not only for anatomies, but also for language learning, behavioral repertoires, kinetic movement, and more. An especial paper is Von Baer’s Law for the Ages: Lost and Found Principles of Developmental Evolution by the Harvard University geneticist Arhat Abzhanov.

5.3.2 A Constant Convergence
Another relevant aspect of an oriented expression is the verification that life’s long development proceeds and converges from diverse, disparate occasions upon the same solution. Over and over, similar bodily forms and appendages, sensory capacities for sight, hearing, smell, neural network cerebral attributes, onto reciprocal groupings are reached. A foremost advocate, once under attack from deniers, is the Cambridge University paleontologist Simon Conway Morris, as for example in his edited volume The Deep Structure of Biology. A consummate work would be Convergent Evolution (2011) by George McGhee which cites cases in every kingdom of the same result occurring in relative kind again and again. Here is strong evidence at odds with the old vested version of nothing going on but vicarious, aimless selection.

In summary, convergent evolution occurs across the entire spectrum of molecules that make up life. We have studied examples of the convergent evolution of identical nucleotide substitutions in nuclear and mtDNA molecules of distantly related organisms, similar amino acid sequences in unrelated protein molecules, similar structural geometries in proteins with different amino acid sequences, and similar protein functions by gene sharing; the convergent evolution of the same enzyme function produced by the convergent evolution of the same protein producing that function;….and the convergent evolution of the same macromolecular structure in unrelated enzymes. The number of molecular evolutionary pathways available to life is not endless but is quite restricted, and convergent evolution is the direct result. (McGhee)

5.3.3 Encephalization - A Neural, Cognitive, Learning Experience
Again via retrospective humankind a similar elaboration has been found for central nervous systems and cerebral structures, as if a brain Bauplan. We will say more about a progressive intelligence and knowledge, as a starter one might consult the PNAS volume In the Light of Evolution VII: The Human Mental Machinery (Cela-Conde 2013), along with The Custom-Made Brain (Lledo 2014) which has a section entitled Behind Diversity in the Animal Kingdom, a Single Plan. For a specific paper try Evolution and Development of Brain Networks: From Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo Sapiens (2011) by Marcus Kaiser and Sreedevi Varier with this Abstract.

Neural networks show a progressive increase in complexity during the time course of evolution. From diffuse nerve nets in Cnidaria to modular, hierarchical systems in macaque and humans, there is a gradual shift from simple processes involving a limited amount of tasks and modalities to complex functional and behavioral processing integrating different kinds of information from highly specialized tissue. However, studies in a range of species suggest that fundamental similarities, in spatial and topological features as well as in developmental mechanisms for network formation, are retained across evolution. (143)

A prime aspect to be included is an occurrence and passage throughout the Metazoan kingdoms of similar bilateral, complementary brain hemispheres as our homo sapiens faculty. The 2013 volume Divided Brains: The Biology and Behavior of Brain Asymmetries gathers many findings not only for primates, but for mammalian, avian, aquatic, reptile, even arthropod crustaceans. In each case a common neural asymmetry is retained along with a left side penchant for fine detail and a right half for composite perceptions. Evolution found it best early on to separate these functions so as to both seek edible food and avoid predator at the same time. As every other age and culture knows, phenomenal people, life’s long procreation, and a dynamic genesis universe are one and the same, an iconic mirror and revelation.

Ultimately, we conclude that the neurobiological structure of the vertebrate central nervous system is evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved across species and that the basic neurophysiologic mechanisms supporting consciousness in humans are found at the earliest points of vertebrate brain evolution. (Mashour & Alkire, PNAS 2013)

As life’s emergence becomes increasingly appreciated as an embryonic maturation, and as this development is seen to involve brain and behavior more than body, researchers have begun to interpret it by way of neural net dynamics and consequent learning processes. Richard Watson and colleagues at the University of Southampton, UK, are pursuing this approach within a general “evolutionary connectionism.” A 2014 paper The Evolution and Phenotypic Correlations and “Developmental Memory” in the journal Evolution by Watson, with Gunter Wagner and others is a good summary wherein life proceeds similar to a brain by comparing new experience with prior representations. A companion entry by neuroscientists Jeremice Cabessa and Hava Siegelmann (2012) is also noted next.

In this article, we have demonstrated a formal equivalence between the direction of selection on phenotypic correlations and associative learning mechanisms. In the context of neural network research and connectionist models of memory and learning, simple associative learning with the ability to produce an associative memory, to store and recall multiple patterns, categorize patterns from partial or corrupted stimuli, and produce generalized patterns from a set of structurally similar training patterns has been well studied. The insight that the selective pressures on developmental correlations are equivalent to associative learning thus provides the opportunity to utilize well-established theoretical and conceptual frameworks from associative learning theory to identify organizational principles involved in the evolution of development. (Watson, et al)

Indeed, in the brain (or in organic life in general), information is processed in an interactive way, where previous experience must affect the perception of future inputs and older memories themselves may change with response to new inputs. Hence, neural networks should be conceived as performing sequential interactions or communications with their environments and be provided with memory that remains active throughout the whole computational process. Accordingly, we propose to study the computational power of recurrent neural networks from the rising perspective of interactive computation. (Cabessa & Siegelmann, 2012)


5.3.4 The Prevalence and Primacy of Cooperation
Ever since Darwin, and misunderstandings of his theories, survival of the fittest was seen to imply competition and conflict as the rule in nature. Again since circa 2000 studies across species, genera, and phyla have quantified that animals persistently tend to form salutary cooperative groupings. Reciprocal caring and sharing in fact increases both the chances of each member and of the relative colony, troop, flock, and community to get sustenance, avoid dangers, survive, reproduce, and thrive.

As Part II and the site documents, mutual, reciprocal aid occurs as a self-organized division of labor of benefit to all. Leading researchers and advocates are Martin Nowak of Harvard, Kenneth Weiss and Anne Buchanan of Penn State, and many colleagues. Salient works might be Collective Animal Behavior (2010) by David Sumpter, The Age of Empathy, (2009) Frans De Waal, Principles of Social Evolution (2011) by Andrew Bourke, and Cooperation and its Evolution (2103) edited by Kim Sterelny and Richard Joyce. Here is one more example of a radical revolution from entities ever at odds and war to an endemic propensity for the golden rule.

Last but not least – or should we say last but perhaps most – the principles of life we have described imply a variety of forms of cooperation. Cooperation, that is, literally co-operation, refers to different components working together successfully by some criterion, including that of evolutionary viability. The signals that produce branching, modular, and hierarchically nested organization inherently work cooperatively – indeed, signaling means the co-expression of all the sending and receiving factors. Cooperative communication enables sequestered parts to be coordinated so that the system can function as a whole. (Weiss and Buchanan, 2009)

5.4 Animal Consciousness, Intelligence, Personality, Behavior, Sociality, Culture
In addition, the study of these title attributes has moved from initial denials and doubts to a robust confirmation. As the Animal Intelligence section conveys, abilities of forethought, stored memory, improvisation, mimesis, clever, cooperative behavior, stretches through the Metazoan kingdoms to cephalopods, insects and earliest invertebrates. While human beings are uniquely graced by linguistic and societal intensities, who can reconstruct from whence they came, an anthropometric familiarity and relative continuity is quite evident.

Of course, we all know this as ever amazed by the sensitive affect and playfulness of our creaturely companions. An international conference, Consciousness in Human and Non-Human Animals, (2012) wrote a manifesto to affirm its real presence from an ancient awakening. A concurrent volume Animal Personalities (2013) averred a wide array of familiar behaviors amongst animal groupings of every kind, which would be their own cultural dimension. One could cite the TV series Meerkat Manor, dolphin pods, migratory herds, hunting parties, social insects, we are one family.

While textbook evolution views organisms as passive subjects impacted by capricious environments, it is now established that all manner of animals engage in proactive behaviors to improve their fitness and survival. As Kevin Laland, John Olding-Smee, and others have articulate, a constant process of “niche construction” of nests, bowers, caches, stashes, hives, beaver dams goes on.

With these novel perceptions, it has become necessary to factor such intentional activities of organisms and groups into revised evolutionary theories. A special 2014 issue of the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (112/2) on The Role of Behavior in Evolution contains several papers such as New Thinking about Biological Evolution by Patrick Bateson, and Adaptive Evolution without Natural Selection by Kalevi Kull. OK

My sense is that the theories of biological evolution have been reinvigorated by the convergence of different disciplines. The combination of developmental and behavioral biology, ecology, evolutionary biology, and now microbiology has shown how important the active roles of the organism are in the evolution of its descendants. (Bateson)

5.5 A Ubuntu Universe: Our Symbiotic Selves
By our vista, in the past few years an historic understanding about personal organisms, social memberships, and a natural principles of autonomy and community, stability and change has occurred. Human beings, and organisms in general, are rightly appreciated as composite entities of microbiomes, organelles, and ones overall individuality. Since the 1970s, as perceived and championed by microbiologist Lynn Margulis (1938-2011), eukaryotic nucleated cells are known to have evolved by and made up of a beneficial symbiosis between disparate (mitochondria, undulipodia, cilia) components in a bounded compartment. After decades of research this arrangement is robustly proven not only for cells, but is being extended across emergent life to people and societies.

A synoptic volume might be The New Foundations of Evolution (2009) by the York University biologist Jan Sapp. A succinct paper is A Symbiotic View of Life: We Have Never Been Individuals by Scott Gilbert, Alfred Tauber, and Sapp in the Quarterly Review of Biology (2012). Gilbert, a Swarthmore College embryologist and author, has taken up Lynn Margulis’ mission to aver that an organism’s identity is actually a viable mutuality between myriad microbiota and an integral self, dubbed a symbiont or holobiont community. See also Gilbert’s luminous 2013 paper Wonder and the Necessary Alliances of Science and Religion.

Molecular analyses of symbiotic relationships are challenging our biological definitions of individuality and supplanting them with a new notion of normal part–whole relationships. This new notion is that of a ‘holobiont’, a consortium of organisms that becomes a functionally integrated ‘whole’. This holobiont includes the zoological organism (the ‘animal’) as well as its persistent microbial symbionts. This new individuality is seen on anatomical and physiological levels, where a diversity of symbionts form a new ‘organ system’ within the zoological organism and become integrated into its metabolism and development. Symbionts have also been found to constitute a second mode of genetic inheritance, providing selectable genetic variation for natural selection. We develop, grow and evolve as multi-genomic consortia/teams/ecosystems. (Scott Gilbert)

On a communal level, animal entities are found to survive and flourish by way of similar reciprocities between diverse members and relative groupings. For each nested evolutionary stage, the same symbiotic mutuality repeats in turn each time. One could mention biofilms, troops, clans, pods, herds, flocks, allegiances, teams, bands, sects, and so on. In each instance, a reciprocity of competition and cooperation, semi-autonomy and supportive whole, entity and empathy, of benefit both to free beings and group sustenance and survival is nature’s preference.

From these many studies can be gleaned a recurrent principle, intimated over the ages, of indispensible value today. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin coined “creative union,” decades later the French biologist Vic Norris cites a “competitive coherence,” Elizabeth Hussa and Heidi Goodrich-Blair offer “multipartite interdependence.” There are many more versions throughout the site. As readers know, Asian wisdom teaches an integral Yin/Yang balance, akin to African ubuntu or MesoAmerican teotl traditions (search terms). A premier quality to then emphasize, often stressed by Teilhard, is that the more a person becomes part of a shared assembly, the more liberated and empowered they actually are. As noted in Organic Democracy above, a capsule might be: me + We = US. A budding social instance is entered in Sustainable Ecovillages.

Microbial symbioses, in which microbes have either positive (mutualistic) or negative (parasitic) impacts on host fitness, are integral to all aspects of biology, from ecology to human health. Even in relatively simple associations, symbiont-derived benefits can be context dependent and influenced by other host-associated or environmental microbes. Furthermore, naturally occurring symbioses are typically complex, in which multiple symbionts exhibit coordinated, competing, or independent influences on host physiology, or in which individual symbionts affect multiple interacting hosts. (Hussa and Goodrich-Blair, It Takes a Village)

Another penchant of nature’s dynamic balance which has lately gained veracity, drawn from specific instances and implied generalities, is for living systems to seek a maximum vitality poised between order and chaos, stability and flexibility. By various names, it is a self-organized criticality or metastable state. A well-studied case is the way our brains think via a reciprocal interplay between semi-autonomous neurons and their relative networks. The contributions of Stuart Kauffman, Scott Kelso, Stephen Grossberg, Vic Norris, Jorge Hildago and many colleagues over the years are a prime resource. A quote from Outline of a General Theory of Behavior and Brain Coordination by Scott Kelso, et al (2013) can give the gist.

According to the present theory, the normal brain realizes its complexity at all scales not in its most ordered form (integration qua synchronization) or disordered form (segregation qua desynchronization), but in a subtle blend of both tendencies. Dual tendencies for integration and segregation constitute a complementary pair very much along the lines proposed by Stephen Grossberg, one of the pioneers of the field of Neural Networks: the brain is organized to obey principles of complementarity. (Kelso)

And from our own microcosm, we can go far afield to Self-Organized Criticality in Astrophysics (2011) by Martin Aschwanden, Evolution and Selection of River Networks (2014) by Andrea Rinaldo, et al, Patterns in Our Planet (2010) Alison Ord, et al, and the synoptic Emergence of Criticality in Living Systems through Adaptation and Evolution by Jorge Hidalgo, et al (2013). An example of the scientific acceptance of a dynamic creativity could be Power Laws and Self-Organized Criticality in Theory and Nature by Dimitrije Markovic and Claudius Gros in Physics Reports (2014).

Empirical evidence has proliferated that living systems might operate at the vicinity of critical points with examples ranging from spontaneous brain activity to flock dynamics. Here we employ tools from statistical mechanics and information theory to prove that systems poised at criticality are much more efficient in ensuring that their internal maps are good proxies of reality. Analytical and computational evolutionary models vividly illustrate that a community of such systems dynamically self-tunes toward a critical state either as the complexity of the environment increases or even upon attempting to map with fidelity the other agents in the community. Our approach constitutes a general explanation for the emergence of critical-like behavior in complex adaptive systems. (Hidalgo)

We have now traced the Third Infinity from a lively Ecosmos, via formative Mathematter, through a quickening Genesis Evolutionary Synthesis. The grand achievement of this late hour, and our transition as free members of a personsphere progeny, is the long foreordained discovery of a true universal repetition of the same iconic gender archetype everywhere. We can now consider and report its notice and presence in our individual and social selves.

6.0 A Human and Humankinder Epitome

6.1 Phenomenal Persons
This first part, in accord with the site outline, will note complex system advances in body, brain, psyche, and knowing awareness.

6.1.1 Systems Physiology and Psychology
As citations in Part II, and this website section attest, from a later 1990s “dynamic systems theory” by Esther Thelen and Linda Smith of Indiana University every aspect of our lives from infants to seniors is now better understood by way of invariant self-organizing, network nonlinearities. In early childhood, progress in anatomic maturation, visual perception, kinetic agility, social behavior and sequential stages of cognition are each guided by these natural propensities. A major statement is Volume 44, Embodiment and Epigenesis, of Advances in Child Development and Behavior (Lerner, 2013) under the banner of a corrective “relational” turn for the field, as championed by Willis Overton, the veteran Temple University psychologist.

