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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 45 of 114 found.


An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Chemistry

Cao, Yudong, et al. Quantum Chemistry in the Age of Quantum Computing. arXiv:1812.09976. This is a 194 page, 404 citation paper by a 14 member team based at Alan Aspuru-Gizik’s University of Toronto lab with other credits at Harvard, MIT, University of Waterloo, Intel, Macquarie University and the Czech Republic Academy of Sciences. It is a worldwise, humankinder example of current integrations of micro quantum and macro classical realms into a seamless organic milieu. See also Quantum Computational Chemistry by this extended group at 1808.10402.

Practical challenges in simulating quantum systems on classical computers have been widely recognized in the quantum physics and chemistry communities over the past years. By manipulating quantum states of matter and taking advantage of their unique features such as superposition and entanglement, novel quantum computers can deliver accurate results for many important problems such as the electronic structure of molecules. This article is an overview of the algorithms and results that are relevant for quantum chemistry. (Abstract)

One of the most promising applications of quantum computing is solving classically intractable chemistry problems. This may enable the design of new materials, medicines, catalysts, or high temperature superconductors. As a result, quantum computational chemistry is rapidly emerging as an interdisciplinary knowledge of both quantum information and computational chemistry. (1808.10402 excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Universal

Ball, Philip. Quantum Darwinism, an Idea to Explain Objective Reality, Passes First Tests. Quanta Magazine. Online July 22, 2019. The British science writer and 2018 European physics book winner for Beyond Weird provides a luminous entry to this title theory by Wojciech Zurek (search). In a capsule, it aims to detect and explain a selective process in effect amongst an optional array of conditions even at this physical phase. After a course through decoherence, observation, superposition, and more, it is reported that three independent projects now seem to offer experimental proofs of its validity. As the deepest substrate for our expansive cosmos, as a singular universe to human continuum is being revealed, so also is a pervasive presence of this evolutionary computational scheme of multiple variation and preferential result.

The vexing question becomes: How do quantum probabilities coalesce into the sharp focus of the classical world? But there’s no reason to think that the large and the small have different rules. One of the most remarkable ideas is that the definite properties of objects that we associate with classical physics are selected from a menu of quantum possibilities in a process loosely analogous to natural selection in evolution: The properties that survive are in some sense the “fittest.” As in natural selection, the survivors are those that make the most copies of themselves. This means that many independent observers can make measurements of a quantum system and agree on the outcome — a hallmark of classical behavior. This idea, called quantum Darwinism, explains a lot about why we experience the world the way we do. (1)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Universal

Kuchling, Franz, et al. Morphogenesis as Bayesian Inference: A Variational Approach to Pattern Formation and Control in Complex Biological Systems. Physics of Life Reviews. Online June, 2019. FK and Michael Levin, Tufts University, Georgi Georgiev, Assumption College, MA and Karl Friston, Wellcome Trust Centre, UK continue their collegial efforts to envision and articulate a self-organizing, composing, vivifying, learning, evolution of life’s phenomenal complexity and consciousness. A common iterative, computational process thus seems in procreative effect as a natural selective optimization from somatic creatures and to sensory cerebral form and dynamics.

Recent advances in molecular biology such as gene editing, bioelectric recording and live cell microscopy can now measure molecular signaling pathways with spatiotemporal precision. However, an overarching concept that can predict the emergent form of complex anatomy is largely missing. In this (neurobiology) setting, a variational free energy principle has emerged based upon self-organization via active Bayesian inference. For biological processes such as development or regeneration, this model treats cells as information processing agents. The free energy principle applied to pattern formation promises a quantitative formalism for cellular decision-making in the context of embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer suppression. We derive the mathematics behind Bayesian inference and use simulations to show how it can better explain complex morphogenesis. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Information

Floridi, Luciano. The Logic of Information: A Theory of Philosophy as Conceptual Design. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019. In this third work of his Information tetralogy after Philosophy (2013) and Ethics (2015), the Oxford University scholar (search) presses a constructivist view whence human beings, lately immersed in a global sensorium, seem made and meant to take up future material and organic cocreation. The informed content and consent of our cumulative knowledge store (library of cosmos) can be a resource for such intentional imaginations. (Floridi is also editor of the Springer journal Philosophy and Technology, whose June 2019 Homo faber issue (32/2) explores the subject.) What accrues is a lively naturalism with a computational source that advises the more we know and share, the more we can altogether achieve a better future.

