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III. An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

1. Quantum Thermodynamics

As I have noted on occasion, my 1960 degree is in engineering thermodynamics from Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, now NYU Poly. Back then long ago the field was mainly about the three laws for steam power plants. In 1987 I had lunch at a complexity conference with Ilya Prigogine, the prime founder of a later turn to nonequilibrium thermodynamics. This Thermodynamics of Life section seeks to report and document such 20th century advances as they continued to flourish in the 2000s. Since around 2010, aided by Internet worldwide collaborations, such studies of energy source, usage, dissipation, and began to merge with quantum mechanical physics via common theoretical convergences. Into the later 2010s, these composite endeavors have spread to an extent and depth to now merit their own subsection.

Alicki, Robert and Ronnie Kosloff. Introduction to Quantum Thermodynamics: History and Prospects. arXiv:1801.08314. A University of Gdansk, Poland physicist and a Hebrew University of Jerusalem chemist provide a 45 page tutorial update to this expansive 21st century integral synthesis, advance and productive implementation of these two primary theories of an energetic natural creation.

Quantum Thermodynamics is a continuous dialogue between two independent theories: Thermodynamics and Quantum Mechanics. Whenever the two theories addressed the same phenomena new insight has emerged. We follow the dialogue from equilibrium Quantum Thermodynamics and the notion of entropy and entropy inequalities which are the base of the II-law. Dynamical considerations lead to non-equilibrium thermodynamics of quantum Open Systems. The central part played by completely positive maps is discussed leading to the Gorini-Kossakowski-Lindblad-Sudarshan GKLS equation. We address the connection to thermodynamics through the system-bath weak-coupling-limit WCL leading to dynamical versions of the I-law. The dialogue has developed through the analysis of quantum engines and refrigerators. Reciprocating and continuous engines are discussed. The autonomous quantum absorption refrigerator is employed to illustrate the III-law. (Abstract)

Anders, Janet and Massimiliano Esposito. Focus on Quantum Thermodynamics. New Journal of Physics. 19/010201, 2017. University of Exeter and University of Luxembourg physicists introduce a special collection about this popular frontier field. Among the papers so far are Perspective on Quantum Thermodynamics and Limits to Catalysis in Quantum Thermodynamics.

Thermodynamics has been highly successful, impacting strongly on the natural sciences and enabling the developments that have changed our lives. Until recently, it was applied to large systems described classical physics. However, with modern technologies miniaturizing down to the nanoscale and into the quantum regime, testing the applicability of thermodynamics in this new realm has become an exciting challenge. As a result the field of quantum thermodynamics has recently started to blossom, fuelled by new, highly controlled quantum experiments, powerful numerical methods, and novel theoretical tools, for instance in non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantum information theory. Some goals of the field are (i) a better understanding of thermalization in quantum systems, (ii) the characterization of non-equilibrium fluctuations in the quantum regime, and (iii) the design and realization of new experiments using, for example, nuclear spins, cold atoms, trapped ions and optomechanic setups. (Intro edits)

Faist, Philippe. Quantum Coarse Graining: An Information-Theoretic Approach to Thermodynamics. arXiv:1607.03104. A 300 page thesis for a Doctor of Sciences degree from ETH Zurich which we record in 2016 to evince that beyond fixations on the 19th century entropic second law, as popular writings do, articulations of thermodynamic theory continue in the present day.

We investigate fundamental connections between thermodynamics and quantum information theory. First, we show that the operational framework of thermal operations is nonequivalent to the framework of Gibbs-preserving maps, and we comment on this gap. We then introduce a fully information-theoretic framework generalizing the above by making further abstraction of physical quantities such as energy. In the case of information processing on memory registers with a degenerate Hamiltonian, the answer is given by the max-entropy, a measure of information known from quantum information theory. In the general case, we obtain a new information measure, the "coherent relative entropy", which generalizes both the conditional entropy and the relative entropy. We then present how, from our framework, macroscopic thermodynamics emerges by typicality, after singling out an appropriate class of thermodynamic states possessing some suitable reversibility property. A natural thermodynamic potential emerges, dictating possible state transformations, and whose differential describes the physics of the system. Finally, noting that quantum states are relative to the observer, we see that the procedure above gives rise to a natural form of coarse-graining in quantum mechanics: Each observer can consistently apply the formalism of quantum information according to their own fundamental unit of information. (Abstract excerpts)

Gemmer, Jochen, et al. Quantum Thermodynamics: Emergence of Thermodynamic Behavior within Composite Quantum Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2012. Physicists from Germany and England explore the latest theories as to how thermodynamic phenomena, both linear equilibrium and nonlinear far from equilibrium, could be seen to spring from, and be explained by, a spontaneous quantum phase source.

This introductory text treats thermodynamics as an incomplete description of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom. Its main goal is to show that the approach to equilibrium - with equilibrium characterized by maximum ignorance about the open system of interest - neither requires that many particles nor is the precise way of partitioning, relevant for the salient features of equilibrium and equilibration. Furthermore, the text depicts that it is indeed quantum effects that are at work in bringing about thermodynamic behavior of modest-sized open systems, thus making Von Neumann's concept of entropy appear much more widely useful than sometimes feared, far beyond truly macroscopic systems in equilibrium. This significantly revised and expanded second edition pays more attention to the growing number of applications, especially non-equilibrium phenomena and thermodynamic processes of the nano-domain. In addition, to improve readability and reduce unneeded technical details, a large portion of this book has been thoroughly rewritten.

Kosloff, Ronnie. Quantum Thermodynamics. arXiv:1305.2268. The Hebrew University senior chemist and leading theorist of this turn previews in 2013 how these vital propensities across all natural domains might come to be unified, as they must be.

Quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamical laws from quantum mechanics. The link is based on the intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems. Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The emergence of the 0-law I-law II-law and III-law of thermodynamics from quantum considerations is presented. The emphasis is on consistence between the two theories which address the same subject from different foundations.

Kosloff, Ronnie. Quantum Thermodynamics. Entropy. August, 2015. We offer this quote from an introduction and invitation by the Hebrew University chemist and editor for a special issue on this novel integrations of fundamental theoretical realms. Twenty two papers are now included in the collection such as Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and Steady State Density Matrix for Quantum Open Systems and Unified Quantum Model of Work Generation in Thermoelectric Generators, Solar and Fuel Cells. A call for papers for a Quantum Thermodynamics II edition has been posted by R. Kosloff in April 2018.

Quantum thermodynamics is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. Both theories address the same physical phenomena of light and matter. In 1905, Einstein postulated that the requirement of consistency between thermodynamics and electromagnetism leads to the conclusion that light is quantized. Currently, quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamic phenomena from quantum mechanics. In addition, to what extent do the paradigms of thermodynamics apply in the quantum domain, when quantum effects, such as quantum correlation, quantum fluctuation, coherences and entanglement, come into play. Emerging novel quantum technology motivates the quest for smaller devices. Such devices operating at the quantum level form the foundation for quantum information and quantum metrology. The field of quantum thermodynamics is going through rapid development with contributions from many fields of science physics, such as open quantum systems, quantum information, quantum optics, statistical physics, solid state, cold atoms, optomechanics and more.

Kosloff, Ronnie. Quantum Thermodynamics II. Entropy. April, 2018. The Hebrew University theoretical of Jerusalem chemist announces a second edition of the 2015 collection that he commissioned for this online journal.

Quantum thermodynamics is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. Both theories address the same physical phenomena of light and matter. Currently, quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamic phenomena from quantum mechanics. To what extent do the paradigms of thermodynamics apply in the quantum domain, when quantum effects such as quantum correlation, quantum fluctuation, coherences, and entanglement come into play? This unification is going through rapid development, with contributions from many fields of physics, such as open quantum systems, quantum information, quantum optics, statistical physics, solid-state, cold atoms, optomechanics, and more. This interdisciplinary character leads to different viewpoints. (Proposal edits)

Liu, Nana, et al. Quantum Thermodynamics for a Model of an Expanding Universe. arXiv:1409.5283. While equilibrium second law fixations continue to predict an entropic doom, as if a parallel reality physicists with postings in the UK, Italy, Singapore, Australia and Israel, including Vlatko Vedral, advance 21st century theories of a dynamically developing cosmos that, as if a second singularity, can produce its own self-quantification and cognizance. See also The Second Laws of Quantum Thermodynamics by Feranado Brandao, et al in PNAS (112/3275, 2015).

We investigate the thermodynamical properties of quantum fields in curved spacetime. Our approach is to consider quantum fields in curved spacetime as a quantum system undergoing an out-of-equilibrium transformation. The non-equilibrium features are studied by using a formalism which has been developed to derive fluctuation relations and emergent irreversible features beyond the linear response regime. We apply these ideas to an expanding universe scenario, therefore avoiding assumptions on the relation between entropy and quantum matter. We provide a fluctuation theorem which allows us to understand particle production due to the expansion of the universe as an entropic increase. Our results pave the way towards a different understanding of the thermodynamics of relativistic and quantum systems in our universe. (Abstract)

In this work we employed tools from quantum field theory and quantum thermodynamics to study the connection between entropy production and creation of particles in quantum field theoretical setups. Our main result was to provide a second law of thermodynamics for closed relativistic and quantum systems which explains how a unitary process, such as particle production, is connected to an increase of entropy. Our work is free from assumptions on the relation between matter and entropy and provides and intuitive understanding of how energy is used in the process of expansion and particle creation in a cosmological scenario. Furthermore, we argued that our formalism extends to all setups where the unitary evolution breaks down into a collection of two mode squeezing operations. Our work opens a new avenue for the understanding of the (quantum) thermodynamics of our universe. (5)

Mahler, Gunter. Quantum Thermodynamic Processes: Energy and Information Flow at the Nanoscale. Singapore: Pan Stanford, 2015. The emeritus University of Stuttgart physicist has been a premier theorist in this fundamental field. This work proceeds to survey the latest literature to present an update 2010s synthesis. As our website reports, these primary physical realms of the title keywords are under revision and integration into a dynamical cosmos which seems to be suffused by a manifest conveyance of relative descriptive content. Again, the participatory circuit of J. A. Wheeler provides a unique capsule via cognizant observers.

Manabendra, Nath, et al. Thermodynamics from Information. arXiv:1805.10282. MPI Quantum Physics and University of Barcelona theorists write a chapter for a forthcoming Springer volume Thermodynamics in the Quantum Regime which makes especial note of resident communicative properties.

Mascarenhas, Eduardo, et al. Work and Quantum Phase Transitions. arXiv:1307.5544. Scientists from Brazil, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Australia, and Italy, provide another example of the integrative cross-fertilization between subatomic and superatomic stages by finding a non-equilibrium thermodynamics to be similarly present in such quantum domains.

We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For first order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models. (Abstract)

Merali, Zeeya. Bending the Rules. Nature. 551/20, 2017. The London based science writer introduces current worldwide realizations, as we record herein, that an inviting integration of quantum and thermodynamic theories will engender wholly novel understandings of the nature of phenomenal realities. As similar reviews also note, an awesome phase of human avail and creativity begins to beckon.

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