Anyone who has witnessed a newborn baby grow up into a toddler and then a schoolchild, an adolescent, and an adult has an intuitive appreciation of the fact that developmental processes are prime examples of nonlinear dynamical systems. (243) The course of human development over the life span is a prime example of a complex, nonlinear dynamical system. The process of development is recursive and self-organizing. It occurs simultaneously at many levels of organization – for example, the individual person and the person in interaction with others, institutions, and cultures to which the person relates. (271) (Paul Van Geert, 2009)

For our adult years, an international team of physicians and systems scientists reports in the article Network Physiology Reveals Relations between Network Topology and Physiological Function (Bashan, 2011) how along with homeostasis, a person’s condition most depends on being in a state of critical poise between order and disorder. Indeed ones true health can be accessed by how well one maintains this balance, often by degrees of fractalness. And onto senescence, by how much this vitality and form quite deteriorates.

The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiological systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Here we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiological network. We find that each physiological state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology. (Bashan)

6.1.2 Systems Neuroscience: Our Mindful Microcosm
Certain vital realms of nature, evolution, and humanity have become especial subjects of research, and are exemplary portals upon a greater genesis. Microbial colonies and dynamic genomes are examples. Another prime focus of the complex systems revolution is its application to understand our own neural endowment and intelligence. A human brain, both in neural development and cogitation, is now seen as to epitomize a dynamic, self-organizing, critically poised, fractal, nested network, modular system, aka connectomes. For the whole brain/mind, a global workspace theory or working memory have gained acceptance to explain how we effectively remember and respond.

As an instance, both the United States and Europe have initiated mega scientific consortiums to totally analyze and map brain anatomies and faculties. In regard, a good entry is the edited volume The Future of the Brain (2014) with a chapter by George Church entitled Rosetta Brain. By still another take the same structure and message occur and repeat at every micro and macro phase. My we observe that these collaborative projects and achievements are due to an emergent global faculty whom seems retrospectively trying to map, describe, quantify and qualify the brave human brains that such a noosphere has arisen from.

In addition, as we saw for evolving animals, A Complementary Brain and Thought Process attests that for our own bicameral hemispheres the left side penchant for dot detail and right for contextual connections is now established. Or in another way, we have archetypal yang and yin genders in our very heads, if we could only abide. By our global vista, microcosmic human and macrocosmic universe become more of an iconic mirror to each other than ever imagined. In an especial work The Master and His Emissary (2009), the British psychologist Iain McGilchrist conveyed this so well, as we sample next.

My thesis is that for us as human beings there are two fundamentally opposed realities, two different modes of experience; that each is of ultimate importance in bringing about the recognisably human world; and that their difference is rooted in the bihemispheric structure of the brain. It follows that the hemispheres need to co-operate, but I believe they are in fact involved in a sort of power struggle, and that this explains many aspects of contemporary Western culture. (3)

In the opening pages of this book, I wrote that I believed it to be profoundly true that the inner structure of our intellect reflects the structure of the universe. By ‘profoundly’ I meant not just true by definition, as would be the case for those who believe that the universe is in any case a creation of our brains. I think it goes further than that. I believe our brains not only dictate the shape of the experience we have of the world, but are likely themselves to reflect, in their structure and functioning, the nature of the universe in which they have come about. (460)


6.1.3 Our Conscious Knowledge
While Cosmic Consciousness noted new admissions of its natural presence, here we record scientific affirmations of a true self awareness in ourselves, mind you. Although some who remain in the materialist paradigm still deny, actual this real phenomenon is accredited as a proper field for study. Our wakeful sentience is quite evident and real on its own. Advances in neural imaging can now attribute to specific cerebral cortex areas and even to neuron and network firings. A significant equation of perceptive consciousness with a relative information content, championed by Giulio Tononi, Christoph Koch (search) and others, has become a leading explanation. By these lights, an ancient evolutionary continuity, a long stirring, quickening, learning, knowing individual and social mindfulness, is lately revealed as a fact.

6.2 An Emergent Humankind
As we may convey, a pervasive achievement over the past years is a reconception of every field from cosmology and geology to genomes, brains, psyches and behaviors in terms of the nonlinear, self-organizing, complexity network sciences. In the previous section, we saw their avail for integral persons. As the site documents, this novel approach is of equal value for all manner of literacy, social, urban, economic, civilizational and even historic phases, which we note next.

6.2.1 A Cultural Code
As this site section reports, human language in both grammar and syntax linguistic and textual or conversational modes has also been amenable to this nascent interpretation. Rosetta Cosmos documents how our written literary corpus is being found to manifest and exemplify the universal complex network self-organization. A Chinese-Spanish nexus has made many contributions, often comparing the logogram and alphabetic scripts.
In Systems Linguistics we mean a waxing view of language that likewise exemplifies a dynamic fractal scale-invariance, so to speak. A breakthrough work might be Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics (2008) by Diane Larsen-Freeman and Lynne Cameron. Around 2009 going forward a team effort with a Santa Fe Institute – University of Michigan core, including John Holland, affirmed Language as a Complex System (search Clay Beckner).

Language as a CAS involves the following key features: The system consists of multiple agents (the speakers in the speech community) interacting with one another. The system is adaptive, that is, speakers’ behavior is based on their past interactions, and current and past interactions together feed forward into future behavior. A speaker’s behavior is the consequence of competing factors ranging from perceptual constraints to social motivations. The structures of language emerge from interrelated patterns of experience, social interaction, and cognitive mechanisms. The CAS approach reveals commonalities in many areas of language research, including first and second language acquisition, historical linguistics, psycholinguistics, language evolution and computational modeling.

The advantage of viewing language as a CAS is that it allows us to provide a unified account of seemingly unrelated linguistic phenomena. These phenomena include the following: variation at all levels of linguistic organization; the probabilistic nature of linguistic behavior; continuous change within agents and across speech communities; the emergence of grammatical regularities from the interaction of agents in language use; and stagelike transitions due to underlying nonlinear processes. We outline how the CAS approach reveals commonalities in many areas of language research, including cognitive linguistics, sociolinguistics, first and second language acquisition, psycholinguistics, historical linguistics, and language evolution. (Beckner, et al)


Other work traces a common continuity of our speech patterns with birdsong and throughout the talkative creatures. The biosemiotic approach is keen on this. And as we saw contributions work both ways – genomes are now parsed for linguistic features, while cultural discourse is being realized to have many genetic affinities. A 2011 paper Statistical Physics and Language Dynamics (Loreto) goes on to trace etiologies to these root realms. As this scenario fills in, a singular formative code seems to emerge and reiterate with evolutionary transitions from nucleotides to libraries. This is an auspicious discovery in the air by humanity’s knowsphere. OK

6.2.2 Complex Symbiotic Societies
As our daily lives become ever intricately intertwined, whether in local environs, or by global communications and breaking news, again their fabric equally imbues and is guided by the same mathematical source. Rather than one thing after another sans any deeper context, complex dynamic systems are similarly found to organize the form and activities of groups, neighborhoods, settlements, cities, nations, every human polity.

To give a sense, one aspect has been to quantify that human assemblies as they hold forth take on a character as a higher level, organism-like entity. The work of Robert Goldstone, Anita Woolley, Thomas Malone, David Sloan Wilson, and others, such as group selection and collective intelligence, augur for a further evolutionary iteration. With the burst of social media like Facebook and Twitter, along with mobile phones and tablets, vast amounts of data are available for their usage, which can be shown to exhibit modular network dynamics akin to neural architectures.

Just as neurons interconnect in networks that create structured thoughts beyond the ken of any individual neuron, so people spontaneously organize themselves into groups to create emergent organizations that no individual may intend, comprehend, or even perceive. (10) Social phenomena such as the spread of gossip, the World-Wide Web, the popularity of cultural icons, legal systems, and scientific establishments all take on a life of their owe, complete with their own self-organized divisions of labor and specialization, feedback loops, growth, and adaptations. (Goldstone, 2008)

Life forms are organized in nested clusters. Genes are bundled in chromosomes that occur in cells. Cells are joined together in multi-cellular organisms, and some multi-cellular organisms live in societies. This hierarchical organization strongly suggests that the amazing diversity of life forms is partly due to the grouping of biological units into higher-level units. The dynamic underlying the hierarchical organization of life forms has been called major transitions in evolution (which) occurs when individual organisms become so integrated that they transform into a higher-level organism in their own right. (Selin Kesebir, 2012)


6.2.3 Planetary Physiosphere: Anatomics, Economics, Urbanomics
This section weaves several aspects of potential emergent transitions to a more organically conceived and healthy viability of human societies. Neighborhoods, villages and towns onto cities, urban areas, bioregions and a physiological, neural anatomy of an anthroposphere (Baccini) are presently morphing, growing, coming into their own. Consequent commercial economies from financial markets to ethnic migrations are being realized understood as dynamical network phenomena with a fractal self-similarity, quite an animate in kind.

For human settlements, a pioneer of the complexity revolution has been the British systems geographer Michael Batty. A current work is The New Science of Cities (2013). Another advocate is the Israeli urban planner Juval Portugali, his latest book is Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age (2012). Another nonlinear take is achieved by a team from the American Southwest, such as Geoffrey West, Luis Bettencourt, Jose Lobo, Deborah Strumsky, and colleagues, who extend a prior ecological invariance to over 50 orders of magnitude from microbes to a metropolis.

We have shown that power law scaling is a pervasive property of human social organization and dynamics in cities and holds across time and for different nations with very different levels of development, economic sector distribution, and with different cultural norms and geographic location. This is an extraordinary assertion indicating that, on average, different cities are scaled up versions of each other, particularly in terms of rhythms of social activity – such as the creation of wealth and ideas, infectious contacts and crime, and patterns of human behavior. (Bettencourt, et al, 2009)

On the basis of these structures we propose a new universal definition of a city as a network of linked centres at all scales set into a background network of residential space. We then show that this universal pattern comes about in tow interlinked but conceptually separable phases: a spatial process through which simple spatial laws govern the emergence of characteristically urban patterns of space from the aggregations of buildings; and a functional process through which equally simple spatio-functional laws govern the way in which aggregates of buildings become living cities. It is this dual process that is suggested can lead us in the direction of a ‘genetic’ code for cities. (Bill Hillier, 2012)


A companion aspect would be financial market economies, as engaged from a number of angles. A hybrid field dubbed econophysics uses statistical mechanics to better study industry and trade. A founder and prime theorist has been Eugene Stanley of Boston University. From the Santa Fe Institute, an endeavor initiated by Kenneth Arrow, Brian Arthur and others applies self-organizing complexity theories to sponsor a nonlinear economics. A veteran journal such as Physica A is now filled with sophisticated analyses of stock exchanges, business cycles, and so on which again exemplify universal principles. An especial entry is The Origin of Wealth (2006) by London economist Eric Beinhocker which draws both reinterprets evolutionary theory and commerce by way of complex adaptive systems.

Similar efforts have informed a broad field of societal studies. For example Agent-Based Models of Geographical Systems edited by Alison Heppenstall, et al (search) consider complex cellular topologies from land cover changes to demographics, epidemics, pedestrian and vehicular traffic, crime waves, migrations, even battlefields. These global sciences are of indispensible value to analyze, and control disease vectors. The Peking University information theorist Hai Zhuge, with whom I have had an email correspondence, was able to quantify the SARS epidemic this way.

As these efforts matured and merged into the 2010s, witnesses of a planetary, social and urban “anthropocene metabolism” have grown, as recent volumes herein express. This promise has inspired architecture from Frank Lloyd Wright and Christopher Alexander to Paul Downton and James Harris, with many local and urban practitioners. But an intentional integral ascent to a sustainable, organism-like Ecozoic era, the great work of our time advised by Thomas Berry, will not be accomplished without a radical breakthrough to a common planet-wise knowledge.

6.2.4 Systems History: Planetary Individuation
While the “individuation” aspect has not yet occurred, as these rarefied references attest the complex systems revolution is being extended even to the fraught, brutal course of perpetual, internecine war, nation building, fracture, conquest, migrations, diasporas, over the millennia. As The Phenomenon of Humankind, and this review attest, the universal complex dynamic network of agent entity, community relation, and whole system equally applies to the august temporal and spatial past and present of homo unto anthropo sapiens.

During this period, with the publication of David Christian’s Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History (2005) an imperative, necessary joining of human millennia with cosmic evolutionary duration was achieved. This expansive integration has led to a spate of similar volumes and updates, an International Association, conferences, a Big History Project, (Google each) with ambitions to situate our earthly abide in its celestial context. As Christian observed, over this vista the prime vectors were an increasing complexity, and a proactive intelligence, now shifting to a global scale.

A parallel effort was initiated by the University of Connecticut historian Peter Turchin, the son of Russian-American systems philosopher Valentin Turchin, to explore ways to recast the course of civilizations by way of the complexity sciences. An online journal Cliodynamics: Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History was posted in 2010 for articles that express such deeper forces and lineaments at work behind the crush of events, as long intimated. We note in a 2011 issue papers by Santa Fe Institute theorists David Krakauer and Geoffrey West, see Part II.

Of course this is a huge subject, we saw above, and on the website, how even the most tragic, seemingly chaotic events of our roiling human condition can yet reflect a common mathematics. A 2014 work Complexity Science and World Affairs by Boston University scholar Walter Clemens is a salient volume in this regard. We ought to cite that the eminent historian William McNeill broached this scenario in a 2001 article The Convergence of Evolutionary Science with Scientific History (search). A 2011 edition Deep History by Andrew Shryock and Daniel Smail is a good evocation of this vital rooting, as next.

The goal of this book is to offer a set of tools – patterns, frames, metaphors – for the telling of deep histories. These include kinshipping, fractal replication, exchange, hospitality, networks, trees, extensions, scalar integration, and the spiraling patterns of feedback intrinsic to all coevolutionary processes. Skillfully deployed, these frames and the narratives and evidence they create offer a dynamic of connectedness that can render deep time accessible to modern scholarship, thereby bringing the long ages of human history together in a single story. (Shryock and Smail)

As we did for the Anthropo section, here is a recap of 21st century scientific discoveries. As a prior human stage sought to explore and examine, humanity altogether is revising every field to a systems synthesis of parts, relations and integral, nested wholes. We note physics and biology, quantum and classical, statistical mechanics and complexity theory, and more as active matter comes alive. A dramatic accomplishment is a fertile cosmos filled with as many planets as stars. Suns appear as solar incubators for habitable zones. While large and small infinities have run their course, a missing mathematical, formative agency is being articulated which takes on a guise of a natural genetic code. In accord, a new dynamic evolutionary synthesis, with both phenotype and genotype, is in the air as life’s emergence again becomes an embryonic gestation. We refer the reader on to Part II for reference highlights over the period, especially into the 2010s, in support.


C. Select 2004 - 2014 References

2004 – 2014 Select References
To complement and support the decadal review, here each website chapter and section, if not covered in Part I, will have a brief summary along with select references to document the global genesis revolution. These postings are abridged and condensed versions, full citations with quotes can be found on the website.

I. The Genesis Vision: A Creative Organic Universe
A. Historic Prescience

In our late day, the whole repository of human knowledge is now instantly online almost everywhere, a library of cosmos. Seekers and scholars can have full access to insightful prior glimpses of a genesis vision. Along with Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Vladimir Vernadsky, and Alfred North Whitehead who are most often referred to, here are some new references in kind.

Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. http://www.kaznu.kz/en/. This entry also introduces Al-Farabi (c. 872-950) as a renowned scientist and philosopher of the Islamic Golden Age. (Wikipedia).

Albertson, David. Mathematical Theologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. .

Dick, Steven. Cosmic Evolution: History, Culture, and Human Destiny. Steven Dick and Mark Lupisella, eds. Cosmos & Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4802, 2010.

Gregory, Mary Efrosini. Diderot and the Metamorphosis of Species. London: Routledge, 2007.

Heylighen, Francis. Conceptions of a Global Brain: An Historical Review. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Heylighen.

Meulders, Michel. Helmholtz: From Enlightenment to Neuroscience. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010. .

Sarasohn, Lisa. The Natural Philosophy of Margaret Cavendish: Reason and Fancy During the Scientific Revolution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.

Stott, Rebecca. Darwin’s Ghosts: In Search of the First Evolutionists. New York: Spiegel and Grau, 2012.

Young, George M. The Russian Cosmists: The Esoteric Futurism of Nikolai Fedorov and His Followers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

B. Cosmo Sapiens: Current Vistas
In lieu of a paragraph, the whole of Part I: A Worldwise Discovery of an Integral Procreative Universe is a synopsis of revolutionary Natural Genesis horizons.

Auletta, Gennaro. Cognitive Biology: Dealing with Information from Bacteria to Minds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Capra, Fritjof and Pier Luigi Luisi. The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Chela-Flores, Julian. The Science of Astrobiology: A Personal View on Learning to Read the Book of Life. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Coen, Enrico. Cells to Civilizations: The Principles of Change That Shape Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012.

Conway Morris, Simon, ed. The Deep Structure of Biology: Is Convergence Sufficiently Ubiquitous to Give a Directional Signal?. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press, 2008.

Dick, Steven and Mark Lupisella, eds. Cosmos & Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context. Washington, DC: NASA SP-4802, 2010.

Escobar, Arturo. Territories of Difference: Place, Movement, Life, Redes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.

Goerner, Sally, et al. The New Science of Sustainability: Building a Foundation for Great Change. Chapel Hill, NC: Triangle Center for Complex Systems, 2008.

Goodwin, Brian. Nature’s Due: Healing Our Fragmented Culture. Edinburgh: Floris Books, 2007.

Henning, Brian and Adam Scarfe. Beyond Mechanism: Putting Life Back into Biology. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2013.

Kelso, Scott and David Engstrom. The Complementary Nature. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.

Koch, Christof. Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012.

Kurakin, Alexei. The Self-Organizing Fractal Theory as a Universal Discovery Method: The Phenomenon of Life. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. 8/4, 2011.

Nagel, Thomas. Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Nesteruk, Alexei. A Participatory Universe of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects and an Example of Purposiveness in Physics. arXiv:1304.2277.

Neubauer, Raymond. Evolution and the Emergent Self: The Rise of Complexity and Behavioral Versatility in Nature. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.

Orrell, David. Truth or Beauty: Science and the Quest for Order. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.

Swimme, Brian Thomas and Mary Evelyn Tucker. Journey of the Universe. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.

Wagner, Andreas. Arrival of the Fittest. New York: Current/Penguin, 2014.

II. A Learning Planet: An Integral Knowledge by Humankind
A. Original Wisdom

1. Rosetta Cosmos

Throughout our loquacious heritage of a divergent of tongues, oral and written, in palimpsest translations, a sense of a common dialect, an UR-language, has long been a quest and goal. As these selections may express, into a 21st century, by an epic shift to humankind’s vision and voice, these novel “Rosetta” aspects result. The universal complex systems is now similarly exemplified in spoken and textual discourse.

Altmann, Eduardo, et al. On the Origin of Long-Range Correlations in Texts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109/11582, 2012.

Baez, John and Mike Stay. Physics, Topology, Logic and Computation: A Rosetta Stone. Coecke, Bob, ed. New Structures in Physics. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Bloch, William Goldbloom. The Unimaginable Mathematics of Borges’ Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Grabska-Gradzinska, Iwona, et al. Complex Network Analysis of Literary and Scientific Texts. International Journal of Modern Physics C. Online May, 2012.

HaiTao, Liu. Statistical Properties of Chinese Semantic Networks. Chinese Science Bulletin. 54/16, 2009.

Massip-Bonet, Angels. Language as a Complex Adaptive System: Towards an Integrative Linguistics. Massip-Bonet, Angels & Albert Bastardas-Boada, eds. Complexity Perspectives on Language, Communication and Society. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Yildiz, Izzet, et al. From Birdsong to Human Speech Recognition: Bayesian Inference on a Hierarchy of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems. PLoS Computational Biology. 9/9, 2013.

2. Indigenous Vision: Mythic Animism
In this Integral Knowledge section, a spatial and temporal retrospect is now opened to recount and appreciate aboriginal encounters with this fantastic milieu that homo sapiens found her/his selves within. An organic, numinous, mystic, magical, engendered revelation abides as every other age and culture knows but our mechanical myopia. OK

Burkhart, Brian Yazzie. The Physics of Spirit: The Indigenous Continuity of Science and Religion. Haag, James, et al, eds. Routledge Companion to Religion and Science. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Eglash, Ron and Audrey Bennett. Fractals in Global Africa. Critical Interventions. Issue 9/10, 2012.

Maffie, James. Consciousness and Reality in Nahua Thought in the Era of the Conquest. Wautischer, Helmut, ed. Ontology of Consciousness: Percipient Action. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

Schipper, Mineke, et al. China’s Creation and Origin Myths: Cross-cultural Explorations in Oral and Written Traditions. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Witzel, Michael. The Origins of the World’s Mythologies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

3. Perennial Wisdome: An Anthropocosmic Code
As humankinder comes to perceive with a novel, holistic acuity, a historical record of perennial “esoteric” entries to a common heart of truth drawn from “exoteric” natural and cultural diversities can be achieved. One might then enlist a similar endeavor in our day as the new complex system sciences (see Cosmic Code), which also has arcane, disparate versions, seek their own essential universality. We are invited to fulfill the ancient promise, and deepest secret, of finally realizing, as we soon must, between our complementary human microcosm and a genesis uniVerse macrocosm. OK

Artson, Bradley Shavit. Clay in the Potter’s Hands: Human Evolution in a Self-Creating World. Tikkun. February, 2009.

Elvin, Mark. The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.

Jackson, William. Heaven’s Fractal Net. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2004.

Panikkar, Raimon. The Rhythm of Being. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2010.

Tu, Weiming. The Global Significance of Concrete Humanity. New Delhi: Center for Studies in Civilization, 2010.

Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa, ed. Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006.

Wang, Robin. Yinyang: The Way of Heaven and Earth in Chinese Thought and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

4. The Book of Naturome
Into the 21st century, when every spatial and temporal facet of human history seems to be conflicting each other, a fundamentalist revival of scripture is on the rise. Into this third millennium there really ought to be an equivalent natural text for vital, edifying guidance. We note here that each Abrahamic faith have evoked this ancient trope, if only we might get a better read on a numinous universe and human.

Biagioli, Mario. Galileo’s Instruments of Credit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Botz-Bornstein, Thorsten. Genes, Memes, and the Chinese Concept of Wen: Toward a Nature/Culture Model of Genetics. Philosophy East & West. 60/2, 2010.

Harkins, Franklin. Reading and the Work of Restoration: History and Scripture in the Theology of Hugh of St. Victor. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 2009.

Harper, Charles, ed. Spiritual Information. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press, 2005.

Haught, John. Deeper Than Darwin: The Prospect for Religion in the Age of Evolution. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2003.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. The Garden of Truth. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.

Sherwin, Byron. Golems Among Us. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2004.

5. World Philosophy and Knowledge
Through the ages philosophy provided meaningful guidance for scientific pursuits and public affairs, but in the 20th century lost this lead, and by its own admission sank into confusion and insignificance. While in the North and West, a postmodern relativity and despair pervades academe, we can report a turn to admit and recover a holistic non-Western natural wisdom and science.

Bala, Arun, ed. Asia, Europe, and the Emergence of Modern Science: Knowledge Crossing Boundaries. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Brooks, Thom. Philosophy Unbound: The Idea of Global Philosophy. Metaphilosophy. 44/3, 2013.

Farooqui, Jamil. Indegeneity of Knowledge: Criteria for Universalisation. Man in India. 92/3-4, 2012.

Ferry, Luc. A Brief History of Thought. New York: Harper Perennial, 2011.

Kebede, Messay. Africa’s Quest for a Philosophy of Decolonization. Amsterdam Rodopi, 2004.

Kitcher, Philip. Philosophy Inside Out Metaphilosophy. 42/3, 2012.

Turnbull, Neil. The Ontological Consequences of Copernicus: Global Being in the Planetary World. Theory, Culture & Society. 23/1, 2006.

B. The Spiral of Science

Baaquie, Belal and Frederick Willeboordse. Exploring Integrated Science. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2010.

Borner, Katy. Atlas of Science. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010.

Bryson, Bill, ed. Seeing Further: The Story of Science, Discovery and the Genius of the Royal Society. New York: Morrow, 2010.

Harding, Sandra, ed. The Postcolonial Science and Technology Reader. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011.

Neilsen, Michael. Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Orrell, David. Truth or Beauty: Science and the Quest for Order. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.

Scharnhorst, Andrea, et al, eds. Models of Science Dynamics: Encounters between Complexity Theory and Information Sciences. Berlin: Springer, 2012.

Sun, Xiaoling, et al. Social Dynamics of Science. Nature Scientific Reports. 3/1069, 2013.

Woese, Carl. A New Biology for a New Century. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 68/2, 2004.

York, Donald, et al, eds. The Astronomy Revolution: 400 Years of Exploring the Cosmos. London: Taylor & Francis, 2011.

C. Mindkind: A Global Knowledge
As Personsphere in Part I offered, and as readers know, a sudden shift from a long human individual and local group phase to a globally interconnected cognitive noosphere, is underway. With a personal brain as default analogy, a persistent trend has been to base web design on self-organizing, correcting, learning neural net capabilities. The profusion of social media, tablets, iPhones, and more seems to have moved our hearts and minds into constant cyberspace, a planetary sensorium. As prescious Earth is imperiled by unresolveable deficits of the male-ruled human stage, the nascent presence a global realm of knowledge unto discovery must be made as clearly made evident as possible.

Bernstein, Abraham, et al. Programming the Global Brain. Communications of the ACM. 55/5, 2012.

Chorost, Michael. World Wide Mind: The Coming Integration of Humanity, Machines, and the Internet. New York: Free Press, 2011.

Christakis, Nicholas and James Fowler. Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives. New York: Little, Brown, 2009.

del Moral, Raquel, et al. New Times and New Challenges for Information Science: From Cellular Systems to Human Societies. Information. Online February, 2014.

Downs, Roger. Coming of Age in the Geospatial Revolution: The Geographic Self Re-Defined. Human Development. 57/1, 2014.

Giannotti, Fosca, et al. A Planetary Nervous System for Social Mining and Collective Awareness. European Physical Journal Special Topics. 214/1, 2012.

Malone, Thomas, et al. The Collective Intelligence Genome. MIT Sloan Management Review. Spring, 2010.

Ridley, Matt. The Rational Optimist. New York: HarperCollins, 2010.

Tetlow, Philip. The Web’s Awake: An Introduction to the Field of Web Science and the Concept of Web Life. Hoboken, NJ: IEEE Press/Wiley Interscience, 2007.

III. Organic Universe: An Animate, Conducive Cosmos
A. Quantum Cosmology


Adler, Stephen. Quantum Theory as an Emergent Phenomenon. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Ambjorn, Jan, et al. The Self-Organizing Quantum Universe. Scientific American. July, 2008.

Bokulich, Alisa. Reexamining the Quantum – Classical Relation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Josephson, Brian. Biological Observer-Participation and Wheeler’s ‘Law without Law.’ arXiv:1108.4860.

Palmer, Tim. Lorenz, Gödel and Penrose: New Perspectives on Geometry and Determinism in Fundamental Physics. Contemporary Physics. Online April 2014.

Smolin, Lee. Time Reborn: From the Crisis of Physics to the Future of the Universe. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.

‘t Hooft, Gerard. The Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. arXiv:1405/1548.

Tegmark, Max. Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality. New York: Knopf, 2014. An extraordinary testimony, see the whole review.

Turok, Neil. The Universe Within: From Quantum to Cosmos. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2012.

1. Systems Physics
Since this section was begun in 2007, while Physics still does not yet have a Systems mode, from many corners and institutes a parallel universe is being found as distinguished by and suffused with nonlinear dynamics. In disparate terms, a universality of self-similar, complex network phenomena is quantified and explained from interstellar mediums to quantum criticality. In so doing, a fruitful merger of statistical, condensed matter physics with the complexity theories is underway, since it was realized both study local entities in global interaction.

Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo. The Network Takeover. Nature Physics. 8/1, 2012.

Castellano, Claudino, et al. Statistical Physics of Social Dynamics. Reviews of Modern Physics. 81/2, 2009.

Costa, Luciano da Fontoura, et al. Analyzing and Modeling Real-World Phenomena with Complex Networks. Advances in Physics. 60/3, 2011.

Frey, Edwin. Evolutionary Game Theory: Theoretical Concepts and Applications to Microbial Communities. Physica A. 389/4265, 2010.

Janson, Natalia. Non-Linear Dynamics of Biological Systems. Contemporary Physics. 53/2, 2012.

Kwapien, Jaroslaw and Stanislaw Drozdz. Physical Approach to Complex Systems. Physics Reports. 515/3-4, 2012.

Pietronero, Luciano. Complexity Ideas from Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics. Europhysics News. 39/6, 2008.

Scott, Alwyn. The Nonlinear Universe. Berlin: Springer, 2007.

2. Quantum Complex Systems
Here is another instance of a conceptual shift in a scientific field, after a long century of its theoretical exercise, that has not yet been realized and accommodated by its human phase. From our global purview, if to gather what all the literature is saying, this deepest stratum actually is graced by the same informational and complex network system phenomena as everywhere above – quantum to human epitome.

Heinz von Foerster 100 Self-Organization and Emergence Congress. www.univie.ac.at/hvf11/congress/EmerQuM.html.

Baez, John and Jacob Biamonte. A Course on Quantum Techniques for Stochastic Mechanics. arXiv:1209.3632.

Frahm, Klaus and Dima Shepelyansky. Poisson Statistics of PageRank Probabilities of Twitter and Wikipedia Networks. European Physical Journal B. 87/93, 2014.

Goncalves, Carlos Pedro. arXiv:1402.1141.

Huelga, Susana and Martin Plenio. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology. Contemporary Physics. 54/4, 2013.

Paparo, Giuseppe, et al. Quantum Google in a Complex Network. arXiv:1303.3891.

B. An Organic Cosmos
These select citations, and an array of references from many independent contributions, attest to a worldwide revision as to the actual nature of this abiding cosmos. Again they reflect a scientific revolution no longer due to one man, but as occurring on its own, mostly unbeknownst, over this sentient sphere. Akin to the next subsection Active Matter, a broad and deep re-rooting of life in an equally fertile physical soil is well underway via novel experiment and theoretical credence.