Thanks to Alan Turing, the Baconian-Galilean project of grasping and manipulating the alphabet of the universe has begun to find its fulfillment in the computational and informational revolution, which is affecting so profoundly our knowledge of reality and how we conceptualize it and ourselves within it. From this perspective, the philosophy of information can be presented as the study of the informational activities that make possible the construction, conceptualization and finally the moral stewardship of reality, both natural and artificial, both physical and anthropological. The philosophy of information enables humanity to give meaning to and make sense of the world and construct it responsibly. (213)

Animate Cosmos > Intelligence

The Science of Consciousness. www.tsc2019-interlaken.ch. This is the main international meeting all about the presence of aware knowing perception in ourselves, and as now seems apparent, must suffuse a quantum evolutionary cosmology. Its venue is Interlaken, Switzerland in June 25-28, 2019. This home site has links to an extensive program and a Book of Abstracts. See also a Models of Consciousness meeting to be held at the Mathematical Institute of Oxford University on September 9-12, 2019. Its scientific scope is broad enough as to draw a luminous array of speakers from such as Roger Penrose, David Chalmers, Eva Jablonka, William Seager, Olaf Sporns, and Christopher Fuchs.

The Science of Consciousness (TSC) 2019 is the 26th international interdisciplinary conference on fundamental questions and cutting-edge issues connected with conscious experience. TSC is the largest and longest-running interdisciplinary conference emphasizing conceptual, empirical, cultural and even artistic approaches to the study of consciousness. Held annually since 1994, the TSC conferences alternate between Tucson, Arizona, and various locations around the world. TSC 2019 will include themes such as connectomics, placebo research, first-person experience, anesthetics, psychedelics, plant cognition, quantum biology, phantom limbs, dual-aspect monism, bistable perception, insight, religious studies, evolution, language, embodiment, time consciousness, critical neuroscience, micro-phenomenology and more.

Animate Cosmos > Intelligence

Kleiner, Johannes. Models of Consciousness. arXiv:1907.03223. A Leibniz University of Hannover postdoc mathematical physicist provides a latest survey which builds on the work of David Chalmers and Thomas Nagel so as to course through integrated information theory, global workspace models, conscious agent networks, and more.

The study of consciousness has emerged as a response to novel developments in neuroscience, cognitive psychology and analytic philosophy. Its aim is to develop a scientific account, formulated by way of mathematical laws or regularities, of how conscious experience relates to the physical domain. Even though models of consciousness have been proposed in the literature, details of the underlying conceptual terminology and framework remain poorly understood. This paper proposes a scientific study of consciousness based on concise definitions along with several examples. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Adesso, Gerardo, et al, eds. Shannon’s Information Theory 70 Years On: Applications in Classical and Quantum Physics. Journal of Physics A. 2018,, 2019. British, Australian and Japanese physicists post a wide ranging collection which can serve as a record into the 21st century as these aspects of energies, quantum phenomena, communication, and more increasingly meld and become united. See, for example, Information-Thermodynamics Link Revisited by Robert Alicki and Michal Horodecki (search), The Stochastic Thermodynamics of Computation by David Wolpert, and Uncertainty-Reality Complementarity by Lukasz Rudnicki.

British, Australian and Japanese physicists post a wide ranging collection which can serve as a record into the 21st century as these aspects of energies, quantum phenomena, communication, and more increasingly meld and become united. See, for example, Information-Thermodynamics Link Revisited by Robert Alicki and Michal Horodecki (search), The Stochastic Thermodynamics of Computation by David Wolpert, and Uncertainty-Reality Complementarity by Lukasz Rudnicki.

