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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 45 of 114 found.


Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet, Incubator Lifescape

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

ArgŁello-Luengo, Javier, et al. Synthetic dimensions for topological and quantum phases. Communications Physics. 7/143, 2024. Eleven Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, India, and Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland system physicists propose that a growing recognition and usage of this structural concept can serve to illuminate an array of quantum and classical phenomena.

The concept of synthetic dimensions works particularly well in atomic physics, quantum optics, and photonics, where the internal degrees of freedom (Zeeman sublevels of the ground state, metastable excited states, or motional states for atoms, and angular momentum states or transverse modes for photons) provide the synthetic space. In this Perspective article we report on recent progress on studies of synthetic dimensions, mostly, but not only, based on the research realized around the Barcelona groups (ICFO, UAB), Donostia (DIPC), Poznan (UAM), Krakůw (UJ), and Allahabad (HRI). We describe our attempts to design quantum simulators with synthetic dimensions, to mimic curved spaces, artificial gauge fields, lattice gauge theories, twistronics, quantum random walks, and more. (Excerpt)

The use of internal atomic states as an effective dimension is an idea introduced in 2011 that has gained popularity and maturity in the last years. Synthetic dimensions have been reported in several reviews, such as the recent Quick Study in Physics Today: Objects move through three dimensions in space. But a wide range of experiments that manipulate atoms, molecules, and light can engineer artificial matter in ways that break even that basic law of nature. Such topologies can reveal aspects of interacting quantum matter, along with diverse fields like quantum gravity, solid-state physics, particle physics, optical lattices, photonic systems and Rydberg atoms. (1)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

Khasseh, Reyhaneh, et al. Active quantum flocks. arXiv:2308.01603. University of Augsburg, Germany and MPI Physics of Complex Systems researchers including Markus Heyl describe an array of theoretical and empirical affinities between macro classical and micro quantum realms whereby the same non-equilibrium formative dynamics can be commonly seen to occur in both phases. As many nascent findings across the widest expanses now come together they achieve an historic witness of how nature does in fact avail and recycle a universal optimum viability as it arises from an independent, implicate source code.

Flocks of animals represent an archetype of collective behavior in the macroscopic classical world, which concertedly perform motions and actions as if one single entity. Here, we address whether flocks can also form in the microscopic world at the quantum level. For that purpose, we introduce the concept of active quantum matter as models of quantum particles on a one-dimensional lattice. We provide analytical evidence that these systems can indeed give rise to similar assemblies. A key finding is that such flocks, unlike classical ones, develop a strong coherence over long distances. Our work thus realizes collective behaviors of biological active particles in quantum matter and opens a path towards a class of nonequilibrium quantum many-body systems with unique properties. (Abstract)

In the quantum world, remarkable advances in simulators have been able to probe the real-time dynamics of quantum matter. Among important developments is the observation of nonequilibrium phases of matter such as many-body localization and discrete time crystals. In the classical world, the understanding of dynamical processes away from equilibrium in the context of active materials and the physics of biological systems has been impressive. So far, these nonequilibrium many-body physics of quantum and classical systems have evolved independently, leaving open the question at their interface: is it also possible for quantum particles to exhibit flocking, similar to birds or fish in the classical world? (1)

In two or higher-dimensional classical active matter, such propagating waves can be seen as a phase separation phenomenon resulting from positive feedback between density and polarization, leading to a discontinuous flocking transition. For classical active matter in one dimension, such waves randomly flip the direction leading to continuous phase transitions, consistent with our one-dimensional active quantum flocks. (5)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

Mandal, Niladri, et al. A molecular origin of non-reciprocal interactions between interacting active catalysts. Chem. 10/4, 2024. In this Cell Press journal, Penn State and University of Maine (R. Dean Astumian) biophysicists add explanatory reasons for the apparent innate propensity of flowing material systems (microbes, swarms) to take on an organized liveliness of their own. In addition, these phenomena seem to possess autocatalytic features. See also Self-organization of primitive metabolic cycles due to non-reciprocal interactions at arXiv:2303.09832 for a similar analysis. Altogether a natural presence of a biological, self-making spontaneity becomes deeply quantified.