Bailly, Francis and Giuseppe Longo. Mathematics and the Natural Sciences: The Physical Singularity of Life. London: Imperial College Press, 2011.

Barrow, John, et al, eds. Fitness of the Cosmos for Life: Biochemistry and Fine-Tuning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Chen, Irene and Martin Nowak. From Prelife to Life: How Chemical Kinetics Become Evolutionary Dynamics. Accounts of Chemical Research. 45/12, 2012.

Cronin, Leroy. The Stuff of Life: Making Matter Come Alive. http://www.ted.com/talks/lee_cronin_making_matter_come_alive.html.

Gruebele, Martin and Devarajan (Dave) Thirumalai. Perspectives: Reaches of Chemical Physics in Biology. Journal of Chemical Physics. 139/12, 2013.

Lambert, Neill, et al. Quantum Biology. Nature Physics. 9/1, 2013.

Mann, Stephen. Systems of Creation: The Emergence of Life from Nonliving Matter. Accounts of Chemical Research. 45/12, 2012.

Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard and Stefan Thurner, eds. Principles of Evolution: From the Planck Epoch to Complex Multicellular Life. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Newman, Stuart and Marta Linde-Medina. Physical Determinants in the Emergence and Inheritance of Multicellular Form. Biological Theory. 8/3, 2013.

Pross, Addy. What is Life?: How Chemistry becomes Biology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Szostak, Jack. An Optimal Degree of Physical and Chemical Heterogeneity for the Origin of Life? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 366/2894, 2011.

1. Active Matter: The Reunion of Biology and Physics

Asano, Masanari, et al. Towards Modeling of Epigenetic Evolution with the Aid of Theory of Open Quantum Systems. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1508, December, 2013.

Cavagna, Andrea and Irene Giardina. Bird Flocks as Condensed Matter Systems. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. Volume 5, 2014.

Deem, Michael. Statistical Mechanics of Modularity and Horizontal Gene Transfer. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. 4/287, 2013.

Goldenfeld, Nigel and Carl Woese. Life is Physics: Evolution as a Collective Phenomenon Far from Equilibrium. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. Volume 2, 2011.

Marchetti, Cristina, et al. Hydrodynamics of Soft Active Matter. Reviews of Modern Physics. 85/3, 2013.

Ramaswamy, Sriram. The Mechanics and Statistics of Active Matter. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. 1/323, 2010.

2. Systems Chemistry
A section added in 2007 to gather novel advances in the nascent field of “supramolecular chemistry,” a “constitutional dynamic and adaptive chemistry.” These terms, along with systems chemistry, are from Nobel laureate Jean-Marie Lehn and colleagues to represent new appreciations of how the universal self-organizing, complex principles can similarly be found in this material and biological precursor domain.

Cragg, Peter. Supramolecular Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer, 2010.

Giuseppone, Nicolas. Toward Self-Constructing Materials: A Systems Chemistry Approach. Accounts of Chemical Research. 45/12, 2012.

Hill, Craig and Djamaladdin Musaev, eds. Complexity in Chemistry and Beyond. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Kais, Sabre, ed. Quantum Information and Computation for Chemistry. Advances in Chemical Physics. Volume 154, 2014.

Lehn, Jean-Marie. From Supramolecular Chemistry towards Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry and Adaptive Chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews. 36/2, 2007.

Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa, et al. Prebiotic Systems Chemistry: New Perspectives for the Origins of Life. Chemical Reviews. 114/1, 2014.

Salles, Airton, et al. A Self-Organizing Chemical Assembly Line. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 135/51, 2013.

C. The Information Computation Turn
From several corners it came to be realized that physical, and living nature are suffused with prescriptive content, a prime quality beyond space, time, matter and energy. A leading theorist has been John Archibald, along with a 1996 paper, The Physical Nature of Information by Rolf Landauer. As he did for chaos theory in 1987, James Gleick’s 2011 opus The Information lucidly established its essence and priority. A technical instance could be the 2010 Information and the Nature of Reality edited by Paul Davies and Neils Gregersen. As Part I describes, a number of approaches and schools such as quantum information, biosemiotics, algorithmic computation theories, and so on, eachcontribute.

Chiribella, Giulio, et al. Informational Derivation of Quantum Theory. Physical Review A. 84/012311, 2011.

Davies, Paul and Niels Gregersen, eds. Information and the Nature of Reality: From Physics to Metaphysics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Deutsch, David and Chiara Marletto. Constructor Theory of Information. arXiv:1405.5563.

Dodig Crnkovic, Gordana. Physical Computation as Dynamics of Form that Glues Everything Together. Information. 3/2, 2012.

Dyson, George. Turing’s Cathedral: The Origins of the Digital Universe. New York: Pantheon Books, 2012.

Gleick, James. The Information: A History, A Theory, A Flood. New York: Pantheon, 2011.

Knuth, Kevin. Information-Based Physics: An Observer-Centric Foundation. Contemporary Physics. Online January, 2014.

Loewenstein, Werner. Physics in Mind: A Quantum View of the Brain. New York: Basic Books, 2013.

Terzis, George and Robert Arp, eds. Information and Living Systems: Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011.

Timpson, Christopher. Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford: Clarendon, 2013.

Vedral, Vlatko. Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Walker, Sara Imari. Top-Down Causation and the Rise of Information in the Emergence of Life. Information. Online July 2014.

Yang, Xin-She. Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2014.

D. An Intrinsic Consciousness and Intelligence
Over our 10 year span, the admission that aware, informed sentience is not an “epiphenomenon” but a legitimate subject of science and philosophy was established. While the Conscious Knowledge section focuses more on human studies, here we consider proof of its relative appearance in an embryonic evolution. This evident presence then requires an encompassing natural universe suffused with primordial, creative mind from its origins.

Damasio, Antonio. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. New York: Pantheon Books, 2010.

Fingelkurts, Andrew, et al. Consciousness as a Phenomenon in the Operational Architectonics of Brain Organization: Criticality and Self-Organization Considerations. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. 55/1, 2013.

Kawade, Yoshimi. The Origin of Mind: The Mind-Matter Continuity Thesis. Biosemiotics. 6/3, 2013.

Koch, Christof. Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012.

Nagel, Thomas. Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Swan, Liz, ed. Origins of Mind. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Tegmark, Max. Consciousness as a State of Matter. arXiv:1401.1219.

Tibika, Francoise. Molecular Consciousness: Why the Universe is Aware of Our Presence. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press, 2013.

Tononi, Giulio. Consciousness as Integrated Information. Biological Bulletin. 215/3, 2008.

Tononi, Giulio and Christof Koch. Consciousness: Here, There but Not Everywhere. arXiv:1405.7089.

E. A Thermodynamics of Life
From 2004 to 2014, this field offers another example of a cosmic revolution midway along. The old model is a closed system equilibrium fated for an entropic demise, while in ascent is a far-from-equilibrium, open system, indeterminant thermodynamics. The earlier, waning view seems unable to get past Ludwig Boltzman’s second law and mostly ignores the waxing nonequilibrium theories due much to Ilya Progogine from the 1970s to their present robust acceptance.

Attard, Phil. The Second Law of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics. Advances in Chemical Physics. 140/1, 2008.

Cross, Michael and Henry Greenside. Pattern Formation and Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Deffner, Sebastian and Christopher Jarzynski. Information Processing and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Physical Review X. 3/041003, 2013.

Demetrius, Lloyd. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality Theory. Physics Reports. Online April, 2013.

Dewar, Roderick, et al, eds. Beyond the Second Law: Entropy Production and Non-equilibrium Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Kosloff, Ronnie. Quantum Thermodynamics. arXiv:1305.2268.

Kupervasser, Oleg, et al. The Universal Arrow Time. Foundations of Physics. 42/9, 2012.

Ord, Alison, et al, eds. Patterns in our Planet: Defining New Concepts for the Applications of Multi-scale Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics to Earth-system Science. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 368/3, 2010. An

Sagawa, Takahiro. Thermodynamics of Information Processing in Small Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2012.

Zenil, Hector, et al. Life as Thermodynamic Evidence of Algorithmic Structure in Natural Environments. Entropy. 14/11, 2012.

F. Systems Cosmology: Fractal SpaceTimeMatter
These citations report diverse findings from quantum to intergalactic, infinitesimal to infinite, realms of the same self-organizing, complex network systems as everywhere else. Once again a repetition in kind of these universal phenomena recurs, cosmome to our epitome. One may glimpse a whole “Systems Nature” from a “Fractal Universe and Quantum Gravity” to “Self-Organized Criticality in Astrophysics,” as they describe a common geometry and activity across this widest span. OK

Aschwanden, Markus. Self-Organized Criticality in Astrophysics: The Statistics of Nonlinear Processes in the Universe. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Aschwanden, Markus, et al. 25 Years of Self-Organized Criticality: Solar and Astrophysics. arXiv:1403.6528.

Calcagni, Gianluca. Fractal Universe and Quantum Gravity. Physics Review Letters. 104/251301, 2010.

Da Luz, Marcos and Celia Anteneodo. Nonlinear Dynamics in Meso and Nano Scales: Fundamental Aspects and Applications. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 369/245, 2011.

Javarone, Marco and Giuliano Armano. Quantum-Classical Transitions in Complex Newworks. Journal of Statistical Mechanics. Online April, 2013.

Krioulov, Dmitri, et al. Network Cosmology Nature Scientific Reports. 2/793, November, 2012.

Murdzek, R. and O. Iftimie. The Self-Organizing Universe. Romanian Journal of Physics. 53/3-4, 2008.

Palmer, Tim. Quantum Theory and the Symbolic Dynamics of Invariant Sets. arXiv: 1210.3940.

G. Anthropic and Biotropic Principle
The presence of natural qualities from atomic to biomolecular to cosmic domains which have precise values to allow evolutionary life and people to appear is now well established. However, the import of such observations are caught up in scientific and cultural wars.

Ball, Philip and Eshel Ben-Jacob. Water as the Fabric of Life. European Physical Journal Special Topics. Online February, 2014.

Barnes, Luke. The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia.

Barrow, John, et al, eds. Fitness of the Cosmos for Life: Biochemistry and Fine-Tuning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Conway Morris, Simon. What is Written into Creation? Burrell, David, et al, eds. Creation and the God of Abraham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Lee, Joohan, et al. Cosmological Coincidence without Fine Tuning. arXiv:1405.7681.

Schellekens, Albert. Life at the Interface of Particle Physics. Reviews of Modern Physics. Online June, 2013.

Soler Gil, Francisco and Manuel Alfonseca. Is the Multiverse Hypothesis Capable of Explaining the Fine Tuning of Nature Laws and Constants? The Case of Cellular Automata. Journal for General Philosophy of Science. 43/1, 2013.

H. Systems Astrobiology
This broad endeavor to detect and quantify signs of living, developing, intelligent systems across the galactic reaches has now come into its own. Consistent progress was made by findings of many biomolecular, increasingly complex, precursors. The international research community has a growing sense and credibility of an organic, fecund, life bearing universe. “Systems Astrobiology” is from biophilosopher Julian Chela-Flores who endorses a fertile universe as a complex dynamic system for life’s evolutionary convergence. Along with discoveries of habitable zones and earth analogs everywhere, a radically conducive cosmos is being revealed.

Chela-Flores, Julian. From Systems Chemistry to Systems Astrobiology: Life in the Universe as an Emergent Phenomenon. International Journal of Astrobiology. 12/1, 2013.

Cirkovic, Milan. The Astrobiological Landscape: Philosophical Foundations of the Study of Cosmic Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Dick, Steven. Critical Issues in the History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Astrobiology. Astrobiology. 12/10, 2012.

Gargaud, Muriel, et al, eds. Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Lammer, Helmut, et al. The Science of Exoplanets and Their Systems. Astrobiology. 13/9, 2013.

Rospars, Jean-Pierre. Trends in the Evolution of Life, Brains and Intelligence. International Journal of Astrobiology. 12/3, 2013.

Smith, Ian, et al, eds. Astrochemistry and Astrobiology. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

I. ExoEarths Everywhere: A Heavenly Hatchery
Among the rush of advances in these years, probably the most epochal revolution has been the discovery that the universe is filled with as many orbital planets as sunny stars. A vast variety from Jupiter-like gas giants too far to Mercury types too close and every possible size and kind is now proven. In widening habitable zones around incubator suns the presence of myriad rocky earth-analogs is also verified. A radical new vista of profligate cosmos which by its own propensities seeds and sows a conducive spacescape with ovular bioworlds whence sentient beings can appear to wonder is being revealed.

Bell, James. The Search for Habitable Worlds: Planetary Exploration in the 21st Century. Daedulus. 141/3, 2012.

Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. http://exoplanet.eu/. A comprehensive site hosted since 1995 by the CNRS-LUTH Paris Observatory.

Heller, Rene and John Armstrong. Superhabitable Worlds. Astrobiology. Online January, 2014.

Lammer, Helmut. Origin and Evolution of Planetary Atmospheres: Implications for Habitability. Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.

Petigura, Erik, et al. Prevalence of Earth-Size Planets Orbiting Sun-Like Stars. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Online November, 2013.

Sasselov, Dimitar. The Life of Super-Earths: How the Hunt for Alien Worlds and Artificial Cells Will Revolutionize Life on Our Planet. New York: Basic Books, 2012.

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13117.

IV. Cosmic Code: A Universal Procreative Genome
Cosmome: A Mathematic Materiality in Part I expressed the current array of robust scientific recognitions of an independent informative source, as if a natural genotype. On the main site, this chapter opens with an extensive survey, glossary, and synthesis of these many entries to a generative complex adaptive network system self-organization.

Boccaletti, Stefano, et al. The Structure and Dynamics of Multilayer Networks. Physics Reports. 544/1, 2014.

Bourgine, Paul, et al, eds. The CSS Roadmap for Complex Systems Science and its Applications 2012 – 2020. http://unitwin-cs.org/documents.html.

Complexity Digest www.comdig.org.

Feistel, Rainer and Werner Ebeling. Physics of Self-Organization and Evolution. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2011.

Ganguly, Niloy, et al, eds. Dynamics On and Of Complex Networks: Applications to Biology, Computer Science, and the Social Sciences. Boston: Birkhauser, 2009.

Hooker, Cliff, ed. Philosophy of Complex Systems. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011.

Lin, Yi, et al. Systems Science. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2012.

Markovic, Dimitrije and Claudius Gros. Power Laws and Self-Organized Criticality in Theory and Nature. Physics Reports. 536/2, 2014.

Meyers, Robert, editor-in-chief. Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science. Berlin: Springer, 2009.

Mitchell, Melanie. Complexity: A Guided Tour. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

New England Complex Systems Institute. www.necsi.org.

Santa Fe Institute. www.santafe.edu.

Zschaler, Gerd. Adaptive-Network Models of Collective Dynamics. European Physical Journal Special Topics. 211/1, 2012.

A. Natural Algorithms

Beinhocker, Eric. Evolution as Computation. Journal of Institutional Economics. 7/3, 2011.

Chastain, Erick, et al. Algorithms, Games, and Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111/10620, 2014.

Chazelle, Bernard. Natural Algorithms and Influence Systems. Communications of the ACM. 55/12, 2012.

Feinerman, Ofer and Amos Korman. Theoretical Distributed Computing Meets Biology. Hota, Chittaranjan and Pradip Srimani, eds. Distributed Computing and Internet Technology. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Mayfield, John. The Engine of Complexity: Evolution as Computation. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.

