(logo) Natural Genesis (logo text)
A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
Table of Contents
Genesis Vision
Learning Planet
Organic Universe
Earth Life Emerge
Genesis Future
Recent Additions

III. Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet, Incubator Lifescape

3. Earth Alive: An Ovular GaiaSphere Sustains Her/His Own Viability

Chao, Keng-Hsien, et al. Lava Worlds: From Early Earth to Exoplanets. arXiv:2012.07337. In our late day of global collaborations and knowledge accumulation, by way of 400 references, University of Hawaii astronomers including Eric Gaidos can proceed to reconstruct and quantify how our fittest biosphere came to have its certain hyperactive crustal substance. The retrospective endeavor considers thermal energies, atmospheric material transport, tidal forces, gravity effects and more to attain both a conceptual version for Earth, and a model which can then be applied to vicarious exoworlds.

The magma ocean concept was conceived to explain the geology of the Moon, global oceans of silicate melt could be a "lava world" phase of rocky planet accretion, and persist on planets around other stars. Magma oceans could be a defining stage in forming a core, a crust, initiation of tectonics, and of an atmosphere. This review describes the energetic basis of magma oceans and lava lakes on Earth and Io and their evidence throughout the Solar System. It describes research on theoretical and observed exoplanets that could host extant lava worlds and ways to detect and characterize them. (Abstract excerpt)

Crist, Eileen and H. Bruce Rinker, eds. Gaia in Turmoil: Climate Change, Biodepletion, and Earth Ethics in an Age of Crisis. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010. This hypothesis is not in peril, rather it is the biosphere due to an unchecked onslaught from a consumptive civilization. The usual proponents from James Lovelock himself, still fiesty at ninety, Lynn Margulis, Tyler Volk, Stephan Harding, Timothy Lenton, Connie Barlow, and an array of ecologists and philosophers who weigh in with the latest impressions. The editors introduction is “One Grand Organic Whole.” A salient contribution is “Principles of Gaia Governance” by University of Washington political scientist Karen Litfin.

Dauphas, Nicolas. The Isotropic Nature of the Earth’s Accreting Material through Time. Nature. 541/521, 2017. The University of Chicago geophysicist reports new findings about how our home bioplanet formed by gradual additions of moon, and meteorite size masses, which were similar in chemical composition. This work, along with a companion article Ruthenium Isotopic Evidence for an Inner Solar System Origin of the Late Veneer (mantle) in the same issue, merited notice as Earth’s Building Blocks (541/468).

Dobretsov, Nikolay, et al, eds. Biosphere Origin and Evolution. New York: Springer, 2008. Guided by the foundational influence of Vladimir Vernadsky, along with their integral proclivity, Russian geoscience tends to the whole biosphere as the proper subject of study. This latest volume from various Institutes of Geophysics, Paleontology, Cytology, Microbiology, and so on, views “living matter” as quite engaged in the achievement of a global “homeostatic” system. The sciences of self-organizing complexity are somewhat mechanically employed to explore life’s hierarchy from a proposed “astrocatalysis” all the way to scientific civilization.

Doolittle, W. Ford. Making Evolutionary Sense of Gaia. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. Online May, 2019. The veteran Dalhousie University biologist has long disavowed this hypothesis of a steady self-regulating biosphere. It just does not square with or be explained by standard Darwinian selection. However as this vital theory has steadily grown by way of robust study and application, the author offers a novel rationale, much to his credit, as to how this presence is indeed possible.

The Gaia hypothesis in a strong and frequently criticized form assumes that global homeostatic mechanisms have evolved by natural selection favoring the maintenance of conditions suitable for life. Traditional neoDarwinists hold this to be impossible in theory. But the hypothesis does make sense if one treats the clade that comprises the biological component of Gaia as an individual and allows differential persistence – as well as differential reproduction – to be an outcome of evolution by natural selection. Recent developments in theoretical and experimental evolutionary biology may justify both maneuvers. (Abstract)

Downing, Keith. Exploring Gaia Theory. Mark Bedau, et al, eds. Artificial Life VII. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001. By means of evolutionary computation and simulation models for a natural selection on a global scale.

Dyke, James and Iain Weaver. The Emergence of Environmental Homeostasis in Complex Ecosystems. PLoS Computational Biology. 9/5, 2013. As readers know, James Lovelock’s 1970s Gaia hypothesis of Earth’s viable biosphere as a self-regulated and sustained system due to life’s geological, ecological and atmospheric effects has been under much study since, often attack, but leading to a general affirmation and practical acceptance. Here University of Southampton, Computational Modelling Group, researchers (see web bios below) further quantify and concur that, dare one say, the living planet seems to be actually be taking physiological and anatomical health care of itself.

