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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 45 of 98 found.


An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Universal

Knott, Paul. Decoherence, Quantum Darwinism, and the Generic Emergence of Our Objective Classical Reality. arXiv:1811.09062. A University of Nottingham, Center for the Theoretical Physics of Quantum Non-Equilibrium Systems mathematician continues to make better sense of this theoretical frontier as it becomes more amenable and familiar. Visit the author’s website at knottquantum.weebly.com for publications, a blog and an illustrated book Our Quantum Reality with engaging entries to many concepts. An earlier version of his work with colleagues is Generic Emergence of Objectivity of Observables in Infinite Dimensions in Physical Review Letters (121/160401, 2018). Also check the UN Center for QS site for examples of how this arcane phase is lately seen to have multifractal, informative, gravity, algorithmic (1812.01032) qualities.

A University of Nottingham, Center for the Theoretical Physics of Quantum Non-Equilibrium Systems mathematician continues to make better sense of this theoretical frontier as it becomes more amenable and familiar. Visit the author’s website at knottquantum.weebly.com for publications, a blog and an illustrated book Our Quantum Reality with engaging entries to many concepts. An earlier version of his work with colleagues is Generic Emergence of Objectivity of Observables in Infinite Dimensions in Physical Review Letters (121/160401, 2018). Also check the UN Center for QS site for examples of how this arcane phase is lately seen to have multifractal, informative, gravity, algorithmic (1812.01032) qualities.

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Universal

Saladino, Raffaele, et al. Chemomimesis and Molecular Darwinism in Action: From Abiotic Generation of Nucleobases to Nucleosides and RNA. Life. 8/2, 2018. University of Tuscia, CNR. Rome,and Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno biologists including Jiri Sponer experimentally produce and quantify early abiotic conditions akin to a warm pond wherein better adaptive candidates are selected from many precursor biochemical variations.

Molecular Darwinian evolution is an intrinsic property of reacting pools of molecules resulting in the adaptation of the system to changing conditions. It has no a priori aim. From the point of view of the origin of life, Darwinian selection behavior, when spontaneously emerging in the ensembles of molecules composing prebiotic pools, initiates subsequent evolution of increasingly complex and innovative chemical information. On the conservation side, it is a posteriori observed that numerous biological processes are based on prebiotically promptly made compounds, as proposed by the concept of Chemomimesis. Molecular Darwinian evolution and Chemomimesis are principles acting in balanced cooperation in the frame of Systems Chemistry. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Universal

Zurek, Wojciech. Quantum Theory of the Classical: Quantum Jumps, Born’s Rule, and Objective Classical Reality via Quantum Darwinism. arXiv:1807.02092. The LANL physicist and originator of the QD concept that even this basic phase forms many candidate states from which selections are made continues his project, with a growing number of advocates, to develop this considerable insight. It is couched in technical terms in need of editing and arrangement, but contributes to a global perception of a wholly evolutionary cosmos. See also Revealing the Emergence of Classicality in Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers by Thomas Undan, et al including Zurek at 1809.10456, and other entries (Paul Knott) herein.

The LANL physicist and originator of the QD concept that even this basic phase forms many candidate states from which selections are made continues his project, with a growing number of advocates, to develop this considerable insight. It is couched in technical terms in need of editing and arrangement, but contributes to a global perception of a wholly evolutionary cosmos. See also Revealing the Emergence of Classicality in Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers by Thomas Undan, et al including Zurek at 1809.10456, and other entries (Paul Knott) herein.

Animate Cosmos > Information

Mainzer, Klaus. The Digital and the Real Universe: Foundations of Natural Philosophy and Computational Physics. Philosophies. 4/1, 2019. A paper for a Contemporary Natural Philosophy collection by the Technical University of Munich “emeritus of excellence” scholar (search) which describes how our viable, developmental cosmos seems to be running some manner of informative program which serves to generate life’s long course from origins to humanities.