Navlakha, Saket and Ziv Bar-Joseph. Algorithms in Nature: The Convergence of Systems Biology and Computational Thinking. Molecular Systems Biology. 7/Art.546, 2011.

Watson, Richard A. Compositional Evolution. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.

V. Systems Evolution: A 21st Century Genesis Synthesis
As an entry to this paramount subject, we note that the 2004 listing on the main site of prescient efforts across biology, mathematics and physics have each seen a mature confirmation, with significant additions, as they have now flowed into an integral, affirmative theory. Here is an extended gathering of references to attest and confirm.

Arber, Werner. Horizontal Gene Transfer among Bacteria and its Role in Biological Evolution. Life. 4/217, 2014.

Calcott, Brett and Kim Sterelny, ed. The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011.

Davies, Jamie. Life Unfolding: How the Human Body Creates Itself. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Depew, David and Bruce Weber. The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution after the Modern Synthesis. Biological Theory. 6/1, 2012.

Dupre, John. The Role of Behaviour in the Recurrence of Biological Processes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 112/2, 2014.

Gissis, Snait and Eva Jablonka, eds. Transformations of Lamarckism. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011.

Hidalgo, Jorge, et al. Information-Based Fitness and the Emergence of Criticality in Living Systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111/10095, 2014.

Jablonka, Eva and Marion Lamb. Evolution in Four Dimensions. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005/2014.

Johnson, Brian and Sheung Kwan Lam. Self-organization, Natural Selection, and Evolution: Cellular Hardware and Genetic Software. BioScience. 60/11, 2010.

McGhee, George. Convergent Evolution: Limited Forms Most Beautiful. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011. converge upon similar patterns and processes over and over.

Newman, Stuart. Physico-Genetic Determinants in the Evolution of Development. Science. 338/217, 2012.

Noble, Denis, et al. The Integration of Evolutionary Biology with Physiological Science. Journal of Physiology. 592/11, 2014.

Reid, Robert G. B. Biological Emergences. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007.

Shapiro, James. Evolution: A View from the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press Science, 2011.

Shubin, Neil, et al. Deep Homology and the Origins of Evolutionary Novelty. Nature. 457/818, 2009.

Vane-Wright, Richard. What is Life? And What Might be Said of the Role of Behavior in its Evolution. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 112/2, 2014.

Wagner, Andreas. Arrival of the Fittest. New York: Current/Penguin, 2014.

Walker, Sara Imari, et al. Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Online May, 2013.

Watson, Richard, et al. The Evolution of Phenotypic Correlations and “Developmental Memory.” Evolution. 68/4, 2014.

Weiss, Kenneth and Anne Buchanan. The Mermaid’s Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living Things. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.


A. Systems Biology and Genetics

Bizzarri, Mariano, et al. Theoretical Aspects of Systems Biology. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 112/1-2, 2013.

Carey, Nessa. The Epigenetics Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

Chuang, Han-Yu, et al. A Decade of Systems Biology. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 26/231, 2010.

Danchin, Etienne, et al. Beyond DNA: Integrating Inclusive Inheritance into an Extended Theory of Evolution. Nature Reviews Genetics. 12/7, 2011.

Davidson, Eric. Evolutionary Bioscience as Regulatory Systems Biology. Developmental Biology. 357/1, 2011.

Hogeweg, Paulien. The Roots of Bioinformatics in Theoretical Biology. PLoS Computational Biology. 7/3, 2011.

Huang, Sui. The Molecular and Mathematical Basis of Waddington's Epigenetic Landscape: A Framework for Post-Darwinian Biology? BioEssays. 34/2, 2012.

Meyers, Robert A., ed. Systems Biology. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2012.

Nadeau, Joseph and Aimee Dudley. Systems Genetics. Science. 331/1015, 2011.

Noble, Denis. A Biological Relativity View of the Relationships between Genomes and Phenotypes. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 111/2-3, 2013.

Soyer, Orkun, ed. Evolutionary Systems Biology. Berlin: Springer, 2012.

B. Life as Biosemiotics

Barbieri, Marcello. Introduction to Code Biology. Biosemiotics. Online August, 2014.

Emmeche, Claus and Kalevi Kull, eds. Towards a Semiotic Biology: Life is the Action of Signs. London: Imperial College Press, 2011.

Hoffmeyer, Jesper. Biosemiotics: An Examination into the Signs of Life and the Life of Signs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Swan, Liz Stillwaggon and Louis Goldberg. Introduction: Mentis Naturalis. Biosemiotics. Online March, 2013. To a special Origins of Mind issue.

Wheeler, Wendy. The Whole Creature: Complexity, Biosemiotics and the Evolution of Culture. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 2006.

Wills, Peter. Genetic Information, Physical Interpreters and Thermodynamics: The Material-Informatic Basis of Biosemiosis. Biosemiotics. Online October, 2013.

Witzany, Gunther. Uniform Catergorization of Biocommunication in Bacteria, Fungi and Plants. World Journal of Biological Chemistry. Vol.1/Iss.5, 2010.

VI. Earth Life Emergence: Developmental Stages of Life, Mind & Self
A. Universal Principles

As noted in Part I, over the decade the promise of the complex dynamic systems revolution was at last fulfilled. A basic guide for this whole site is to report how every natural and social phase from cosmos to genome to cities has reinvented itself in this way. Each and every stage has been found to exemplify the same pattern and process. In 2004 this verification had just begun to take hold, spread, clarify and articulate. But in this 2014, it is well along and in place so as to allow a further realization. If such a relative, invariant, recurrent universality exists, then it increasingly and strongly infers an independent mathematical source in effect. Here are some papers that convey both a common epitome with referral to an implicate program.

Anteneodo, Celia and M. G. E. da Luz. Complex Dynamics of Life at Different Scales: From Genomic to Global Environmental Issues. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 368/5561, 2010.

Blagus, Neli, et al. Self-Similar Scaling of Density in Complex Real-World Networks. Physica A. 391/8, 2011.

Caldarelli, Guido. Scale-Free Networks. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

DeDeo, Simon and David Krakauer. Dynamics and Processing in Finite Self-Similar Networks. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. September 7, 2012.

Friedman, Eric and Adam Landsberg. Hierarchical Networks, Power Laws, and Neuronal Avalanches. Chaos. 23/1, 2013. University of California,

Laurienti, Paul, et al. Universal Fractal Scaling of Self-Organized Networks. Physica A. 390/20, 2011.

Proekt, Alex, et al. Scale Invariance in the Dynamics of Spontaneous Behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109/10564, 2012.

Scheffer, Marten. Critical Transitions in Nature and Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Tao, Terence. E pluribus unum: From Complexity, Universality. Daedalus. 141/3, 2012.

B. The Nested Gestation of Life

1. Geosphere and Atmosphere

Surely to repeat myself, these field studies of land and air are now well interpreted by way of intricate self-organizing dynamics and forms. Riverine courses and deltas, soil formations, westerly winds, rainfall, and so on each exhibit similar fractal shapes and scales. Surely the same cause is at work in every instance.

Bickford, Marion, ed. The Web of Geological Sciences. Geological Society of America: Boulder, CO, 2013.

Crawford, John, et al. Microbial Diversity Affects Self-Organization of the Soil–Microbe System with Consequences for Function. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. Online December, 2011.

Donges, Jonathan, et al. The Backbone of the Climate Network. EPL Europhysics Letters. 87/48007, 2009.

Goehring, Lucas. Pattern Formation in the Geosciences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 371/20120352, 2013.

Ibanez, Juan, et al. The Fractal Mind of Pedologists. Ecological Complexity. 6/3, 2009.

Kleidon, Axel, et al. Thermodynamics, Maximum Power, and the Dynamics of Preferential River Flow Structures at the Continental Scale. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 17/225, 2013.

Nkono, Collin, et al. Fractal Analysis of Lineaments in Equatorial Africa: Insights on Lithospheric Structure. Open Journal of Geology. 3/157, 2013.

Rodriquez-Iturbe, Ignacio, et al. Metabolic Principles of River Basin Organization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108/11751, 2011.

Tsonis, Anastasios and James Elsner, eds. Nonlinear Dynamics in Geosciences. Berlin: Springer, 2007.

2. The Origin of Life

Benner, Steven, et al. Setting the Stage: The History, Chemistry, and Geobiology behind RNA. Atkins, John, et al, eds. RNA Worlds: From Life’s Origins to Diversity in Gene Regulation. Cold Spring Harbor: CSH Laboratory Press, 2011.

Bich, Leonardo and Luisa Damiano. Life, Autonomy and Cognition: An Organizational Approach to the Definition of the Universal Properties of Life. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. Online October, 2012.

Cornish-Bowden, Athol and Maria Luz Cardenas. Self-Organization at the Origin of Life. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 252/411, 2008.

Coveney, Peter, et al. Theory, Modelling and Simulation in Origin of Life Studies. Chemical Society Reviews. 41/5430, 2012.

Deamer, David. First Life: Discovering the Connections between Stars, Cells, and How Life Began. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

Deamer, David and Jack Szostak, eds. The Origins of Life. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2010.

Egel, Richard, et al, eds. Origins of Life: The Primal Self-Organization. Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.

Fry, Iris. The Role of Natural Selection in the Origin of Life. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 41/1, 2011.

Hazen, Robert. Geochemical Origins of Life. Knoll, Andrew, et al, eds. Fundamentals of Geobiology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

Norris, Vic, et al. How did Metabolism and Genetic Replication Get Married. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 45/2, 2013.

Pascal, Robert, et al. Towards an Evolutionary Theory of the Origin of Life Based on Kinetics and Thermodynamics. Open Biology. Online November, 2013.

Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa, et al. Prebiotic Systems Chemistry: New Perspectives for the Origins of Life. Chemical Reviews. 114/1, 2014.

Walker, Sara Imari and Paul Davies. The Algorithmic Origins of Life. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. Online December, 2012.

3. Microbial Colonies
Bassler, Bonnie. Cell to Cell Communication. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 154/3, 2010.

Ben-Jacob, Eshel. Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Science Vol. 1178, 2009.

Chen, Xiao, et al. Scale-Invariant Correlations in Dynamic Bacterial Clusters. Physical Review Letters. 108/148101, 2012.

Copeland, Matthew and Douglas Weibel. Bacterial Swarming: A Model System for Studying Dynamic Self-Assembly. Soft Matter. 5/1174, 2009.

Hussa, Elizabeth and Heidi Goodrich-Blair. It Takes a Village: Ecological and Fitness Impacts of Multipartite Mutualism. Annual Review of Microbiology. 67/161, 2013.

Marijuan, Pedro, et al. On Prokaryotic Intelligence. BioSystems. 99/2, 2010.

McFall-Nagl, Margaret, et al. Animals in a Bacterial World, a New Imperative for the Life Sciences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110/3229, 2013.

Sapp, Jan. The New Foundations of Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

4. The Symbiotic Cell
Although a consensus grew prior to 2004 in favor of Lynn Margulis’ theory that eukaryotic cells came to be by mutual gatherings of prokaryotic bacteria, much further confirmation, and expansive notice has occurred since. With Lynn’s passing in 2011, a generic presence of symbiotic assembly across natural kingdoms has been championed by leading biologists such as Scott Gilbert, Jan Sapp, and Alfred Tauber.

Chaston, John and Angela Douglas. Making the Most of “Omics” for Symbiosis Research. Biological Bulletin. 223/1, 2012.

Dehmelt, Leif and Philippe Bastiaens. Self-Organization in Cells. Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard and Stefan Thurner, eds. Principles of Evolution: From the Planck Epoch to Complex Multicellular Life. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Gilbert, Scott, et al. A Symbiotic View of Life: We Have Never Been Individuals. Quarterly Review of Biology. 87/4, 2012.

Gontier, Nathalie. Universal Symbiogenesis: An Alternative to Universal Selectionist Accounts of Evolution. Symbiosis. 44/1-3, 2007.

Helikar, Tomas, et al. The Cell Collective: Toward an Open and Collaborative Approach to Systems Biology. BMC Systems Biology. 6/96, 2012.

Latorre, Amparo, et al. The Role of Symbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution. Gargaud, Muriel, et al, eds. Origins and Evolution of Life: An Astrobiological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Misteli, Tom. The Inner Life of the Genome. Scientific American. February, 2011.

Margulis, Lynn, et al. Chimeras and Consciousness: Evolution of the Sensory Self. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011.

Pereira, Luisa, et al. A Symbiogenic Way in the Origin of Life. Seckbach, Joseph, ed. Genesis - In the Beginning. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.

5. Multicellular Organisms
As life continues to evolve, develop, and emerge, the nested recurrence of autonomous individual entities within supportive whole organisms ascends as cells become diverse, divide labor, come together in symbiotic assemblies to form rudimentary entities and carry on the creaturely procession to ourselves.

Celiker, Hasan and Jeff Gore. Cellular Cooperation: Insights from Microbes. Trends in Cell Biology. 23/1, 2012.

Fisher, Roberta, et al. Group Formation, Relatedness, and the Evolution of Multicellularity. Current Biology. Online June, 2013.

Grosberg, Richard and Richard Strathmann. The Evolution of Multicellularity: A Minor Major Transition? Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 38/621, 2007.

Hammerschmidt, Katrin, et al. Life Cycles, Fitness Decoupling and the Evolution of Multicellularity. Nature. 515/75, 2014.

Ispolatov, Iaroslav, et al. Division of Labour and the Evolution of Multicellularity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 279/1768, 2012.

Knoll, Andrew. The Multiple Origins of Complex Multicellularity. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 39/217, 2011.

Libby, Eric and Paul Rainey. A Conceptual Framework for the Evolutionary Origins of Multicellularity. Physical Biology. 10/3, 2013

Parfrey, Laura Wegener and Daniel Lahr. Multicellularity Arose Several Times in the Evolution of Eukaryotes. BioEssays. 35/4, 2013.

Simpson, Carl. The Evolutionary History of Division of Labour. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 279/116, 2012.

6. Cooperative Societies
As we are seeing for so many sections, this turn since circa 2000 involves the equal admission of interconnections between all the parts previously found. In this certain, auspicious domain of the evolutionary dynamics of animal populations, it is the case that brute competition is not the rule at all. Rather as creaturely kinds tend to form extended groupings, reciprocal caring and sharing is preferred to ensure survival and futurity.

Bourke, Andrew F. G. Principles of Social Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Bowles, Samuel and Herbert Gintis. A Cooperative Species. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Croft, Darren, et al. Exploring Animal Social Networks. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.

De Waal, Frans. The Age of Empathy: Nature’s Lessons for a Kinder Society. New York: Harmony Books, 2009.

Flack, Jessica. Multiple Time-Scales and the Developmental Dynamics of Social Systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 367/1802, 2012.

Gavrilets, Sergey. On the Evolutionary Origins of the Egalitarian Syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109/14069, 2012.

Grund, Thomas, et al. How Natural Selection Can Create Both Self- and Other-Regarding Preferences, and Networked Minds. Nature Scientific Reports. 3/1480, 2013.

Hemelrijk, Charlotte, ed. Self-Organization and Evolution of Social Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Kurvers, Ralf, et al. The Evolutionary and Ecological Consequences of Animal Social Networks. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Online April 2014.

