VI. Earth Life Emergence: A Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies
3. A Planetary Physiosphere: Anatomics, Economics, Urbanomics
Historians, architects, and scholars have often advised that societies, especially in urban settings, seem in their material circulations, skeletal infrastructure, and cognitive cultures to take on a likeness of the developing anatomy, metabolism and nervous system of an organism. As an intensifying human presence converges over and is compressed by the finite biosphere, a further evolutionary emergent phase is arising in the guise of a global super-organic personage. Its cerebrally collaborative ‘noosphere’ able to achieve such a perspective was documented in Mindkind, with additional personal qualities covered in Sustainable Ecovillages such as local "social protocells." This section also reports a shift in finance and commerce from a mechanical equilibrium model via another dynamic complexity revolution, aka econophysics, so as to imply a "Systems Economics."
International Society of Biourbanism. www.biourbanism.org. A lively 2012 endeavor based in Rome and composed of European, American, Israeli, members, with contributions from Russia, Thailand, Mexico and more. An online Journal of Biourbanism has worthy papers such as “Biophilia and Gaia” by Giuseppe Barbiero, “Soft Infrastructures for a Neo-Metabolism” Thomas MIcal, and “Towards Sustainability: Self-Organizing Communities” by Juan Tellez.
MISSION: The International Society of Biourbanism is a not-for-profit scientific network for high-quality research, theory making, education, and practice in Urbanism and Architecture. It supports research, publishing and education by providing a shared area for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge about biourbanism as a new epistemological approach to cities and biophilic design. It supports research, publishing and education by providing a shared area for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge about biourbanism as new scientific way to study cities and in support Biophilic Design.
International Workshop on Coping with Crises in Complex Socio-Economic Systems. http://videolectures.net/ccss09_zurich. Held June 8-12, 2009, chaired by Dirk Helbing, a posting of talks by 26 leading theorists, all men, such as Guido Caldarelli, Didier Sornette, Frank Schweitzer, Luciano Pietronero and Shlomo Havlin, which offer many nonlinear insights into underlying, endemic forces at work in the recent global economic convulsions. The quote is from Eugene Stanley’s presentation "Economic Fluctuations and Statistical Physics."
Two unifying principles that underlie much of the finance analysis we will present are scale invariance and universality. Scale invariance is a property not about algebraic equations but rather about functional equations, which have as their solutions not numbers but rather functional forms - power laws. The key idea of universality is that the identical set of “scaling laws” hold across diverse markets, and over diverse time periods.
Adjali, Iqbal and Stephen Appleby. The Multifractal Structure of Human Population Distribution. Tate, Nicholas and Peter Atkinson, eds. Modelling Scale in Geographical Information Science. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2001. Self-similar, scale-invariant patterns underlie demographic population patterns.
Aguilera, Miguel, et al. Quantifying Political Self-Organization in Social Media: Fractal Patterns in the Spanish 15M Movement on Twitter. Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Artificial Life. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013. In a forthcoming volume slated for MIT Press, University of Zaragoza, and University of the Basque Country, Spain, information specialists, including Xabier Barandiaran, find such public groupings of every kind to persistently, naturally exhibit these dynamic network self-similarities. In accord with many other studies, the evident implication would be that there must be some independent, mathematical implicate source in generative effect.
The objective of this work is to better analyse and understand social self-organization in the context of social media and political activism. More specifically, we centre our analysis in the presence of fractal scaling in the form of 1=f noise in different Twitter communication networks related to the Spanish 15M movement. We show how quantitative indexes of brown, white and pink noise correlate with qualitatively different forms of social coordination of protests: rigidly organized protests (brown noise), reactive-spontaneous protests (white noise) and complex genuinely self-organized protests (pink noise). In addition, pink noise processes present correlations that reach much further in time, maintaining a dynamical coherence that last several days, and also show a balance between mean distance and clustering coefficient within the interaction network. (Abstract)
Albeverio, Sergio, et al, eds. The Dynamics of Complex Urban Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2008. European geographers seem to be more attuned to view human social assemblies – towns, cities, metropolis – as evident manifestations in dynamic time and geometric space of universal nonlinear phenomena. This volume from a conference in Switzerland contains a variety of applied examples of such principles found everywhere else in nature to our own cohabitation. Exemplary papers are The Socio-Spatial Dynamics of Systems of Cities and Innovation Processes by Denise Pumain, Fractal Geometry for Measuring and Modelling Urban Patterns, Pierre Frankhauser, and Juval Portugali’s A Structural-Cognitive Approach to Urban Simulation Models.
Applying the idea of self-organization leads to introducing a fractal order parameter for studying the emergent fractal order in urban patterns. The presentation of these quantitative results will be completed by some reflections about how planning concepts based on fractal geometry may help to manage more efficiently urban sprawl. (Frankhauser 213)
Allen, Peter. Cities and Regions as Self-Organizing Systems. Amsterdam: Gordon & Breach, 1997. A pioneer theorist of social complexity reviews dynamical, emergent systems, their occurence in urban environments and transportation patterns and how an awareness of such properties can lead to more viable cities and towns. Allen’s work, with many colleagues, is an example of how the presence of independent, endemic processes which once found can then be intentionally applied to create a better society.