In the age of digitization, the world seems to be reducible to a digital computer. However, mathematically, modern quantum field theories do not only depend on discrete, but also continuous concepts. Ancient debates in natural philosophy on atomism versus the continuum are deeply involved in modern research on digital and computational physics. This example underlines that modern physics, in the tradition of Newton’s Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis, is a further development of natural philosophy with the rigorous methods of mathematics, measuring, and computing. We consider fundamental concepts of natural philosophy with mathematical and computational methods and ask for their ontological and epistemic status. The following article refers to the author’s new book, The Digital and the Real World: Computational Foundations of Mathematics, Science, Technology, and Philosophy (World Scientific, February 2019). (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Information > Quant Info

Strasberg, Philipp, et al. Quantum and Information Thermodynamics: A Unifying Framework Based on Repeated Interactions. Physical Review X. 7/2, 2017. We cite this entry by PS, Gernot Schaller and Tobias Brandes, Technical University of Berlin, and Massimiliano Esposito, University of Luxembourg as an example of the fluid intersect of these several fields as this foundational phase continues to morph into identities and comprehensions far removed from 20th century rudiments.

We expand the standard thermodynamic framework of a system coupled to a thermal reservoir by considering a stream of independently prepared units repeatedly put into contact with the system. These units can be in any nonequilibrium state and interact with the system with an arbitrary strength and duration. We show that this stream constitutes an effective resource of nonequilibrium free energy, and we identify the conditions under which it behaves as a heat, work, or information reservoir. We discuss how nonautonomously driven systems, micromasers, lasing without inversion and the electronic Maxwell demon can be thermodynamically analyzed within our framework. (Abstract excerpt)

At this point, it is worth revisiting the debated question of whether quantum thermodynamics offers advantages (e.g., in terms of a higher power output or efficiency) in comparison to classical thermodynamics. There is ample evidence that states with quantum properties such as entanglement, coherence, or squeezing can be used to extract more work than from thermal states. However, this by no means implies that quantum thermodynamics outperforms classical thermodynamics. In the repeated interaction framework, the nonequilibrium free energy captures both quantum and classical effects, and we will now use it to analyze the thermodynamics of work extraction. (26)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Ito, Sosuke. Unified Framework for the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Information Thermodynamics based on Information Geometry. arXiv:1810.09545. A Hokkaido University, Research Center of Mathematics for Social Creativity continues his project with colleagues to advance a synthesis of dynamic energies and an operational, prescriptive content. See also Stochastic Thermodynamic Interpretation of Information Geometry by SI at 1712.04311 (second abstract).

Information geometry, which is a differential geometric method of information theory, gives a natural definition of informational quantity from the projection theorem. We report that the second law of thermodynamics can be obtained from this projection onto the manifold of reversible dynamics. We also show that the recent result in stochastic thermodynamics with information theory, called as the second law of information thermodynamics. The hierarchy of these second laws can be discussed in terms of inclusion property of manifolds. (1810.09545 Abstract)

In recent years, the unified theory of information and thermodynamics has been discussed in the context of stochastic thermodynamics. The unified theory reveals that information theory would be useful to understand non-stationary dynamics of systems far from equilibrium. In this letter, we have found a new link between stochastic thermodynamics and information theory well known as information geometry. By applying this link, an information geometric inequality can be interpreted as a thermodynamic uncertainty relationship between speed and thermodynamic cost. (1712.04311 Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm

Goold, John, et al. The Role of Quantum Information in Thermodynamics: A Topical Review. Journal of Physics A. 49/14, 2016. Five physicists with postings in Italy, Spain, Switzerland and the UK contribute forty pages to this whole scale revision of what constitutes nature’s deepest phase. It’s course spans from a rudimentary 20th century strangeness onto energetic and communicative features similar to every other universe stage and instance. See also Quantum and Information Thermodynamics by Philipp Strasberg, et al in Physical Review X (7/2, 2017).

This topical review article gives an overview of the interplay between quantum information theory and thermodynamics of quantum systems. We focus on several trending topics including the foundations of statistical mechanics, resource theories, entanglement in thermodynamic settings, fluctuation theorems and thermal machines. This is not a comprehensive review of the diverse field of quantum thermodynamics; rather, it is a convenient entry point for the thermo-curious information theorist. Furthermore this review should facilitate the unification and understanding of different interdisciplinary approaches emerging in research groups around the world. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Banda-Barragan, Wladimir, et al. On the Dynamics and Survival of Fractal Clouds in Galactic Winds. arXiv:1901.06924. Astrophysicists posted in Germany, Ecuador, Australia, and Japan, surely a global galaxy, quantify how all manner of celestial, interstellar gaseous phenomena seem to draw upon and exhibit a common self-similar geometry.