The Earth, with its core-driven magnetic field, convective mantle, mobile lid tectonics, oceans of liquid water, dynamic climate and abundant life is arguably the most complex system in the known universe. This system has exhibited stability in the sense of, bar a number of notable exceptions, surface temperature remaining within the bounds required for liquid water and so a significant biosphere. Explanations for this range from anthropic principles in which the Earth was essentially lucky, to homeostatic Gaia in which the abiotic and biotic components of the Earth system self-organise into homeostatic states that are robust to a wide range of external perturbations. Here we present results from a conceptual model that demonstrates the emergence of homeostasis as a consequence of the feedback loop operating between life and its environment. Formulating the model in terms of Gaussian processes allows the development of novel computational methods in order to provide solutions. We find that the stability of this system will typically increase then remain constant with an increase in biological diversity and that the number of attractors within the phase space exponentially increases with the number of environmental variables while the probability of the system being in an attractor that lies within prescribed boundaries decreases approximately linearly. We argue that the cybernetic concept of rein control provides insights into how this model system, and potentially any system that is comprised of biological to environmental feedback loops, self-organises into homeostatic states. (Abstract)

Life on Earth is perhaps greater than three and a half billion years old and it would appear that once it started it never stopped. During this period a number of dramatic shocks and drivers have affected the Earth. These include the impacts of massive asteroids, runaway climate change and increases in brightness of the Sun. Has life on Earth simply been lucky in withstanding such perturbations? Are there any self-regulating or homeostatic processes operating in the Earth system that would reduce the severity of such perturbations? If such planetary processes exist, to what extent are they the result of the actions of life? In this study, we show how the regulation of environmental conditions can emerge as a consequence of life's effects. If life is both affected by and affects it environment, then this coupled system can self-organize into a robust control system that was first described during the early cybernetics movement around the middle of the twentieth century. Our findings are in principle applicable to a wide range of real world systems - from microbial mats to aquatic ecosystems up to and including the entire biosphere. (Author Summary)

The Agents, Interaction and Complexity group (AIC) undertakes world‐leading research into the science and engineering of complex socio‐technical, socio‐economic and socio‐ecological systems that underpin the most pressing challenges currently facing society. Problems as diverse as engineering resilient and sustainable smart infrastructure, or refactoring health‐care systems to cope with demographic change, or anticipating and mitigating the impacts of climate change, all involve building and analysing complex systems comprising many interacting agents, including people and other organisms, hardware robots and autonomous software agents. (James Dyke’s Group)

My research interests are focussed around self-organisation of systems of many interacting components as viewed through the lens of thermodynamics and statistical physics more generally. The vast majority of naturally occurring systems exist far from equilibrium, where they may exploit energy density gradients to self-organise, in turn modifying the gradient. I believe that the interplay and co-evolution of components and the energy gradient they are subjected to to be the general ingredients for the emergence of complexity. To gain an understanding of these complex dissipative systems of many degrees of freedom, I approach from the ground up, reformulating existing conceptual models not only in a simple terms as possible, but with emphasis on identifying, and analysing the relevant energy gradient and it's co-evolution with system components. (Iain Weaver)

Dyke, James, et al. Towards Understanding how Surface Life can Affect Interior Geological Processes: A Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics Approach. Earth System Dynamics. 2/139, 2011. In this open access journal of the European Geosciences Union, a pithy paper from coauthor Axel Kleidon’s Biospheric Theory and Modelling group at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry. In such regard, the influences of “biotic activity, geochemical cycling, oceanic crust cycling, mantle convection and temperature gradients” are found to extend deep into the earth’s interior. Life is thus much more than a surface, crustal film, by extension the whole organic sphere becomes as a living entity.

Earth System Dynamics is an international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and public discussion of studies that take an interdisciplinary perspective of the functioning of the whole Earth system and global change. The overall behavior of the Earth system is strongly shaped by the interactions among its various component systems, such as the atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, oceans, pedosphere, lithosphere, and the inner Earth, but also by life and human activity. ESD solicits contributions that investigate these various interactions and the underlying mechanisms, ways how these can be conceptualized, modelled, and quantified, predictions of the overall system behavior to global changes, and the impacts for its habitability, humanity, and future Earth system management by human decision making.

Eriksson, P. G., et al, eds. The Precambrian Earth. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004. Over 50 papers contribute to the quantified reconstruction by humankind of the state of the planet some 500 – 600 million years ago from its shifting tectonic mantle to volcanos, its Archean atmosphere and biogeology such as stromatolites.

Ernst, W. G., ed. Earth Systems: Processes and Issues. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. A comprehensive survey of earth systems science in its nested geological and atmospheric domains along with social policy implications.

Free, Andrew and Nicholas Barton. Do Evolution and Ecology Need the Gaia Hypothesis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 22/11, 2007. University of Edinburgh ecologists consider variations of this theory of biosphere self-regulation, and how it might well intersect with mainstream biological thinking. They opt for a ‘Homeostatic Gaia’ whereof feedback interactions between life and the environment are generally stabilizing and maintain planetary conditions within a range habitable for life over geological time. One might add that in this latter day of global warming, maybe a fever, a somatic earth is trying to achieve a comparable 98.6 F stabilization, this time we ought to realize by intentionally monitored human maintenance.

Hamano, Keiko, et al. The evolutionary divergence of Mars, Venus and Earth. arXiv:2404.09420. Into this year Tokyo Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, University of Bayreuth, and CNRS-Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, France including Frances Westall are able to proceed with a comparative analysis of these mid zone neighbors so as to convey how physical variances can result in widely different fates. See also Venus at 2404.07669 and Necessary Conditions for Earthly Life Floating in the Venusian Atmosphere at 2404.05356.

Mars, Venus and Earth are expected to have started in a hot molten state. Here, we discuss how these three terrestrial planets diverged in their evolution and what could be the cause. Early-on after magma ocean crystallization the mantle/surface redox state and water inventory may already have differed depending on planetary mass and orbital distance from the Sun. The three planets also diverged in their tectonic regime via heat flux, outgassing rate and their core dynamo. We discuss how the dominant process for atmospheric loss would shift from hydrodynamic escape and impact erosion to a non-thermal process where small terrestrial planets like Mars are more vulnerable to volatile loss. (Abstract)

Previous   1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8  Next