Levin, Simon, ed. Games, Groups, and the Global Good. Berlin: Springer, 2009.

Nowak, Martin and Roger Highfield. Supercooperators: The Mathematics of Evolution, Altruism and Human Behaviour. Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 2011.

Queller, David and Joan Strassmann. Beyond Society: The Evolution of Organismality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 364/3143, 2009.

Rasskin-Gutman, Diego and Borja Esteve-Altava. Connecting the Dots: Anatomical Network Analysis in Morphological EvoDevo. Biological Theory. Online April 2014.

Sterelny, Kim, et al, eds. Cooperation and Its Evolution. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.

Sumpter, David. Collective Animal Behavior. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Weiss, Kenneth and Anne Buchanan. The Cooperative Genome: Organisms as Social Contracts. International Journal of Developmental Biology. 53/5-6, 2009.

7. Dynamic Ecosystems
Indeed, this field had a dedicated “systems” approach long before any other, because of the intricate spatial and temporal, flora and fauna, land, sea and air realms it studies. With this start, complexity phenomena could readily explain such fractal scales of environmental dynamics and viability. Good examples are the recognition of dynamic self-similar structures from tundras to coral reefs and nested networks such as aquatic food webs and prairie ecologies. By these lineaments, the health and conservation of a regional ecology can be fostered.


Collier, John and Graeme Cumming. A Dynamical Approach to Ecosystem Identity. Brown, Bryson, et al, eds. Philosophy of Ecology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012.

Green, David, et al. Complexity in Landscape Ecology. Berlin: Springer, 2006.

Hammond, Sean and Karl Niklas. Modeling Forest Self-assembly Dynamics Using Allometric and Physical First Principles. Science. 61/663, 2011.

Jorgensen, Sven, editor-in-chief. Encyclopedia of Ecology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008.

Levin, Simon, ed. The Princeton Guide to Ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Pascual, Mercedes and Jennifer Dunne, eds. Ecological Networks. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Ritchie, Mark. Scale, Heterogeneity, and the Structure and Diversity of Ecological Communities. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Seuront, Laurent. Fractals and Multifractals in Ecology and Aquatic Science. Boca Rotan: CRC Press, 2009.

Sole, Ricard and Jordi Bascompte. Self-Organization in Complex Ecosystems. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Wimberley, Edward. Nested Ecology: The Place of Humans in the Ecological Hierarchy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

8. Appearance of Homo Sapiens
From our late vantage, it is well to remind that this retrospect is now being achieved by the whole globe collaborative, composite studies of humankind altogether. Its progress can be noted, for example, in the 2014 Settling the Earth by Clive Gamble, who with many colleagues can trace hominid lineages back some 10 million years. As not possible much earlier, the record now includes cerebral, linguistic, cultural, and artifactual aspects. Might it then serve us then to realize an Anthropo Sapiens, in a guise of a planetary person or progeny, has come to envelope and embrace this precious biosphere.

Avise, John and Francisco Ayala. In the Light of Evolution IV: The Human Condition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107/Supplement 2, 2010.

Chapais, Bernard. Primeval Kinship. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Gamble, Clive. Settling the Earth: The Archaeology of Deep Human History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Gowlett, John, et al. Human Evolution and the Archaeology of the Social Brain. Current Anthropology. 53/6, 2012.

Henn, Brenna, et al. The Great Human Expansion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109/17758, 2012.

Henshilwood, Christopher and Francesco d’Errico, eds. Homo Symbolicus: The Dawn of Language, Imagination and Spirituality. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2011.

Kappeler, Peter and Joan Silk, eds. Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals. Berlin: Springer, 2010.

Mitani, John, et al, eds. The Evolution of Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Reynolds, Sally and Andrew Gallagher, eds. African Genesis: Perspectives on Hominin Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

9. A Living Planet
In a distinctive way, the two schools or options of science and the humanities of mechanical reduction or organic integrity are manifest in vital understandings of the nature and fate of this biosphere and personsphere. The 2013 volume The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet by philosopher Michael Ruse provides an inclusive balanced summary. After decades of study and contention, over a round, finite world surely living phenomena across continents, oceans, and climate does maintain a range of conditions suitable for its survival. Just how this happens, and to what degree remains under study. But this working view of a systems planet, an ecosphere, has come to be of great service and is commonly pursued.

Crist, Eileen and H. Bruce Rinker, eds. Gaia in Turmoil: Climate Change, Biodepletion, and Earth Ethics in an Age of Crisis. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010.

Dobretsov, Nikolay, et al, eds. Biosphere Origin and Evolution. New York: Springer, 2008.

Kleidon, Axel. How Does the Earth System Generate and Maintain Thermodynamic Disequilibrium and What does it Imply for the Future of the Planet? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 370/1012, 2012.

Knoll, Andrew, et al, eds. Fundamentals of Geobiology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

Langmuir, Charles and Wally Broecker. How to Build a Habitable Planet: The Story of Earth from the Big Bang to Humankind. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012.

Lenton, Tim and Andrew Watson. Revolutions that Made the Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Ord, Alison, et al, eds. Patterns in our Planet: Defining New Concepts for the Applications of Multi-scale Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics to Earth-system Science. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 368/3, 2010.

Ruse, Michael. The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Steffen, Will, et al. The Anthropocene: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 369/842, 2011.

C. The Rise of Sense and Sentience
The nested, recurrent stages of skeletal, anatomic complexity from life's origin to we peoples just surveyed can then be seen by our worldwide compass to facilitate a progressive encephalization, the embryonic body gains a bilateral brain. Metazoan creatures across invertebrate, aquatic, amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian scales are now known to evolve a mosaic, modular cerebral capacity, enhanced communicative cognition, proactive behavior, relative consciousness and in this human phase a communal, reflective corpus of remembered knowledge. OK

1. The Evolution of Brain Anatomy and Cognizance
“It’s the Brain, Not Stupid” is the title of a slide in my “Cosmic Genesis in the 21st Century” presentation on the home page. Life’s long evolution involves much more than bodily fossil bones, for its central orientation is a concerted and mosaic radiation of cerebral architecture and intelligence. A basic neural form and function, a “brain Bauplan,” is now in place from the first creatures. OK

Balanoff, Amy, et al. Evolutionary Origins of the Avian Brain. Nature. 501/93, 2013.

Cela-Conde, Camilo, et al. In the Light of Evolution VII: The Human Mental Machinery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110/Supple. 2, 2013.

Collins, Christopher. Paleopoetics: The Evolution of the Preliterate Imagination. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.

Estep, Myrna. Self-Organizing Natural Intelligence. Berlin: Springer, 2006.

Holland, Linda, et al. Evolution of Bilaterian Central Nervous Systems: A Single Origin EvoDevo. 4/Art. 27, 2013.

Kaas, Jon, editor-in-chief. Evolutionary Neuroscience. Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2009.

Kaiser, Marcus and Sreedevi Varier. Evolution and Development of Brain Networks: From Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens. Network: Computation in Neural Systems. 22/1-4, 2011.

Richardson, Ken. The Evolution of Intelligent Systems: How Molecules Became Minds. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Strausfeld, Nicholas. Arthropod Brains: Evolution, Functional Elegance, and Historical Significance. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012.

Striedter, Georg. Principles of Brain Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, 2005.

Striedter, George, et al. NSF Workshop Report: Discovering General Principles of Nervous System Organization by Comparing Brain Maps across Species. Journal of Comparative Neuroscience. 522/1453, 2014.

Vincent, Jean-Didier and Pierre-Marie Lledo. The Custom-Made Brain: Cerebral Plasticity, Regeneration, and Enhancement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.

Yopak, Kara, et al. A Conserved Pattern of Brain Scaling from Sharks to Primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107/12946, 2010.

2. Animal Intelligence and Awareness
From Rene Descartes until the 21st century, non-human creatures were little more than instinctive automatons. At last today, by studies from primates to the Metazaon kingdoms and onto insects and invertebrates, a remarkable, human-like acuity has been found. The conclusion is an evolutionary continuity of personality and behavior in kind through life’s iconic creatures.

Baars, Bernard. Subjective Experience is Probably not Limited to Humans: The Evidence from Neurobiology and Behavior. Consciousness and Cognition. 14/1, 2005.

Carere, Claudio and Dario Maestripieri, eds. Animal Personalities: Behavior, Physiology, and Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Consciousness in Human and Non-Human Animals. www.fcmconference.org.

Danchin, Etienne, et al. Do Invertebrates have Culture? Communicative & Integrative Biology. 3/4, 2010.

Laland, Kevin and Bennett Galef, eds. The Question of Animal Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.

Panksepp, Jaak. The Basic Emotional Circuits of Mammalian Brains: Do Animals Have Affective Lives?. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 35/9, 2011.

Shettleworth, Sara. Cognition, Evolution and Behavior. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Thornton, Alex, et al. Animal Minds: From Computation to Evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 367/2670, 2012.

Waldau, Paul and Kimberly Patton, eds. A Communion of Subjects: Animals in Religion, Science, and Ethics. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

Wheeler, Wendy and Linda Williams. The Animals Turn. New Formations. No. 76, 2012.

3. An Emergent Bicameral Brain
Along with A Complementary Brain and Thought Process, in the past years it has been confirmed that asymmetrical hemispheres with the same propensities distinguish both human beings, and can be traced through deep evolution. Until 2000 it was in abeyance whether animals had minds of their own, let alone the same lateriality. Since then research studies across the kingdoms from primates, mammals, onto birds, amphibians, fish, and even invertebrates, have found a similar, manifest continuity from earliest origins. OK

Corballis, Michael. The Evolution and Genetics of Cerebral Asymmetry. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 364/867, 2009.

Frasnelli, Elisa, et al. Left-Right Asymmetries of Behaviour and Nervous System in Invertebrates. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 36/4, 2013.

Gunturkun, Onur. Brain Asymmetry in Vertebrates. Lazareva, Olga, et al, eds. How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and the Evolution of Vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Hopkins, William D. and Claudio Cantalupo. Theoretical Speculations on the Evolutionary Origins of Hemispheric Specialization. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17/3, 2010.

MacNeilage, Peter, et al. Origins of the Left & Right Brain. Scientific American. July, 2009.

Rogers, Lesley, et al. Divided Brains: The Biology and Behaviour of Brain Asymmetries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

D. Emergent Genetic Information: DNA/AND
Since the 2001 sequencing of the human genome, a total revolution has occurred in this premier field which has not reached public notice because it is due to a global collaboration. Circa 2014, an expansive conception of genetic phenomena is much underway as its dimensions ever expand from epigenetics to environments. In regard, a “systems” shift from discrete DNA biomolecules, point gene to trait or deficit, onto whole genomes suffused by AND regulatory networks. As everywhere else the reciprocity of an agent entity and a relational dynamic, as they convey informational content, is in place.

Arneodo, Alain, et al. Multi-scale Coding of Genomic Information: From DNA Sequence to Genome Structure and Function. Physics Reports. 498/2-3, 2010.

Chia, Nicholas and Nigel Goldenfeld. Statistical Mechanics of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Evolutionary Ecology. Journal of Statistical Physics. 142/1287, 2011.

Costanzo, Michael, et al. The Genetic Landscape of a Cell. Science. 327/425, 2010.

Danchin, Étienne and Wagner, R. H. Inclusive Heritability: Combining Genetic and Nongenetic Information to Study Animal Behavior and Culture. Oikos. 119/2, 2010.

Griffiths, Paul and Karola Stotz. Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Heng, Henry. The Genome-Centric Concept: Resynthesis of Evolutionary Theory. BioEssays. 31/5, 2009.

Jablonka, Eva and Marion Lamb. The Evolution of Information in the Major Transitions. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 239/236, 2006.

Noble, Denis. Genes and Causation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 366/3001, 2008.

Pah, Adam, et al. Use of a Global Metabolic Network to Curate Organismal Metabolic Network. Nature Scientific Reports. 3/1695, 2013.

Shapiro, James A. Mobile DNA and Evolution in the 21st Century. Mobile DNA. 1/4, 2010.

Sweatt, David. The Emerging Field of Neuroepigenetics. Neuron. 80/3, 2013.

Van Speybroeck, Linda, et al. Epi-Geneticization: Where Biological and Philosophical Thinking Meet. Fagot-Largeault, Anne, et al, eds. The Influence of Genetics on Contemporary Thinking. Berlin: Springer, 2007.

Witzany, Gunther, ed. Natural Genetic Engineering and Natural Genome Editing. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. Vol. 1178, 2009.

E. An Enhanced Individuality
As the major evolutionary transitions model became well accepted, each sequential stage from before microbes to beyond mammals was seen to achieve an individual identity of its integral own. This regnant procession, via our collaborative planetary phase, can now appear as an embryonic emergence of personal autonomy in mutual community.

Agren, Arvid. Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality: Insights from Transposable Elements. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 29/2, 2014.

Bouchard, Frederic and Philippe Huneman, eds. From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.

Fisher, Roberta, et al. Group Formation, Relatedness, and the Evolution of Multicellularity. Current Biology. Online June, 2013.

Fitch, Tecumseh. Nano-intentionality: a Defense of Intrinsic Intentionality. Biology and Philosophy. 23/2, 2008.

Hoffmeyer, Jesper. Semiotics of Nature. Cobley, Paul, ed. The Routledge Companion to Semiotics. London: Routledge, 2010.

Michod, Richard. Evolution of Individuality During the Transition from Unicellular to Multicellular Life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104/Supplement 1, 2007.

Rosslenbroich, Bernd. On the Origin of Autonomy: A New Look at the Major Transitions in Evolution. Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.

Sloan Wilson, David and Daniel O’Brien. Evolutionary Theory and Cooperation in Everyday Life. Levin, Simon, ed. Games, Groups, and the Global Good. Berlin: Springer, 2009.

F. New Parallels of Phylogeny and Ontogeny
To pause and review at this interim point, by 2014 many subject areas, after long periods of study and contest, seemed to have reached a novel resolve and confirmation. Such is the case as to affinities between the ontogenesis of a certain organism, a human individual, and the phylogenetic course of life’s developmental evolution. As these choices state, and the section backs up, across several aspects, as there must be, a grand recapitulation does indeed occur. The strongest affirmations have been voiced for language learning and knowledge education, as children and hominids necessarily proceed by the same sequence. As the biological sciences become more sophisticated in instrumentation and research, so embryogeny and evolution, physiology and phylogenesis, also draw closer. As tradition long intuited, in our global age, universe and human are iconic reflections in ways and by veracities never expected.

Abzhanov, Arhat. Von Baer’s Law for the Ages: Lost and Found Principles of Developmental Evolution. Trends in Genetics. 29/12, 2013.

Arhem, Peter and Hans Liljenstrom, eds. Consciousness Transitions: Phylogenetic, Ontogenetic and Physiological Aspects. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007.

Changeux, Jean-Pierre. Reflections on the Origins of the Human Brain. Lagercratnz, Hugo, et al, eds. The Newborn Brain: Neuroscience and Clinical Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Clune, Jeff, et al. Ontogeny Tends to Recapitulate Phylogeny in Digital Organisms. American Naturalist. 180/3, 2012.

Greenspan, Stanley and Stuart Shanker. The First Idea: How Symbols, Language, and Intelligence Evolved From Our Primate Ancestors to Modern Humans. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2004.

Konner, Melvin. The Evolution of Childhood. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010.