Recent observations suggest that dense gas clouds can survive even in hot galactic winds. Here we show that the inclusion of turbulent densities with different statistical properties has significant effects on the evolution of wind-swept clouds. We compare uniform, fractal solenoidal, and fractal compressive cloud models in both 3D and 2D hydrodynamical simulations. By comparing the cloud properties at the destruction time, we find that dense gas entrainment is more effective in uniform clouds than in either of the fractal clouds, and it is more effective in solenoidal than in compressive models. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Kwok, Sun. Organics in the Solar System. arXiv:1901.04627. The University of Hong Kong prolific researcher and longtime advocate of astrobiochemical science continues to catalog how profusely our cosmic nature fills itself with all the vital substances that life needs to evolve and learn.

Complex organics are now commonly found in meteorites, comets, asteroids, planetary satellites, and interplanetary dust particles. The chemical composition and possible origin of these organics are presented. Specifically, we discuss the possible link between Solar System organics and the complex organics synthesized during the late stages of stellar evolution. Implications of extraterrestrial organics on the origin of life on Earth and the possibility of existence of primordial organics on Earth are also discussed. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Andrews, Sean, et al. The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP): 1. Motivation, Sample, Calibration, and Overview. Astrophysical Journal Letters. 869/2, 2018. An introduction to Focus on DSHARP Results, a 10 paper collection herein about the project and its first round of findings. Their significance is noted in Science as Hints of Young Planets Puzzle Theorists by Daniel Clery (362/1337, 2018), see second quote.

We introduce the Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP), one of the initial Large Programs conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The primary goal is to find and characterize substructures in the spatial distributions of solid particles for a sample of 20 nearby protoplanetary disks, using very high resolution observations of their 240 GHz continuum emission. These data provide a first look at the small-scale disks that are relevant to planet formation, their prevalence, morphologies, spatial scales, spacings, symmetry, and amplitudes, with a variety of disk and stellar hosts. Here we discuss the motivation for the project, describe the survey design and the sample properties, detail the observations and data calibration, highlight some basic results, and provide a general overview of the key conclusions that are presented in more detail in a series of accompanying articles. (Abstract excerpt)

HL Tau, a mere stripling of a star at no more than 1 million years old, was swaddled in a surprise. Four years ago, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile revealed rings and gaps in a bright disk of dust around HL Tau—apparently swept clean by unseen planets that had formed millions of years earlier than astronomers thought possible. But now, an ALMA survey of 20 disks around nearby young stars suggests the precocious planets around HL Tau are no anomalies. The results, published in 10 papers last week in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, suggest disks with rings, gaps, and other features are the norm, not an exception—a result that will keep theorists busy for years. (Clery Summary)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Boss, Alan. Universal Life: An Inside Look Behind the Race to Discover Life Beyond Earth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019. The Carnegie Institute for Science, Washington, DC astrophysicist and author is also chair of NASA’s Exoplanet Exploration Analysis Group. A veteran of individual and management contributions to national and worldwide exoplanet programs, this volume details the administrative machinations that went on so this endeavor to could find myriad exoworlds suggestive of a cosmic vitality. A special theme is the Kepler Space Telescope and what it took by its main advocate William Borucki to make it happen and succeed.