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Zenil, Hector, et al. The Thermodynamics of Network Coding, and an Algorithmic Refinement of the Principle of Maximum Entropy. Entropy. 21/6, 2019. This paper by the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm computational theorists HZ, Narsis Kiani and Jesper Tegner is noted by the voluminous online journal site as among its most popular, because readers (like me) sense the authors are indeed closing on brilliant insights, however couched in technicalities, as the Abstract conveys. Something is really going on by itself as we ever try to get a good read and bead upon it, which may well be our cosmic purpose.

The principle of maximum entropy (Maxent) is often used to obtain prior probability distributions as a method to obtain a Gibbs measure under some restriction giving the probability that a system will be in a certain state compared to the rest of the elements. Here we take advantage of a causal algorithmic calculus to derive a thermodynamic-like result based on how difficult it is to reprogram a computer code. Using the distinction between computable and algorithmic randomness, we quantify the cost in information loss associated with reprogramming. To illustrate this, we apply the algorithmic refinement to Maxent on graphs and introduce a generalized Maximal Algorithmic Randomness Preferential Attachment (MARPA) Algorithm. Our study motivates further analysis of the origin and consequences of the aforementioned asymmetries, reprogrammability, and computation. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm

Alicki, Robert and Michal Horodecki. Information-Thermodynamics Link Revisited. Journal of Physics A. 52/8, 2019. In a special Shannon’s Information Theory 70 Years On collection, University of Gdansk, Poland physicists (search) continue to finesse this intrinsic affinity between energies and communication.

The so-called information-thermodynamics link created by a thought experiment of Szilard has become a modern orthodoxy in the field of quantum information and resources theory in quantum thermodynamics. We recall existing objections against standard interpretation of Szilard engine operation and illustrate them by two quantum models: a particle in a box with time-dependent thin potential barrier and the spin-boson model. The consequences of the emerging superselection rules for thermodynamics and foundations of quantum mechanics are discussed. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Nottale, Laurent. The Relativity of All Things: Beyond Spacetime. Nashville, TN: Persistent Press, 2019. This is an English edition of a French science bestseller by a former French National Center for Scientific Research director. What is relativity. The word evokes thoughts of Einstein. What ultimately matters is the relationship between two objects, not their absolute properties. (xiii) Nottale’s studies go back to the 1980s, while this latest text braces a similar conclusion being availed via network complexity across many fields. The relational interactivity between particles, components, and entities, are equally real and altogether compose a creative ecosmos . One could cite Lee Smolin, Carlo Rovelli and many others who emphasize this universal quality. A prescient endorsement was made by Murray Gell-Mann in 1992 (search) that independent laws and principles do actually exist as they display into a fractally self-similar vitality. An example of a working usage of Nottale’s theories is Derivation of a Generalized Schrödinger Equation from the Theory of Scale Relativity by Pierre-Henri Chavanis at arXiv:1612.02323.

The statement of the existence of laws, universal by nature, is sufficient in itself. It is the logic of the world’s organization that requires it. Said otherwise, the principle of relativity is reduced to the basic postulate upon which science is founded: There exist laws of nature. (72)

Einstein himself explicitly considered that a realistic approach to the quantum problem could go through the introduction of non-differentiability in physics. In 1948, he wrote in a letter to Wolfgang Pauli: “Maybe someone will find out another possibility, provided he searches with enough perseverance.'” Laurent Nottale is very precisely this 'someone'! Read and study this wonderful theory, and its major experimental implications, which are fundamental for the future of science, and for philosophy. Charles Alunni, Director, Philosophy of Science, École Normale Supérieure

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Cunningham, Maria, et al, eds. Astrochemistry VII: Through the Cosmos from Galaxies to Planets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. These Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposia S332 open with an Astrochemistry Overview by Ewine van Dishoeck. The volume goes on to convey how broad and deep this scientific endeavor has become as it proceeds to quantify and discover an inherently animate conducive ecosmos.

Since the discovery of ammonia in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way in 1968, we have identified around 160 complex organic molecules, which help us understand how stars and planets form. IAU S332 describes how such observations, combined with numerical modelling and laboratory astrochemistry, are used to study how the Universe has evolved.