Non-reciprocal interactions are ubiquitous in the living world. These interactions occur as an apparent violation of Newtonís third law of equal and opposite reaction to every action and are responsible for several phenomena including flocking of birds and swarming of fish. Our work suggests that nonreciprocity is not limited to complex and evolved life forms but can occur in systems where external forcing agents are absent. These interactions could have self-originated in the very beginning of life in the absence of information-coding when variations in the physical and chemical environments must have played a critical role in the matter-to-life transition. (Big Picture)

Recent work suggests that nonreciprocal interactions are universally present in living systems and constitute an important part of active matter. Here we elucidate how thermodynamic disequilibrium gives rise to non-reciprocal interactions in molecular systems where the individual molecules remain in mechanical equilibrium. We use a kinase/phosphatase enzyme pair as an illustrative example and show that non-reciprocal interactions between the two arise due to diffusion and kinetic asymmetries in the presence of self-generated substrate and product gradients. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

tubiana, Luca, et al. Topology in soft and biological matter. Physics Reports. Volume 1075, 2024. 21 coauthors across Europe and the USA including Dorothy Buck and Julyan Cartwright contribute a 137 page, 798 reference survey some 15 years on of this expansive animated realm, as the quotes cite. Into these 2020s, the contribution thus achieves another robust, substantiated confirmation of an essential ecosmic vitality which seems graced by a ubiquitous recurrence of an independent, genetic-like code-script source. In this transitional decade, our emergent EarthTwin prodigy can well viewed as closing on her/his own revolutionary discovery.

The last years have seen many advances in our understanding of topological formations in biological and soft matter. Thanks to technological progress and the integration of experiments with numerical simulations, animated field is a vibrant area of research across a broad range of disciplines. Here we present a comprehensive overview of topological effects in systems ranging from DNA and genome organization to entangled proteins, polymeric materials, liquid crystals, and theoretical biophysics onto the common emergence, characterization, and typical objects in different systems. We move on to select cases such as polymeric materials; genome organization; entanglements in proteins; and solitons in complex fluids. (Excerpt)

Most of the materials we interact with in our daily life like plastics, biological tissues, food, and living matter, do not behave as simple liquids or crystalline solids. Instead, they show properties usually associated with both, like the ability to maintain a shape at rest while flowing when a stress is applied for a sufficiently long time. These materials are collectively called soft matter. (1)

Topology allows us to define a discrete set of equivalence classes, identified by topological invariants, over the continuum of geometrical conformations of a soft object. A fixed topological class, or topological constraint, reduces the number of available conformations and consequently influences the physical properties of a system. (1)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Chemistry

Dral, Pavlo, ed. Quantum Chemistry in the Age of Machine Learning. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2022. The editor is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at Xiamen University, China. The volume is all about the latest
computational methods as they become able to discern substantial compositions and properties at natureís deepest ground. Our interest by a philoSophia view would altogether encounter and witness an incredible autocreative universe span as it finally evolves a global science/technology genius whom can learn, apply and begin a second aware, intentional futurity. See also Prebiotic chemical reactivity in solution with quantum accuracy and microsecond sampling using neural network potentials by Zakarya Benayad, et al in PNAS (121/23, 2024) which proceeds to study autocatalytic processes at lifeís origin.

Quantum chemistry is simulating atomistic systems according to the laws of quantum mechanics, which are essential for understanding of our world and for technological progress. Machine learning revolutionizes quantum chemistry by more simulation speed, accuracy and new insights. Quantum Chemistry in the Age of Machine Learning covers this exciting field in detail, ranging from basic concepts to comprehensive methodological details to providing detailed codes and hands-on tutorials.

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Chemistry

Liu, Yi-Xiang, et al. Quantum interference in atom-exchange reactions. Science. May 14, 2024. Seven Harvard University biochemists contribute to the. historic advent of classical macro and quantum micro realms joining their relative forces and phenomena into the 21st century. In this case, coherence and entanglement effects are quantified as they react. See also the 2024 work of Gregory Scholes in this section. It is then worth a naturalist recognition that our collective Earthuman sapience appears quite able to begin to delve into, learn about and bring forth any novel cocreative materiality.

Chemical reactions, where bonds break and form, are highly dynamic quantum processes. A fundamental question is whether coherence can be preserved in chemical reactions and harnessed to generate entangled products. Here we investigated the 2KRb → K2 + Rb2 reaction at 500 nK, focusing on the nuclear spin degrees of freedom. We prepared nuclear spins in KRb in an entangled state by lowering the magnetic field to where the spin-spin interaction dominates in nuclear spin wavefunction. An interference pattern that is consistent with full coherence arose suggesting that entanglement within the reactants could be redistributed through the atom-exchange process. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Chemistry

Scholes, Gregory. Quantum-like states on complex synchronized networks. arXiv:2405.07950. A Princeton chemist whom by way of his lab group (scholes.princeton.edu) is a pioneer researcher for an beneficial integration of macro/micro, classical and quantum chemical reactivities. This entry is a latest review, search arXiv for more work such as Foundations of Quantum Information for Physical Chemistry at 2311.12238.

