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III. Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet Incubator Lifescape

1. Life's New Open Quantum Informatiive Resource Thermoversion

Kosloff, Ronnie. Quantum Thermodynamics. arXiv:1305.2268. The Hebrew University senior chemist and leading theorist of this turn previews in 2013 how these vital propensities across all natural domains might come to be unified, as they must be.

Quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamical laws from quantum mechanics. The link is based on the intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems. Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The emergence of the 0-law I-law II-law and III-law of thermodynamics from quantum considerations is presented. The emphasis is on consistence between the two theories which address the same subject from different foundations.

Kosloff, Ronnie. Quantum Thermodynamics. Entropy. August, 2015. We offer this quote from an introduction and invitation by the Hebrew University chemist and editor for a special issue on this novel integrations of fundamental theoretical realms. Twenty two papers are now included in the collection such as Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and Steady State Density Matrix for Quantum Open Systems and Unified Quantum Model of Work Generation in Thermoelectric Generators, Solar and Fuel Cells. A call for papers for a Quantum Thermodynamics II edition has been posted by R. Kosloff in April 2018.

Quantum thermodynamics is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. Both theories address the same physical phenomena of light and matter. In 1905, Einstein postulated that the requirement of consistency between thermodynamics and electromagnetism leads to the conclusion that light is quantized. Currently, quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamic phenomena from quantum mechanics. In addition, to what extent do the paradigms of thermodynamics apply in the quantum domain, when quantum effects, such as quantum correlation, quantum fluctuation, coherences and entanglement, come into play. Emerging novel quantum technology motivates the quest for smaller devices. Such devices operating at the quantum level form the foundation for quantum information and quantum metrology. The field of quantum thermodynamics is going through rapid development with contributions from many fields of science physics, such as open quantum systems, quantum information, quantum optics, statistical physics, solid state, cold atoms, optomechanics and more.

Kosloff, Ronnie. Quantum Thermodynamics II. Entropy. April, 2018. The Hebrew University theoretical of Jerusalem chemist announces a second edition of the 2015 collection that he commissioned for this online journal.

Quantum thermodynamics is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. Both theories address the same physical phenomena of light and matter. Currently, quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamic phenomena from quantum mechanics. To what extent do the paradigms of thermodynamics apply in the quantum domain, when quantum effects such as quantum correlation, quantum fluctuation, coherences, and entanglement come into play? This unification is going through rapid development, with contributions from many fields of physics, such as open quantum systems, quantum information, quantum optics, statistical physics, solid-state, cold atoms, optomechanics, and more. This interdisciplinary character leads to different viewpoints. (Proposal edits)

Liu, Nana, et al. Quantum Thermodynamics for a Model of an Expanding Universe. arXiv:1409.5283. While equilibrium second law fixations continue to predict an entropic doom, as if a parallel reality physicists with postings in the UK, Italy, Singapore, Australia and Israel, including Vlatko Vedral, advance 21st century theories of a dynamically developing cosmos that, as if a second singularity, can produce its own self-quantification and cognizance. See also The Second Laws of Quantum Thermodynamics by Feranado Brandao, et al in PNAS (112/3275, 2015).

We investigate the thermodynamical properties of quantum fields in curved spacetime. Our approach is to consider quantum fields in curved spacetime as a quantum system undergoing an out-of-equilibrium transformation. The non-equilibrium features are studied by using a formalism which has been developed to derive fluctuation relations and emergent irreversible features beyond the linear response regime. We apply these ideas to an expanding universe scenario, therefore avoiding assumptions on the relation between entropy and quantum matter. We provide a fluctuation theorem which allows us to understand particle production due to the expansion of the universe as an entropic increase. Our results pave the way towards a different understanding of the thermodynamics of relativistic and quantum systems in our universe. (Abstract)

In this work we employed tools from quantum field theory and quantum thermodynamics to study the connection between entropy production and creation of particles in quantum field theoretical setups. Our main result was to provide a second law of thermodynamics for closed relativistic and quantum systems which explains how a unitary process, such as particle production, is connected to an increase of entropy. Our work is free from assumptions on the relation between matter and entropy and provides and intuitive understanding of how energy is used in the process of expansion and particle creation in a cosmological scenario. Furthermore, we argued that our formalism extends to all setups where the unitary evolution breaks down into a collection of two mode squeezing operations. Our work opens a new avenue for the understanding of the (quantum) thermodynamics of our universe. (5)

Mahler, Gunter. Quantum Thermodynamic Processes: Energy and Information Flow at the Nanoscale. Singapore: Pan Stanford, 2015. The emeritus University of Stuttgart physicist has been a premier theorist in this fundamental field. This work proceeds to survey the latest literature to present an update 2010s synthesis. As our website reports, these primary physical realms of the title keywords are under revision and integration into a dynamical cosmos which seems to be suffused by a manifest conveyance of relative descriptive content. Again, the participatory circuit of J. A. Wheeler provides a unique capsule via cognizant observers.

Manabendra, Nath, et al. Thermodynamics from Information. arXiv:1805.10282. MPI Quantum Physics and University of Barcelona theorists write a chapter for a forthcoming Springer volume Thermodynamics in the Quantum Regime which makes especial note of resident communicative properties.