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Dagdigian, Paul. Quantum Statistical Study of the C+ + OH → CO + H+/CO+ + H Reaction. Journal of Chemical Physics. 151/054306, 2019. A Johns Hopkins University prolific senior chemist (view website) studies reaction rate and product branching ratio at interstellar temperatures. We cite as an integral meld of quantum and astrochemical phenomena at frontiers of our global verification of an organic, fertile, procreative ecosmic milieu. The work also conveys a 21st century biocosmic revolution in our midst which unifies all these disparate fields going forward.

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Johnson, Jennifer, et al. The Origin of Elements across Cosmic Time. arXiv:1907.04388. This Astro2020 White Paper by seventeen scientists from American and European universities is a proposal for decadal studies to retrospectively quantify how nature’s biochemical array came to form. There are now over 360 Astro2020 postings on this site from thousands of international researchers and groupings. Every possible aspect seems to have been covered. See also for example, In Pursuit of Galactic Archaeology at 1907.05422, Scheduling Discovery in the 2020s at 1907.07817, and Climate Change Engagement in Astronomy Research and Education at 1907.08043.

The origin of the elements is fundamental to astronomy, with many issues such as the nature of Type Ia supernovae and timescale of their contributions; the observational identification of elements such as titanium and potassium; the origin of carbon and nitrogen and the influence of mixing and mass loss in winds; and the origin of the intermediate Cu, Ge, As, and Se elements in between charged-particle and neutron-capture reactions. The next decade will bring to maturity many new tools such as large-scale chemical cartography of the Milky Way, the addition of astrometric and asteroseismic information, and the detection of gravitational waves. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Puzzarini, Cristina and Vincenzo Barone. A Never-Ending Story in the Sky: The Secrets of Chemical Evolution. Physics of Life Reviews. Online July 5, 2019. Organic chemistry in space is nowadays a matter of fact. University of Bolonga and Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa researchers first survey 21st century findings which affirm a universal propensity for biological precursors to arise and complexify across the galaxies. Going forward, an array of advanced methods are cited and proposed such as quantum chemical predictions of relative energies, computational astrochemistry, virtual reality perceptions, and more. The paper closes by harking back to Galileo’s experiental glimpses so as to look ahead as our whole Earthkind research endeavor as it seems to quantify and discover a creative ecosmos genesis.

Cosmic evolution is the tale of a progressive transition from simplicity to complexity. The newborn universe started with the simplest atoms and proceeded toward the formation of astronomical complex organic molecules (aCOMs), most with a clear prebiotic character. To disclose the “secrets” of chemical evolution across space, the first step is to learn how small prebiotic species came to be and chemical complexity can further increase. This review addresses the role played by molecular spectroscopy and quantum-chemical computations. We present how signatures of molecules can be found in space, and move to a computational view to derive molecular spectroscopic features, investigation of gas-phase formation routes of prebiotic species in the ISM, and onto astrochemical evolution. Finally, an integrated strategy by way of high-performance computers and virtual reality will be discussed. (Abstract excerpts)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Adams, Fred C. Pairwise Tidal Equilibrium States and the Architecture of Extrasolar Planetary Systems. arXiv:1907.00915. We cite this latest entry by the University of Michigan astrophysicist as example of how exoplanet studies have advanced to the point whence myriad dynamic solar-planetary arrays can be seen to exhibit intrinsic geometric patternings.

Current observations indicate that the planet formation process often produces multiple planet systems with nearly circular orbits, regular spacing, and a narrow range of inclination angles. Motivated by these observations, this paper determines the tidal equilibrium states for this class of extrasolar planetary systems. The basic conjecture is that the planet formation process will act to distribute planetary masses in order to achieve a minimum energy state. The resulting minimum energy configuration - subject to the constraint of constant angular momentum - corresponds to circular orbits confined to a plane. We then generalize the treatment to include multiple planet systems, where each adjacent pair of planets attains its (local) tidal equilibrium state. (Abstract excerpt)

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