Recent work suggests that interesting quantum-like probability laws, including interference effects, can be manifest in classical systems. Here we propose a model for quantum-like (QL) states and bits. We propose a way that complex systems can host robust states to process information in a QL fashion. It is shown that QL states are networks based on k-regular random graphs which can encode information for QL like processing. Although the emergent cases are classical, they have properties analogous to quantum states. The possibility of a QL advantage for computer operations and new kinds of function in the brain are discussed as open questions.

The Scholes Group studies how complex molecular systems in chemistry and biology interact with light. We are interested to learn the mechanisms for photo-initiated processes like solar energy conversion. We are also working out how quantum-mechanical phenomena influence function. We study a broad range of projects which include questions in quantum information science, photobiomodulation medicine, quantum electrodynamics, photosynthesis, solar energy conversion, and photo-activated catalysis in synthetic chemistry.

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > exouniverse

Akrami, Yashar, et al. Promise of Future Searches for Cosmic Topology. Physical Review Letters. 132/171501, 2024. We cite this entry by 15 cosmoscientists from the USA, Norway, Japan, the UK, Italy, France and Spain coordinated by the COMPACT Collaboration at Case Western Reserve University for its content about an overall shape to our temporal galactic panorama but also the very achievement itself that an infinitesimal planetary intelligence can yet imagine, explore and quantify such infinite reaches. Who are we valiant peoples to appear and contain these abilities, for what participatory purpose do we carry out this task of ecosmic self-description and observance?

The shortest distance around the Universe through us is unlikely to be much larger than the horizon diameter if microwave background anomalies are due to cosmic topology. We show that observational constraints from the lack of matched temperature circles in the microwave background leave many possibilities for such topologies. We evaluate the detectability of microwave background multipole correlations for sample cases. Searches for topology signatures in observational data over the large space of possible topologies pose a formidable computational challenge.

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Igamberdiev, Abir. Toward the Relational Formulation of Biological Thermodynamics. Entropy. 26/1, 2024. The Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada biologist and editor of Biosystems sketches an integral unity from Robert Rosenís organismic view as in Life Itself (1992) so to consider a current natural vitality with a consequent self-making autopoiesic essence and with a biosemiotic code basis.

Classical thermodynamics resides at an equilibrium as the reference frame for the Second Law from which entropy is derived. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics analyzes the fluxes of matter and energy in the general tendency to achieve equilibrium. These two modes may be useful but fail to apply to autopoietic living systems. Here, we discuss a relational biological thermodynamics which then relates an environmental context. Similar to physical domains, this animate synthesis reveals iterative structures formed during the search for an optimal coordinate system by organisms to maintain a stable non-equilibrium. (Abstract excerpt)
The relational concept of biological thermodynamics is focused on the internal causality governing the self-development and maintenance of living systems. Equilibrium and non- equilibrium systems perform work at the expense of their free energy. They possess the ability to transform the external fluxes of energy to support the basic properties such as adaptability, expediency, regulation, and integrity. Living systems maximize of their power via synergistic effects by the maintenance of their autopoietic structure and its expansion into a codepoiesis. (13)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Manzano, Gonzalo, et al. Thermodynamics of Computations with Absolute Irreversibility, Unidirectional Transitions, and Stochastic Computation Times. Physical Review X. 14/021026, 2024. Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems (IFISC) UIB-CSIC, Mallorca, University of Colorado, Boulder, and Santa Fe Institute theorists including David Wolpert scope out a highly technical exercise on the way to a working affinity between energetic phenomena and generic algorithm-like programs.

Developing a thermodynamic theory of computation at the interface of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and computer science requires dealing with stochastic halting times, unidirectional transitions, and restricted initial conditions. Here, we present an approach extends nonequilibrium thermodynamics to generic Markovian processes. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations of finite automata processing bit strings, a fundamental model from theoretical computer science. We also provide universal equalities and inequalities for the probability of words by a finite automaton in terms of thermodynamic quantities. Our results, while motivated from the computational context, are applicable more broadly. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm

Munson, Anthony, et al. Complexity-constrained quantum thermodynamics. arXiv: 2403.04828. We cite this March entry by University of Maryland, Universitat AutÚnoma de Barcelona, Freie Universitšt Berlin, and Harvard University physicists including Nicole Yunger Halpern as an example of current syntheses of these various computational aspects into a whole theoretic integrity.