Mashour, George and Michael Alkire. Evolution of Consciousness: Phylogeny, Ontogeny, and Emergence from General Anesthesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110/Supple. 2, 2013.

Nelson, Katherine. The Human Nature of the Economic Mind. Biological Theory. Online July, 2012.

Raff, Rudolf and Elizabeth Raff. Evolution in the Light of Embryos: Seeking the Origins of Novelties in Ontogeny. Laubichler, Manfred and Jane Maienschein, eds. Form and Function in Developmental Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Tomasello, Michael, et al. Two Key Steps in the Evolution of Human Cooperation: The Interdependence Hypothesis. Current Anthropology. 53/6, 2012.

G. Integral Persons
1. Systems Physiology and Psychology: Somatic and Behavioral Development

As noted in Part I, the fledgling complex systems reinterpretation has likewise touched every area of our individual and public lives. Another iconic area is a reconception of every aspect of ones personal somatic and cognitive course from birth. From infant learnings by way of integral dynamics to the decay of such fractal poise in senescence, the universal complementary code effectively informs and guides every our every day and night. OK

Bashan, Amir, et al. Network Physiology Reveals Relations between Network Topology and Physiological Function. Nature Communications. 3/702, 2011.

Boyer, Denis, et al. Non-Random Walks in Monkeys and Humans. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 9/842, 2011.

Ellis, Bruce and David Bjorklund, eds. Origins of the Social Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and Child Development. New York: Guilford Press, 2005.

Fogel, Alan, et al, eds. Human Development in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Hollenstein, Tom. Twenty Years of Dynamic Systems Approaches to Development: Significant Contributions, Challenges, and Future Directions. Child Development Perspectives. 5/4, 2011

Legerstee, Maria, et al. The Infant Mind: Origins of the Social Brain. New York: Guilford Press, 2012.

Lerner, Richard and Janette Benson, eds. Embodiment and Epigenesis: Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Understanding the Role of Biology within the Relational Development System. Advances in Child Development and Behavior. Book 44, 2013.

Nelson, Katherine. Young Minds in Social Worlds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Parlade, Meaghan and Jana Iverson. The Interplay between Language, Gesture, and Affect During Communicative Transition: A Dynamic Systems Approach. Developmental Psychology. 47/3, 2011.

Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin, et al. The Role of the Circadian System in Fractal Neurophysicological Control. Biological Reviews. 88/4, 2013.

Seely, Andrew, et al. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System. Entropy. 16/8, 2014.

Van Geert, Paul. Nonlinear Complex Dynamical Systems in Developmental Psychology. Guastello, Stephen, et al, eds. Chaos and Complexity in Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

2. Systems Neuroscience: Cerebral Form and Dynamic Function
Certain vital realms of nature, evolution, and humanity have become especial subjects of intense research, and become exemplary portals upon a greater genesis. Microbial colonies and dynamic genomes are good examples. Another prime focus of the complex systems revolution is its total application to understand our own neural endowment and capacious intelligence. A human brain, both in development and cogitation, is found to epitomize a self-organizing, critically poised, modular and whole network system. A notable agreement has settled on a “metastable” state whence ever shifting semi-autonomous neurons and nets are situated within whole brain domains. The same me + We reciprocity is best for brains also. A “global workspace theory,” akin to “working memory,” has also gained acceptance to explain how we consciously think, remember and respond.

Baronchelli, Andrea, et al. Networks in Cognitive Science. Trends in Cognitive Science. 17/7, 2013.

Bassett, Danielle and Michael Gazzaniga. Understanding Complexity in the Human Brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 15/5, 2011.

Buzsaki, Gyorgy, et al. Scaling Brain Size, Keeping Timing: Evolutionary Preservation of Brain Rhythms. Neuron. 80/3, 2013.

Charvet, Christine, et al. Variation in Human Brains may Facilitate Evolutionary Change Toward a Limited Range of Phenotypes. Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 81/2, 2013.

Friston, Karl. The History of the Future of the Bayesian Brain. NeuroImage. 62/1230, 2012.

Grossberg, Stephen. Adaptive Resonance Theory: How a Brain Learns to Consciously Attend, Learn, and Recognize a Changing World. Neural Networks. 37/1, 2013.

Kello, Christopher. Critical Branching Neural Networks. Psychological Review. Online February, 2013.

Kelso, Scott, et al. Outline of a General Theory of Behavior and Brain Coordination. Neural Networks. 37/1, 2013.

McClelland, James, et al. Letting Structure Emerge: Connectionist and Dynamical Systems Approaches to Cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 14/8, 2010.

Seung, Sebastian. Connectome: How the Brain’s Wiring Makes us Who We Are. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012.

Sporns, Olaf. Brain Networks and Embodiment. Mesquita, Batja, et al, eds. The Mind in Context. New York: Guilford Press, 2010.

3. A Complementary Brain and Thought Process
Earlier on, the Emergent Bicameral Brain section noted an occurrence of a bilateral and behavioral asymmetry throughout the long course of developmental evolution. For this human emphasis, the past years have seen a general consensus arise about the actual propensities of the right and left hemispheres. With their holistic connectivity or analytic separatist modes, akin to gender complements, and to a universal agent or relator aspect, we peoples do really have a microcosm in our cerebral selves. A concurrent Dual Process model also came forth with similar cognitive constrasts. OK

Bilalic, Merim, et al. It Takes Two-Skilled Recognition of Objects Engages Lateral Areas in Both Hemispheres. PLoS One. 6/1, 2011.

Darlington, Cynthia. The Female Brain. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2009.

Doron, Karl, et al. Dynamic Network Structure of Interhemispheric Coordination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109/18661, 2012.

Evans, Jonathan. Thinking Twice: Two Minds in One Brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Han, Shihui and Ernst Poppel, eds. Culture and Neural Frames of Cognition and Communication. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Hugdahl, Kenneth and Rene Westerhausen, eds. The Two Halves of the Brain: Information Processing in the Cerebral Hemispheres. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010.

Iturria-Medina, Yasser, et al. Brain Hemispheric Structural Efficiency and Interconnectivity Rightward Asymmetry in Human and Nonhuman Primates. Cerebral Cortex. 21/1, 2011.

McGilchrist, Iain. The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Panksepp, Jaak and Lucy Biven. The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions. New York: Norton, 2012.

Schore, Allan. The Science of the Art of Psychotherapy. New York: Norton, 2012.

4. The Advent of Conscious Knowledge

Bor, Daniel. The Ravenous Brain: How the New Science of Consciousness Explains Our Insatiable Search for Meaning. New York: Basic Books, 2012.

Chalmers, David. The Character of Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Dehaene, Stanislas. Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts. New York: Viking, 2014.

Changeux, Jean-Pierre. Reflections on the Origins of the Human Brain. Lagercratnz, Hugo, et al, eds. The Newborn Brain: Neuroscience and Clinical Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Feinberg, Todd and Jon Mallatt. The Evolutionary and Genetic Origins of Consciousness in the Cambrian Period Over 500 Million Years Ago. Frontiers in Psychology. 4/667, 2013.

Lagercrantz, Hugo and Jean-Pierre Changeux. On the Emergence of Consciousness. Lagercratnz, Hugo, et al, eds. The Newborn Brain: Neuroscience and Clinical Applications Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

O’Doherty, Fiona. A Contribution to Understanding Consciousness: Qualia as Phenotype. Biosemiotics. 6/2, 2013.

Tononi, Giulio. Consciousness as Integrated Information. Biological Bulletin. 215/3, 2008.

Tononi, Giulio and Christof Koch. Consciousness: Here, There but Not Everywhere. arXiv:1405.7089

Zelazo, Philip, et al, eds. The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

5. Sophia Sapiens: Gender Complements
Barnes, Craig. In Search of the Lost Feminine. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 2006.

Eagly, Alice. The His and Hers of Prosocial Behavior. American Psychologist. November, 2009.

Feminist, Alternatives. My Dream is to be Bold: Our Work to End Patriarchy. Cape Town, RSA: Pambazuka Press, 2011.

Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, ed. Societies of Peace: Matriarchies Past, Present and Future. Toronto: Inanna Publications, 2009.

Gonzalez, Michelle. Created in God’s Image. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2007.

Orrell, David. Truth or Beauty: Science and the Quest for Order. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.

Robb, Christina. This Changes Everything: The Relation Revolution in Psychology. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006.

Rogers, Lesley, et al. Divided Brains: The Biology and Behaviour of Brain Asymmetries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Wang, Robin. Yinyang: The Way of Heaven and Earth in Chinese Thought and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

6. A Symbiotic Self

Bolhuis, Johan, et al. Darwin in Mind: New Opportunities for Evolutionary Psychology. PLoS Biology. 9/7, 2011.

Christoff, Kalina, et al. Specifying the Self for Cognitive Neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Science. 15/3, 2011.

Cosmides, Leda and John Tooby. Evolutionary Psychology: New Perspectives on Cognition and Motivation. Annual Review of Psychology. 64/201, 2013.

Feinberg, Todd. From Axons to Identity: Neurological Explorations of the Nature of the Self. New York: Norton, 2009.

Gergen, Kenneth. Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Gilbert, Scott, et al. A Symbiotic View of Life: We Have Never Been Individuals. Quarterly Review of Biology. 87/4, 2012

Harter, Susan. The Construction of the Self. New York: Guilford Press, 2012.

Prinz, Wolfgang. Self in the Mirror. Consciousness and Cognition. 22/3, 2013.

Thagard, Paul. The Self as a System of Multilevel Interacting Mechanisms. Philosophical Psychology. 27/2, 2014.

7. An Archetypal Psychology
These sources bespeak of our arduous quest for personal, and communal, growth and liberation to ones own self in service to others as they to us. In tune with our theme, in recent years this mythic, mystical journey is new interpreted by way of a dynamic self-organizing scale and trajectory.

Brooke, Roger. Ubuntu and the Individuation Process: Toward a Multicultural Analytical Psychology. Psychological Perspectives. 51/1, 2008.

Cambray, Joseph. Synchronicity: Nature and Psyche in an Interconnected Universe. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2009.

Drob, Sanford. Kabbalistic Visions: C. G. Jung and Jewish Mysticism. New Orleans: Spring Journal Books, 2010.

Hogenson, George. The Self, the Symbolic and Synchronicity. Journal of Analytical Psychology. 50/3, 2005.

Nicolaus, Georg. C. G. Jung and Nikolai Berdyaev: Individuation and the Person. London: Routledge, 2011.

Rowland, Susan. The Ecocritical Psyche: Literature, Evolutionary Complexity and Jung. London: Routledge, 2012.

H. The Phenomenon of Humankind

1. A Cultural Code: Systems Linguistics


Atkinson, Quentin. The Descent of Words. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110/4159, 2013.

Balari, Sergio and Guillermo Lorenzo. Computational Phenotypes: Towards an Evolutionary Developmental Biolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Beckner, Clay, et al. Language as a Complex Adaptive System. Language Learning. 59/Supp. 1, 2009.

Binder, Phillippe and Kenny Smith, eds. The Language Phenomenon: Human Communication from Milliseconds to Millennia. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Bolhuis, Johan, et al. Birdsong, Speech, and Language: Exploring the Evolution of Mind and Brain. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.

Di Sciullo, Anna Maria and Cedric Boeckx, eds. The Biolinguistic Enterprise: New Perspectives on the Evolution and Nature of the Human Language Faculty. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Hoffmeyer, Jesper. Biosemiotics: An Examination into the Signs of Life and the Life of Signs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Hurford, James. The Origins of Grammar: Language in the Light of Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Larsen-Freeman, Diane and Lynne Cameron. Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Loreto, Vittorio, et al. Statistical Physics of Language Dynamics. Journal of Statistical Mechanics. 4/P04006, 2011.

Newman, Stuart and Ramray Bhat. Dynamical Patterning Modules: A "Pattern Language" for Development and Evolution of Multicellular Form. International Journal of Developmental Biology. 53/5-6, 2009.

Shabi, Uri, et al. Processing DNA Molecules as Text. Systems and Synthetic Biology. 4/3, 2011.

Szathmary, Eors. Evolution of Language as One of the Major Evolutionary Transitions. Nolfi, Stefano and Marco Mirolli, eds. Evolution of Communication and Language in Embodied Agents. Berlin: Springer, 2010.

2. Complex Human Societies
Over the past decade, as in Cultural Code before, Planetary Physiosphere next, and everywhere from universe to us, a common, wholly recurrent form and course is now evident. A wide range of social activities such as migrations, elections, markets, media webs, even warfare, are found to proceed as self-organizing complex adaptive systems.

Callegari, Simone, et al. An Agent-Based Model of Human Dispersals at a Global Scale. Advances in Complex Systems. Online July, 2013.

Chatterjee, Arnab, et al. Universality in Voting Behavior. Nature Scientific Reports. 3/1049, 2013.

Conradt, Larissa and Christian List. Group Decisions in Humans and Animals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 364/719, 2009.

Gallotti, Mattia and Chris Frith. Social Cognition in the We-Mode. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 17/4, 2013.

Goldstone, Robert, et al. Emergent Processes in Group Behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17/1, 2008.

Hamilton, Marcus, et al. The Complex Structure of Hunter-Gather Social Networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 274/2195, 2007.

Kesebir, Selin. The Superorganism Account of Human Sociality. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 16/3, 2012.

Mesoudi, Alex. Cultural Evolution: How Darwinian Theory can Explain Human Culture and Synthesize the Social Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

Nowak, Andrzej, et al, eds. Complex Human Dynamics: From Minds to Societies. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Rainie, Lee and Barry Wellman. Networked: The New Social Operating System. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012.

Sutcliffe, Alistair, et al. Relationships and the Social Brain: Integrating Psychological and Evolutionary Perspectives. British Journal of Psychology. 103/2, 2012.

Vallacher, Robin, et al. Dynamical Foundations of Intractable Conflict. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology. 16/2, 2010.

3. A Planetary Physiosphere: Anatomics, Economics, Urbanomics

Baccini, Peter and Paul Brunner. Metabolism of the Anthroposphere. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012.

Batty, Michael. The New Science of Cities. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.

Beinhocker, Eric. The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006.

Bettencourt, Luis, et al. Urban Scaling and Its Deviations: Revealing the Structure of Wealth, Innovation and Crime across Cities. PLoS One. 5/11, 2010.

Ferrão, Paulo and John Fernández. Sustainable Urban Metabolism. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.

Gonzalez de Molina, Manuel and Victor Toledo. The Social Metabolism: A Social-Ecological Theory of Historical Change. Berlin: Springer, 2014.

Heppenstall, Alison, et al, eds. Agent-Based Models of Geographical Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Marshall, Stephen. Cities, Design, and Evolution. London: Routledge, 2009.

Portugali, Juval, et al, eds. Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age: An Overview with Implications to Urban Planning and Design. Berlin: Springer, 2012.

Rosser, J. Barkley. Complex Evolutionary Dynamics in Urban-Regional and Ecologic-Economic Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Schinckus, Christophe. Introduction to Econophysics. Contemporary Physics. 54/1, 2013.

Zhang, Jiang and Tongkui Yu. Allometric Scaling of Countries. Physica A. 389/4887, 2010.

4. The Complementarity of Civilizations

Choi, Incheol, et al. Individual Differences in Analytic versus Holistic Thinking. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 33/5, 2007

Gregg, Gary. The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Harter, Susan. The Construction of the Self. New York: Guilford Press, 2012.