Mascarenhas, Eduardo, et al. Work and Quantum Phase Transitions. arXiv:1307.5544. Scientists from Brazil, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Australia, and Italy, provide another example of the integrative cross-fertilization between subatomic and superatomic stages by finding a non-equilibrium thermodynamics to be similarly present in such quantum domains.

We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For first order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models. (Abstract)

Merali, Zeeya. Bending the Rules. Nature. 551/20, 2017. The London based science writer introduces current worldwide realizations, as we record herein, that an inviting integration of quantum and thermodynamic theories will engender wholly novel understandings of the nature of phenomenal realities. As similar reviews also note, an awesome phase of human avail and creativity begins to beckon.

Millen, James and Andre Xuereb. Perspective on Quantum Thermodynamics. New Journal of Physics. 18/011002, 2016. University of Vienna and University of Malta physicists review this historic 2010s expansive synthesis with discussions of Fluctuation Theorems, Quantum Information, Equilibration, along with further qualities and potentials

Classical thermodynamics enables a description of complex systems, made up of microscopic particles, in terms of a small number of macroscopic quantities, such as work and entropy. As systems get ever smaller, fluctuations of these quantities become increasingly relevant, prompting the development of stochastic thermodynamics. Recently we have seen a surge of interest in exploring the quantum regime, where the origin of fluctuations is quantum rather than thermal. Many questions, such as the role of entanglement and the emergence of thermalisation, lie wide open. Answering these questions may lead to the development of quantum heat engines and refrigerators, as well as simpler descriptions of quantum many-body systems. (Abstract)

Nieuwenhuizen, Theo. A Subquantum Arrow of Time. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 504/012008, 2014. A paper presented by the University of Amsterdam theoretical physicist at the EMQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics conference held in Vienna in October 2013 that muses whether beyond second law and expanding cosmos arrows, there is a “still more fundamental one.” In tune with this meeting, and increasing evidence, a deeper, immaterial realm indeed seems to exist from whence an “energy throughput” arises, flows and flies.

The outcome of a single quantum experiment is unpredictable, except in a pure-state limit. The definite process that takes place in the apparatus may either be intrinsically random or be explainable from a deeper theory. While the first scenario is the standard lore, the latter implies that quantum mechanics is emergent. In that case, it is likely that one has to reconsider radiation by accelerated charges as a physical effect, which thus must be compensated by an energy input. In such theories the stability of the hydrogen ground state will arise from energy input from fluctuations and output by radiation, hence due to an energy throughput. That flux of energy constitutes an arrow of time, which we call the “subquantum arrow of time". It is related to the stability of matter and it is more fundamental than, e.g., the thermodynamic and cosmological arrows. (Abstract)

We now have finished the preparations to arrive at the main theme of this work. Though motivated by SED we now focus on a broader class of similar subquantum theories. If the equation of motion has a stationary distribution, it will be a state with energy output by the radiation term and energy input from the average behaviour of the stochastic electric field. Hence there is a current of energy involved, an energy throughput, which means that there is an arrow of time. We call this the subquantum arrow of time. It goes hand-in-hand with the stability of atoms and matter. This subquantum arrow of time is more fundamental than the entropic arrow of time, since it holds already for each of the involved atoms. It is likely more fundamental than the cosmological arrow of time, since one expects that the expansion of the Universe has only minuscule impact on laboratory physics. (012008)

Rubino, Giulia, et al. Quantum Superposition of Thermodynamic Evolution with Opposing Time’s Arrow. Communications Physics. November, 2022. . As a good example of how this deepest phase can bring novel perception not possible until just now (surely not in the later 19th century), University of Vienna and University of Bristol, UK theorists appear to define a new course as life’s evolutionary systems may wend their energetic ways.

Microscopic physical laws are time-symmetric without a preferential temporal direction. However, the second law of thermodynamics allows one to associate a “forward” direction to a positive variation of the total entropy, and a negative variation with its “time-reversal” counterpart. This definition of a temporal axis is considered to apply in both classical and quantum contexts. Yet, quantum physics admits superpositions between forward and time-reversal. In this work, we demonstrate that time’s thermodynamic time’s arrow can be restored by a quantum measurement of entropy production. (Excerpt)

Shah, Ruhi and Jonathan Gorard. Quantum Cellular Automata, Black Hole Thermodynamics and the Laws of Quantum Complexity. Complex Systems. 28/4, 2019. We cite this paper by University of Waterloo, Canada and Cambridge University theorists to illustrate the degree to mathematical sophistication that is now being readily applied to all manner of quantum and cosmic phenomena by our instant, collective human cerebral acumen.

This paper introduces a new formalism for quantum cellular automata (QCAs), based on evolving tensor products of qubits using local unitary operators. It then validates several conjectures stemming from a formal analogy between quantum computational complexity theory and classical thermodynamics that have arisen in the context of black hole physics. Finally, a rigorous explanation for this empirical relationship is provided by drawing an explicit connection with the mean ergodic theorem, and the ergodicity of k-local quantum systems. (Abstract excerpt)

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