Quantum complexity measures the difficulty of realizing a quantum process, such as preparing a state or implementing a unitary. We present an approach to quantifying the thermodynamic resources required to implement a process if the process's complexity is restricted. We focus on the prototypical task of information erasure, or Landauer erasure, wherein an n-qubit memory is reset to the all-zero state. We show that the minimum thermodynamic work required to reset an arbitrary state, via a complexity-constrained process, is quantified by the state's complexity entropy. Overall, our framework extends the resource-theoretic approach to thermodynamics to integrate a notion of time, as quantified by complexity. (Brief excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Cecchini, Chiara, et al. Testing scale-invariant inflation against cosmological data. arXiv:2403.04316. University of Trento, Italy and University of Sheffield, UK physicists Into 2024, provide a strongest affirmation of natureís intrinsic self-similarity across the breadth and depth of the celestial raiment. In this present regard, the fractal-like property extends to and holds for the universeís initial expansion. See also Observational tests in scale invariance I and II: galaxy clusters and rotation of galaxies by Andre Maeder arXiv:2403.08759 and 2403.08379.

There is a solid theoretical and observational basis behind scale-invariance as a fundamental symmetry of Nature. We consider a recent classical inflationary model that is quadratic in curvature with a scalar field coupled to gravity. By our approach, the two-field dynamics of the system can be solved based on the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck and BICEP/Keck. Overall, we argue that scale-invariant inflation possesses features which make it an interesting benchmark for tests of inflation from future CMB data.

To sum up, in the present work we have performed the first robust comparison of scale-invariant inflation against current precision cosmological observations from the CMB. Our findings confirm that the model is in very good health, and we feel that it provides another reference for tests of inflation from future CMB experiments. Our work reinforces the key role of scale-invariance as an important theoretical guiding principle. (24)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Sendker, Franziska, et al.. Emergence of fractal geometries in the evolution of a metabolic enzyme. Nature. April 10, 2024. MPI Terrestrial Microbiology researchers report finding what is considered to be the first actual notice of such self-similar topologies in organismic biological phenomena. The work became science news because it attests to much how natureís infinite strata does manifest itself everywhere.

Fractals are patterns that are self-similar across multiple length-scales. Macroscopic fractals are common in nature; however, so far, molecular assembly into fractals is restricted to synthetic systems. Here we report the discovery of a natural protein, citrate synthase, which self-assembles into Sierpiński triangles. We use ancestral sequence reconstruction to retrace how the citrate synthase fractal evolved from non-fractal precursors. Our findings expand the space of protein complexes and show that intricate assemblies can evolve in a single substitution.

Animate Cosmos > Fractal > autocat

Gartner, Florian and Erwin Frey. Design principles for fast and efficient self-assembly processes. Physical Review X. 14, 021004, 2024. Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-University physicists provide a latest theoretical explanations which substantiate natureís characteristic tendency to actively organize itself into emergent, self-similar vitalities wherever it can. See also The role of mobility in epidemics near criticality by Beatrice Nettuno et al. at arXiv:2402.06505 from this group. And into springtime 2024, we begin to wonder if a sufficient confluence is being reached by our learned pediasphere about an actual discovery of a familial genesis and a worthy Earth.

Self-assembly is a fundamental concept in biology, and also nanotechnology. While significant recent progress has been made, less is known about kinetic constraints of dynamical properties like time efficiency. Here we investigate how the temporal straits of reversible self-assembly depend on the morphology of the systems. We find that the constituent shapes critically determines the formation time and how it scales with the size of the target structure. Using this method, we achieve an effective theory of the self-assembly kinetics, which we show exhibits an inherent scale invariance. We show how these insights on the kinetics of self-assembly processes can be used to design artificial self-assembly processes. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal > autocat

Heylighen, Francis, et al. Chemical Organization Theory as a General Modeling Framework for Self-Sustaining Systems.. Systems. 12/4, 2024. FH and Shima Beigi, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Tomas Veloz, Universidad Tecnolůgica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile post a latest edition (search FH) of this ongoing thought process this collaborative group. In regard, its accomplishment provides support for an autocatalytic cosmopoiesis which originates life and long after engenders our personal retrospect.

This paper summarizes and reviews the Chemical Organization Theory (COT), a formalism for complex, self-organizing systems across multiple disciplines. Its elements are resources and reactions whose networks arrange themselves into invariant subnetworks. Altogether they provide a simple model of a natural autopoiesis which persistently recreates and recycles its own components. Application domains of COT include the origin of life, systems biology, cognition, ecosystems, Gaia versions, sustainability, consciousness, and social systems. (Excerpt)

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