We now know that Earth-like planets are universal, and we expect that life will be just as universal, even if it is primarily microbial, as earth life was for most of its history. Considering the wide variety of exoplanets found to date, far beyond the imagination of the most fertile science fiction writers, we can only dream about the weird life forms that might inhabit these worlds and about how equally weird we would appear to them. (192)

Cosmomics: A Genomic Source Code is in Procreative Effect

Cosmic Code

Brauns, Fridtjof, et al. Phase-Space Geometry of Reaction-Diffusion Dynamics. arXiv:1812.08684. In a densely technical, tightly composed 55 page paper, Ludwig-Maximilians University system physicists FB, Jacob Halatek and Erwin Frey (search) continue their decadal project to explain by way of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, structural formations, Turing-like morphogenesis, self-organized critical complexities, computational biology, and more how life proceeds to develop and maintain its physiological vitality. With 158 references, in these later 2010s a collaborative sense of a realistic model is evident. It is proposed in closing that such cellular coherence is an generalization which could apply to other natural systems. See also Rethinking Pattern Formation in Reaction-Diffusion Systems by Halatek and Frey in Nature Physics (14/5, 2018) and for example Guiding Self-Organized Pattern Formation in Cell Polarity Establishment by Peter Gross, et al (NP December 2018)

Experimental studies of protein pattern formation have stimulated new interest in the dynamics of reaction--diffusion systems. However, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of the dynamics of such highly nonlinear, spatially extended systems is still missing. Here we show how a description in phase space, which has proven invaluable in shaping our intuition about the dynamics of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, can be generalized to mass-conserving reaction--diffusion (McRD) systems. We present a comprehensive theory for two-component McRD systems, which serve as paradigmatic minimal systems. The fundamental elements of the theory presented suggest ways of experimentally characterizing pattern-forming systems on a mesoscopic level and are generalizable to a broad class of spatially extended non-equilibrium systems, and thereby pave the way toward an overarching theoretical framework. (Abstract excerpt)

Cosmic Code

Dingle, Kamaludin, et al. Input-Output Maps are Strongly Biased Towards Simple Outputs. Nature Communications. 9/761, 2018. By way of algorithmic information theory and system cartographic methods, Oxford University mathematicians KD, Chico Camargo and Ard Louis perceive an inherent tendency in complex network behavior to simplify and generalize themselves. The work merited notice as A Natural Bias for Simplicity by Mark Buchanan in Nature Physics (December 2018). See also by this group Deep Learning Generalizes because the Parameter-Function Map is Biased Towards Simple Functions at arXiv: 1805.08522.

Many systems in nature can be described using discrete input–output maps. Without knowing details about a map, there may seem to be no a priori reason to expect that a randomly chosen input would be more likely to generate one output over another. Here, by extending fundamental results from algorithmic information theory, we show instead that for many real-world maps, the a priori probability P(x) that randomly sampled inputs generate a particular output x decays exponentially with the approximate Kolmogorov complexity K~(x) of that output. We explore this strong bias towards simple outputs in systems ranging from the folding of RNA secondary structures to systems of coupled ordinary differential equations to a stochastic financial trading model. (Abstract)

Cosmic Code

Lesne, Annick and Michel Lagues. Scale Invariance: From Phase Transitions to Turbulence. Germany: Springer, 2012. Parisian physicists achieve a dedicated volume to express current realizations of nature’s own propensity to reliably repeat in kind the same structures and dynamics across universe to human scales, indeed from physics to people. By way of mathematic theories, albeit in abstractions as self-organized criticality, a robust veracity of a fractal-like “universality” is described from cosmic condensed matter to chemical, polymeric realms, biological systems, and onto somatic physiologies. See also From Newton to Mandelbrot by D. Stauffer, E. Stanley, and A. Lesne (Springer 2017) for a further excursion.

During a century from the Van der Waals mean field description of gases in the 1870s until the introduction of the renormalization group (RG) in the 1970s, thermodynamics and statistical physics were unable to account for the incredible universality observed in critical phenomena. The success of RG techniques is not only to solve this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce useful tools across a wide field where a system exhibits scale invariance. Since then, a new physics of scaling laws and critical exponents allows quantitative descriptions of numerous occasions, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos and turbulence. The chapters are jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist.

Cosmic Code

Stauffer, Dietrich, et al. From Newton to Mandelbrot. Berlin: Springer, 2017. Senior theoretical physicists Stauffer, Eugene Stanley and Annick Lesne post the third edition since 1990 of a tutorial volume all about the natural persistence of self-similar fractal forms and movements from quantum mechanics, statistical physics, and broadly conceived dynamical systems

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