Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 38 of 38 found.
Artime, Oriol and Manilo De Domenico.
From the Origin of Life to Pandemics: Emergent Phenomena in Complex Systems..
Royal Society Proceedings A.
After an historic and topical survey, as the Abstract notes, the University of Padua biophilosophers consider spontaneous appearances from quantum/classical physical realms to life’s evolutionary development and onto social occasions. In each case mathematical principles, criticality phases and complex, dynamic network are seen to have a central role. Some entries are Emergence and Algorithmic Information by P. Abrahao and H. Zenil, Emergence of Functional Information from Multivariate Correlations by C. Adami and C. Nitash, and Emergent Entanglement and Self-Similarity in Quantum Spin Chains by B. Sokolov, et al. Into the 2020s, a strongly evidential presence of consistent universality can be glimpsed from universe to us peoples.
When a large number of similar entities interact among each other and with their environment at a lower phase, unexpected outcomes at higher spatio-temporal scales might spontaneously arise. This nontrivial phenomenon, known as emergence, characterizes a broad range of distinct complex systems -- from physical to biological and social ones -- and is often related to collective behavior. It is ubiquitous from oscillators that synchronize to animate birds flocking or fish schooling. Despite the ample phenomenological evidence of their existence, theoretical questions about emergence remain still unanswered. We offer a general overview and sketch current and future challenges. Our review also introduces this Theme Issue "Emergent phenomena in complex physical and socio-technical systems: from cells to societies", which covers the state of our understandings from life’s origins to the expansive propagation of infectious diseases. (Abstract excerpt)
Bianconi, ginestra, et al.
Complex Systems in the Spotlight: Next Steps after the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Journal of Physics: Complexity.
Since this Physics award to Gregory Parisi, a pioneer complexity theorist, recognized this major scientific endeavor and advance since the 1970s, the Queen Mary University of London network expert and this journal editor asked 18 researchers for their past and future opinions. For example, we note GB, Jacob Biamonte, Jurgen Kurths Adilson Motter, Matjaz Perc, Filippo Radicchi, Marta Sales-Pardo and Stefan Thurner. Topical items include a definition of complex systems, looking ahead 20 years, and interdisciplinary aspects. Their comments don’t lend to quotes, but the whole entry is available at this site. See also in this issue an interview by GB of G. Parisi. And with respect to this section and whole site, here is a good instance of the 21st century genesis universe revolution via our prodigious Earthuman progeny going forward to 2030 and beyond.
The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics recognized the fundamental role of complex systems in the natural sciences. In order to celebrate this milestone, the editorial board of J. Phys. Complexity here reviews its achievements, challenges, and future prospects. To distinguish the voice and the opinion of each editor was asked about ther perspectives and reflections on selected themes. A comprehensive and multi-faceted view of complexity science emerges as a result.
Strogatz, Steven, et al.
Fifty Years of “More is Different.”.
Nature Reviews Physics.
As a response to this anniversary (Science 177/393,1972), the veteran Cornell University systems theorist asks eight complexity thinkers such as Sara Walker, Corina Tarnita, and Oriol Artime for their views going forward. Some responses cite emerging patterns, broken symmetry, information flows, and new singularities. So into the 2020s, Anderson’s complexity prescience has now become a revolutionary florescence undertaken by a vast worldwise faculty.
August 1972 saw the publication of Philip Anderson’s essay ‘More is different’. In it, he crystallized the idea of emergence, arguing that “at each level of complexity entirely new properties appear” — that is, although, for example, chemistry is subject to the laws of physics, we cannot infer the field of chemistry from our knowledge of physics. Fifty years on from this landmark publication, eight scientists describe the most interesting phenomena that emerge in their fields.
Many emergent phenomena are sustained through networks of interactions. Focussing, for instance, on biophysical phenomena, we have biomolecular interactions emerging from the human interactome, or electrochemical neural connectivity patterns emerging from the human connectome. In general, though, these networks do not operate in isolation: they are coupled to each other by means of structural or functional interdependencies, and they are organized in multiple contexts of interactions, also knownas layers. These layers may include links that are spatial, temporal, informational or combinations thereof. (Oriol Artime, Manlio de Domenico)
Villegas, Pablo, et al.
Laplacian Renormalization Group for Heterogeneous Networks.
Into spring 2022, Four Enrico Fermi Research Center, Rome, IMT, Institute for Advanced Studies, Lucca, and University of Venice (Giudo Caldarelli) theorists put together still another way to quantify and discern nature’s common avail of complex, dynamic patterns and processes. The credible case for an intrinsic mathematical domain in universal keeps filling in as braced by these many approaches. By an attention to read the scientific literature as revealing such findings on its own, their content bodes well for a salutary mid 2020s discovery. See also Laplacian Paths in Complex Networks: Information Core Emerges from Entropic Transitions by this team at 2202.06669.