Alvarez-Ramirez, J., et al. Fractality and Time Correlation in Contemporary War. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. 34/4, 2007. Even the chaos and carnage of the Iraq madness, (not even a ‘war’ because who is fighting who and why shifts daily) can be seen to take on a mathematical basis. However might we altogether discover this greater Galilean dimension as a natural scripture that if mindfully read altogether could teach us peace.
To address these questions, we have studied the 2003–2006 Iraq war. Evidence of fractal scale-invariance is found in the density distribution of military and civilian deaths, which present heavy-tails modeled as fractal power laws. On the other hand, by using detrended fluctuation analysis, our results suggests that daily attacks are time correlated, meaning that an attack is not fully independent from the attacks in previous days. While military fatalities showed a correlation behavior similar to that observed for attacks, civilian fatalities showed a different correlation behavior: if one consider civilian fatalities for time scales within 31 days, the sequence is unpredictable (uncorrelated). However, for time scales larger than 31 days, the sequence of daily civilian fatalities is correlated with correlation behavior similar to that for the daily attack sequence.
Arthur, W. Brian, et al, eds. The Economy as an Evolving Complex System II. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997. The application of nonlinear science to market commerce exhibits a common dynamics driven by positive feedback.
Baccini, Peter and Paul Brunner. Metabolism of the Anthroposphere. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012. A new edition of this 1991 classic work. Baccini is a Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (ETH), emeritus professor of Resource Management, and Brunner a Vienna University of Technology professor of Water Quality, Resources, and Waste Management. In brief, only an enlightened, respectful recreation of our anthropic presence and impact as a truly viable organism with its (her/his) own metabolic homeostasis and humane bicameral brain, of salutary value to both planet and person, can save and sustain us all.
Over the last several thousand years of human life on Earth, agricultural settlements became urban cores, and these regional settlements became tightly connected through infrastructures transporting people, materials, and information. This global network of urban systems, including ecosystems, is the anthroposphere; the physical flows and stocks of matter and energy within it form its metabolism. This book offers an overview of the metabolism of the anthroposphere, with an emphasis on the design of metabolic systems. It takes a cultural historical perspective, supported with methodology from the natural sciences and engineering. The authors describe the characteristics of material stocks and flows of human settlements in space and time; introduce the method of material flow analysis (MFA) for metabolic studies; analyze regional metabolism and the material systems generated by basic activities; and offer four case studies of optimal metabolic system design: phosphorus management, urban mining, waste management, and mobility. (Publisher)
Bar Yam, Yaneer. Complexity Rising: From Human Beings to Human Civilization. www.necsi.org/Civilization. Systems scientist Bar Yam provides a unique application of complexity and network theories to the structural course of human history. By these insights, human persons can now be perceived in the midst of an epic transformation into a potentially salutary, globally interconnected, superorganic society.
Our complex social environment is consistent with identifying global human civilization as an organism capable of complex behavior that protects its components (us) and which should be capable of responding effectively to complex environmental demands. (1) What is generally not recognized is that the relationship between collective global behavior and the internal structure of human civilization can be characterized through mathematical concepts that apply to all complex systems. (1)
Bar Yam, Yaneer. Dynamics of Complex Systems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997. After 800 pages of an accessible theoretical basis, the course of history is seen to be guided by constant self-organizing dynamics as it spirals and emerges from an individual level to a superorganic phase. At its origin a human person was more complex than society. But human population has now so increased and migrated that composite humankind has become more complex than its constituents. But within this global unity a creative reciprocity is again seen to enhance personal liberty and welfare.
In the context of considering human civilization as an organism in relation to individuals, we should revisit the traditional conflict between individual and collective good and rights. This philosophical and practical conflict manifested itself in the conflict between democracy and communism. It was assumed that communism represented an ideology of the collective while democracy represented an ideology of the individual. If we accept the transition to a complex organism, we may consider this conflict to be resolved, not in favor of one or the other, but rather in favor of a third category - an emergent collective formed out of diverse individuals. (822)
Bardoscia, Marco, et al. Statistical Mechanics of Complex Economies. Journal of Statistical Mechanics. Online April, 2017. Bardoscia, Bank of England, with Gaicomo Livan, University College London, and Matteo Marsili, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste systems scientists trace a foundational basis for human commerce all the way to condensed matter physics. In our website context, in the latter 2010s, here is another case of a grand synthesis from human to universe as distinguished by the same universally active topologies and transitions. A further credit for Livan is the Systemic Risk Centre, London School of Economics and Political Sciences.
In the pursuit of ever increasing efficiency and growth, our economies have evolved to remarkable degrees of complexity, with nested production processes feeding each other in order to create products of greater sophistication from less sophisticated ones, down to raw materials. The engine of such an expansion have been competitive markets that, according to General Equilibrium Theory (GET), achieve efficient allocations under specific conditions. We study large random economies within the GET framework, as templates of complex economies, and we find that a non-trivial phase transition occurs: the economy freezes in a state where all production processes collapse when either the number of primary goods or the number of available technologies fall below a critical threshold. As in other examples of phase transitions in large random systems, this is an unintended consequence of the growth in complexity. Our findings suggest that the Industrial Revolution can be regarded as a sharp transition between different phases, but also imply that well developed economies can collapse if too many intermediate goods are introduced. (Abstract)