Hwang, Kwang-kuo. Foundations of Chinese Psychology: Confucian Social Relations. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.

Kebede, Messay. Africa’s Quest for a Philosophy of Decolonization. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2004

Nisbett, Richard and Yuri Miyamoto. The Influence of Culture: Holistic Versus Analytic Perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 9/10, 2005.

Oyserman, Daphna. Culture as Situated Cognition: Cultural Mindsets, Cultural Fluency, and Meaning Making. European Review of Social Psychology. 22/1, 2011.

Pattberg, Thorsten. The East-West Dichotomy. Peking: Pattberg, 2009.

Sheng, Long and Chunguang Li. English and Chinese Languages as Weighted Complex Networks. Physica A. 388/2561, 2009.

5. Bicameral World Religions
As An Emergent Bicameral Brain, the previous Complementarity of Civilizations, this section, and the whole site documents, into the 21st century it is has been quite quantified that archetypal hemispheres grace a bilateral earth. In this section, Eastern and Western, along with South and North, realms can be seen to align with the religious persuasions, broadly conceived, of a communal or individual emphasis. A companion theological movement of the decade is an appreciation of a “pan-en-theist” vision whence divinity is seen to abide both as paternal creator transcendence and maternal procreative immanence.

Biernacki, Loriliai and Philip Clayton, eds. Panentheism Across the World's Traditions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Cousins, Ewert. Religions of the World: Teilhard and the Second Axial Coming. www.interreligiousinsight.org/October2006/Cousins10-06.pdf.

Han, Shihui and Georg Northoff. Culture-Sensitive Neural Substrates of Human Cognition: A Transcultural Neuroimaging Approach. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 9/8, 2008.

Lee, Hyo-Dong. Spirit, Qi, and the Multitude: A Comparative Theology for the Democracy of Creation. New York: Fordham University Press, 2013.

Patt-Shamir, Galia. To Broaden the Way: A Confucian-Jewish Dialogue. Latham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.

Zhengkun, Gu. Confucian Family Values as Universal Values in the 21st Century. Berliner China-Hefte Chinese History and Society. Volume 41, 2012.

6. Religion and Science
For the record, a strident, vociferous atheism has lately reared up led mostly by senior scientists. In order to denigrate religions and deities, it is necessary that universe, teleology, and human must also go and proclaimed as a pointless accident. Both physical cosmology and life’s evolution are contingent, aimless mechanisms, bereft of plan or hope. Popular science writing seems obsessed with this animus. If it represents vested scientific model or paradigm, then no accord with conviction is ever possible. Yes, teach evolutionary theory in schools, but if it rules out any innate source or direction, young and old will oppose it. And this glaring contradiction is hardly noticed. Again, this website, by proposing that a prodigious humankinder is coming to her/his own knowledge, tries to introduce and document a revolutionary organic genesis uniVerse in our midst.

Conway Morris, Simon. Evolution and the Inevitability of Intelligent Life. Harrison, Peter, ed. Cambridge Companion to Science and Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Cunningham, Conor. Darwin's Pious Idea: Why the Ultra-Darwinists and Creationists Both Get It Wrong. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2010.

Gilbert, Scott. Wonder and the Necessary Alliances of Science and Religion. Euresis Journal. Volume 4, 2013.

Haag, James, et al, eds. Routledge Companion to Religion and Science. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Howard, Damian. Being Human in Islam: The Impact of the Evolutionary Worldview. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Murphy, Nancey and Christopher Knight, eds. Human Identity at the Intersection of Science, Technology and Religion. Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2010.

Pruett, Dave. Reason and Wonder: A Copernican Revolution in Science and Spirit. New York: Praeger, 2012.

Sacks, Jonathan. The Great Partnership: Science, Religion, and the Search for Meaning. New York: Schocken Books, 2012.

7. Systems History: Personal and Planetary Individuation
Bousquet, Antoine and Robert Geyer. Introduction: Complexity and the International Arena. Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 24/1, 2011..

Christian, David, et al. Big History: Between Nothing and Everything. New York: McGraw Hill Education, 2013.

Clemens, Walter. Complexity Science and World Affairs. Albany: SUNY Press, 2014.

Hornborg, Alf and Carole Crumley, eds. The World System and the Earth System. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2007.

Krakauer, David, et al. An Inquiry into History, Big History, and Metahistory. Cliodynamics: Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History. 2/1, 2011.

Nazaretyan, Akop. Evolution of Non-Violence: Studies in Big History, Self-Organization and Historical Psychology. Online: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010.

Shryock, Andrew and Daniel Lord Smail, eds. Deep History: The Architecture of Past and Present. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

West, Geoffrey. Can There be a Quantitative Theory for the History of Life and Science? Cliodynamics: Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History. 2/1, 2011.

VII. A Genesis Future: Earthkind at Home and in the Cosmos

A. The Old Earth: Its Critical Life Support Condition

Brauch, Hans Gunter, et al. Globalization and Environmental Challenges. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2.

Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking, 2005.

Ellis, Erle, et al. Used Planet: A Global History. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110/7978, 2013.

Flannery, Tim. Here on Earth: A Natural History of the Planet. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2011.

Hansen, James, et al. Perception of Climate Change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Online August, 2012.

Hetherington, Renee and Robert G. B. Reid. The Climate Connection: Climate Connection and Modern Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

McKibben, Bill. Eaarth: A Guide to Living on a Fundamentally Altered Planet. New York: Times Books, 2010.

Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim, et al, eds. Global Sustainability: A Nobel Cause. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Steffen, Will, et al. The Anthropocene: From Global Change to Planetary Stewardship. AMBIO. 40/739, 2011.

1. Global Climate as a Complex Dynamical System
The far extremes of cosmology and climateology, by nature of the intricacy of their domains, seem to be the last to make the systems shift. These entries attest to a growing engagement by statistical physics and complexity theories to gain elusive insights and predictions.

American Physical Society, Topical Group on the Physics of Climate. www.aps.org/units/gpc/index.cfm.

Dijkstra, Henk. Nonlinear Climate Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Donges, Jonathan, et al. Investigating the Topology of Interacting Networks: Theory and Application to Coupled Climate Subnetworks. European Physical Journal B. 84/4, 2011.

Lovejoy, Shaun and Daniel Schertzer. The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Molkenthin, Nora, et al. Network from Flows: From Dynamics to Topology. Nature Scientific Reports. 4/4119, 2014.

Scheffer, Marten, et al. Anticipating Critical Transitions. Science. 338/344, 2012.

Tsonis, Anastasios and K. L. Swanson. On the Origins of Decadal Climate Variability: A Network Perspective. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics. 19/5, 2012.

B. A New Earth Creation

1. Great Earth: Planetary Self-Selection

Over the past decade a most dramatic event is the revolutionary finding of a galaxy and cosmos filled with as many planets as stars. A fertile spacescape has just expansively opened for our precious bioworld. As this site reports, sapient human beings, by our individual and collective observations, seem to have a required role to play with regard to the nature and fate of the whole universe. As the new Universal Darwinism section alludes, in some way we find ourselves in a stochastic yet optimizing, self-making cosmos. Could it well be, that among the myriad vicarious exoplanets, Earthkinder can aspire to unique greatness, if we might so therefore choose?

Armstrong, Stuart and Anders Sandberg. Eternity in Six Hours: Intergalactic Spreading of Intelligent Life and Sharpening the Fermi Paradox. Acta Astronautica. 89/1, 2013.

Arnould, Jacques. Astrobiology, Sustainability and Ethical Perspectives. Sustainability. 1/4, 2009.

Baum, Seth. Is Humanity Doomed? Insights from Astrobiology. Sustainability. 2/2, 2010.

Cirkovic, Milan and Branislav Vukotic. Astrobiological Landscape: A Platform for the Neo-Copernican Synthesis? International Journal of Astrobiology. Online October, 2012.

Forget, Francois. On the Probability of Habitable Planets. International Journal of Astrobiology. Online May, 2013.


Naganuma, Takeshi. An Astrobiological View on Sustainable Life. Sustainability. 1/4, 2009.

Waltham, Dave and Lewis Dartnell. Is the Earth Special? Astronomy & Geophysics. August, 2012.

2. Mind Over Matter
Still another breakthrough from 2004 to now has been the advent of a collaborative human knowledge and ability to take up a second natural, biological and cognitive genesis. As these few citations glimpse, by virtue of worldwide technical imaginaries, it appears we are intentionally meant to initiate a new material and personal creation, on earth and into the heavens. While advocates are well aware of a need to consider ethical, respectful concerns, here is much palliative promise to heal and save body, soul and world.

Bedau, Mark, et al. Introduction to Recent Developments in Living Technology. Artificial Life. 19/3-4, 2013.

Ceder, Gerbrand and Kristin Persson. The Stuff of Dreams. Scientific American. December, 2013.

Church, George and Ed Regis. Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves. New York: Basic Books, 2012.

Cole-Turner, Ronald, ed. Transhumanism and Transcendence: Christian Hope in an Age of Technological Enhancement. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2011.

Doursat, Rene, et al. Morphogenetic Engineering: Toward Programmable Complex Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Hoang, Tuan-Hao, et al. On Synergistic Interactions between Evolution, Development and Layered Learning. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation. 15/3, 2011.

Nicolaou, K. C. Organic Synthesis: The Art and Science of Replicating the Molecules of Living Nature and Creating Others like Them in the Laboratory. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Online January, 2014.

Swiegers, Gerhard, ed. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2012.

3. Personal Enhancement
Into this 21st century human persons seem at last able to cast off and rise above and beyond the evolutionary and historic maladies that have beset body, brain and soul. An incipient allowance to foster one’s own creative well-being, a positive psychology, is about. A notable aspect is that fulfillment is said to come by being part of and service to a conducive community. This section also reports upon advances in life span extension.

Burger, Oskar, et al. Human Mortality Improvement in Evolutionary Context. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109/18210, 2012.

Danchin, Antoine. Natural Selection and Immortality. Biogerontology. 10/4, 2009.

Fahy, Gregory, et al, eds. The Future of Aging: Pathways to Human Life Extension. Berlin: Springer, 2010.

Fraifeld, Vadim. Healthy Aging and Regenerative Medicine. Biogerontology. 14/6, 2013.

Lopez, Shane and C. R. Snyder, eds. Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Savulescu, Julian, et al, eds. Enhancing Human Capacities. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

Seligman, Martin. Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being. New York: Atria Books, 2012.

Sell, Christian, et al, eds. Life-Span Extension: Single-Cell Organisms to Man. New York: Humana Press, 2009.

Sheldon, Kennon, et al, eds. Designing Positive Psychology: Taking Stock and Moving Forward. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Waterman, Alan, ed. The Best within Us: Positive Psychology Perspectives on Eudaimonia. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2013.

4. Sustainable Ecovillages

Dawson, Jonathan. Ecovillages: New Frontiers for Sustainability. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2006.

Downton, Paul. Ecopolis: Architecture and Cities for a Changing Climate. Dordrecht: Springer, 2009.

Harris, James. Fractal Architecture: Organic Design Philosophy in Theory and Practice. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2012.

Jarvis, Helen. Saving Space, Sharing Time: Integrated Infrastructures of Daily Life in Cohousing. Environment and Planning A. 43/3, 2011.

Litfin, Karen. Ecovillages: Lessons for Sustainable Community. London: Polity Books, 2014.

McCamant, Kathryn and Charles Durrett. Creating Cohousing: Building Sustainable Communities. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2011.

Oppenheim, Claire. Nelson Mandela and the Power of Ubuntu. Religions. 3/2, 2012.

Scott, Andrew and Eran Ben-Joseph. ReNew Town: Adaptive Urbanism and the Low Carbon Community. London: Routledge, 2011.

5. An Organic, Symbiotic Democracy

Carney, Dana, et al. The Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives. Political Psychology. 29/6, 2008.

Cornell, Drucilla and Grace Nyoko Muvanqua, eds. Ubuntu and the Law: African Ideals and Postapartheid Jurisprudence. New York: Fordham University Press, 2012.

Guttenberg, Nicholas and Nigel Goldenfeld. Emergence of Heterogeneity and Political Organization in Information Exchange Networks. Physical Review E. 81/046111, 2010.

Kothari, Ashish. India 2100: Towards Radical Ecological Democracy. Futures. Online October, 2013.

LaConte, Ellen. Life Rules: Why so much is going wrong everywhere at once and how Life teaches us to fix it. Green Horizon/iUniverse, 2010.

Petit, Patrick, ed. Earth Capitalism: Creating a New Civilization through a Responsible Market Economy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2011.

6. A Viable Gaia
For context, a 1994 paper of mine, Environmental Ethics and the Question of Cosmic Purpose, appeared in th e journal Environmental Ethics which contended that we peoples will not be able to achieve a living sustainable earth if the dead universe of physical cosmology remains. Two decades on, while global environments and climate nears a critical condition, a pointless, inane multiverse now daunts us. Here are some entries for the imperative shift to an organically healthy, peaceable biosphere good for children and creatures. Again the companion purpose of the whole site is to broach and document a cosmic revolution to a procreative genesis.

Benkeblia, Noureddine, ed. Sustainable Agriculture and New Biotechnologies. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2011.

Berkes, Firket. Sacred Ecology. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Billson, Janet Mancini and Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, eds. Female Well-Being: Toward a Global Theory of Social Change. London: Zed Books, 2005.

Brown, Valerie and John Harris. The Human Capacity for Transformational Change: Harnessing the Collective Mind. London: Routledge, 2014.

Daly, Herman and Joshua Farley. Ecological Economics. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2011.

Hunt, Dexter, et al. Scenario Archetypes: Converging Rather than Diverging Themes. Sustainability. 4/4, 2012.

Kapoor, Rakesh. Signs of an Emerging Planetary Transformation. Futures. 42/10, 2010.

Levin, Simon. Crossing Scales, crossing Disciplines: Collective Motion and Collective Action in the Global Commons. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 365/13, 2010.

Oxford, Rebecca and Jing Lin, eds. Transformative Eco-Education for Human and Planetary Survival. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2011.

Spretnak, Charlene. Relational Reality: New Discoveries of Interrelatedness That Are Transforming the Modern World. Topsham, ME: Green Horizon Books, 2011.

Waltner-Toews, David, et al, eds. The Ecosystem Approach: Complexity, Uncertainty, and Management for Sustainability. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

C. The Greening of the Galaxy
As we saw, a grand cosmic revolution is in our midst to an organic nursery filled with bioworlds in solar incubators, which has hardly begun to gain our public recognition. If we can ever get our collective hearts, minds and act together on this special ovular planet, a future destiny beckons, at home and in the heavens, to carry forward the genesis of the galaxy.

Beech, Martin. Rejuvenating the Sun and Avoiding Other Global Catastrophes. New York: Springer, 2008.

Bonnet, Roger-Maurice and Lodewijk Woltjer. Surviving 1,000 Centuries. Berlin: Springer/Praxis, 2008.

Burdyuzka, Vladimir, ed. The Future of Life and of Our Civilization. Berlin: Springer, 2006.

Michaud, Michael. Contact with Alien Civilizations. New York: Copernicus Books, 2007.

Smith, Cameron and Evan Davies. Emigrating Beyond Earth: Human Adaptation and Space Colonization. New York: Springer, 2012.