The renormalization group is the cornerstone of the modern theory of universality and phase transitions, a powerful tool to scrutinize symmetries and organizational scales in dynamical systems. However, its network counterpart is particularly challenging due to correlations between intertwined scales. To date, the explorations are based on hidden geometries hypotheses. Here, we propose a Laplacian RG diffusion-based picture in complex networks, defining both the Kadanoff supernodes' concept, the momentum space procedure, and applying this RG scheme to real networks in a natural and parsimonious way. (Abstract)
Cosmic Code > nonlinear > Algorithms
An open question is how to perform network reduction to generate replicas that connect internal scales above a microscopic phase. This scenario invites a powerful method of in modern physics, the Renormalization Group (RG). RG provides an elegant and precise theory of criticality and allows for connections across the varied spatiotemporal scales, so as to demonstrate a ubiquitous invariance. (1)
Hsu, Sheryl, et al.
A Physarum-inpsired Approach to the Euclidean Steiner Tree Problem.
Nature Scientific Reports.
University of Chicago, Illinois researchers including Laura Schaposnik describe a latest instance of how the individual and colonial cognizance of slime-mold microbes can well serve to study and improve complex situations (the US highway is route an another case). See also the work of Tanya Latty, University of Sydney, which was profiled on the PBS NOVA show Secret Mind of Slime.
This paper presents a novel biologically-inspired, explore-and-fuse approach to a large array of problems. The inspiration comes from Physarum, a unicellular slime mold capable of solving complex situations. These characteristics of Physarum imply that many such organisms can explore the problem space in parallel, each individual gathering information and partial solutions. When the organisms meet, they fuse and share information, eventually forming one entity with a relative overview and find an overall solution. Here we develop the Physarum Steiner Algorithm which can find feasible ways to deal with Euclidean Steiner tree issues. (Abstract excerpt)
Sloan, Aliza and Scott Kelso.
On the Emergence of Agency..
Florida Atlantic University systems scientists provide a latest experimental proof that an infant to toddler to young child advance in both mobility and personal affirmation takes place by way of a self-organization procedure.
How do human beings make sense of their relation to the world and realize their ability to effect change? Applying modern concepts and methods of coordination dynamics we demonstrate that patterns of movement and coordination in 3-4 month-olds may be used to identify states and behavioral phenotypes of emergent agency. By means of a complete coordinative analysis of baby and mobile motion and their interaction, we show that the emergence of agency takes the form of a punctuated self-organizing process, with meaning found both in movement and stillness.
Ecosmo Sapiens > New Earth > second genesis
Aguade-Gorgoio, G., et al.
An Oncospace for Human Cancers.
Barcelona biosystem theorists including Ricard Sole propose ways situate this major malady in an ecological, evolutionary, developmental, genetic and metabolic expanse so to gain more appropriate understandings and therapies. Box 1 is Morphogenesis: The Geometry of Biological Complexity. In effect, into the 2020s a much wider and deeper holistic, integrative approach and medicine promises a new frontier on its cause and eradication. In this temporal vista, a worldwise knowledge repository accures by which emergent life, mind and self can feedback to heal and cure the fraught being from whom it arose.
Human cancers comprise an heterogeneous array of diseases with different progression patterns and treatment responses. However, they all develop within a host context that constraints their natural history. Is there a way to capture the broad range of tumor types within a space of the possible? Here we define the oncospace, a coordinate system that integrates the ecological, evolutionary and developmental components. We postulate that the oncospace topology encodes new information regarding tumorigenic pathways, subtype prognosis and therapeutic opportunities.
Ecosmo Sapiens > New Earth > second genesis
Vibhute, Mahesh and Hannes Mutschler.
A Primer on Building Life-Like Systems.
Dortmund University, Germany biochemists offer a current review as scientific efforts readily proceed apace, so it seems, to begin a second intentional genesis. Their gist is to gather life’s prime features so to see how they interact and accord as a basic guide going forward. In regard four prime aspects are Evolution, Robustness, Replication and Autonomy, (which can defines a main identity and purpose, such as the new evolitional phase.
The quest to understand life and recreate it in vitro has been tried through many routes. These different approaches for experimental investigation of life aim to piece together the puzzle either by tracing life's origin or by synthesizing life-like systems from non-living components. Unlike efforts to define life, these experimental inquiries aim to recapture specific features of living cells, such as reproduction, self-organization or metabolic functions that operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium.. In this Perspective, we discuss properties whose realization would, in our view, allow the best possible experimental emulation of a minimal form of biological life. (Excerpt)