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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 45 of 107 found.


Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet, Incubator Lifescape

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm

Thales, A., et al.. Quantum work: Reconciling quantum mechanics and thermodynamics. Physical Reviews Research. 6, L022036, 2024. Technion–Israel Institute of Technology chemists contribute to the ongoing frontier merger of the standard second law version with novel quantum phase entanglements. See also Emergence of a second law of thermodynamics in isolated quantum systems by Florian Meier, et al at arXiv:2406.01677 for another exercise.

It has been claimed that no protocol for measuring quantum work can satisfy standard physical principles, casting doubts on the compatibility between quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and the classical limit. In this Letter, we present a solution by showing how the standard formulation of these principles does not address the classical limit properly. By proposing changes in this direction, we prove that all the essential principles can be satisfied when work is defined as a quantum observable, which serves to reconcile quantum work statistics and thermodynamics.

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Cecchini, Chiara, et al. Testing scale-invariant inflation against cosmological data. arXiv:2403.04316. University of Trento, Italy and University of Sheffield, UK physicists Into 2024, provide a strongest affirmation of nature’s intrinsic self-similarity across the breadth and depth of the celestial raiment. In this present regard, the fractal-like property extends to and holds for the universe’s initial expansion. See also Observational tests in scale invariance I and II: galaxy clusters and rotation of galaxies by Andre Maeder arXiv:2403.08759 and 2403.08379.

There is a solid theoretical and observational basis behind scale-invariance as a fundamental symmetry of Nature. We consider a recent classical inflationary model that is quadratic in curvature with a scalar field coupled to gravity. By our approach, the two-field dynamics of the system can be solved based on the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck and BICEP/Keck. Overall, we argue that scale-invariant inflation possesses features which make it an interesting benchmark for tests of inflation from future CMB data.

To sum up, in the present work we have performed the first robust comparison of scale-invariant inflation against current precision cosmological observations from the CMB. Our findings confirm that the model is in very good health, and we feel that it provides another reference for tests of inflation from future CMB experiments. Our work reinforces the key role of scale-invariance as an important theoretical guiding principle. (24)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal > autocat

Sakref, Yann and Olivier Rivoire.. Design principles, growth laws, and competition of minimal autocatalysts. arXiv:2403.19047. This 2024 entry by a CNRS, ESPCI, and University of Paris research team (visit OR website for more papers) continues to advance and certify understandings of nature’s pervasive biochemical reactions engage in self-making processes. See also Design of a minimal catalyst using colloidal particles with programmable interactions by Maitane Munoz-Basagoiti, O. Rivoire, et al in Soft Matter (May 2023) for companion work. By these many current entries here and in Origin of Life an autocatalytic cosmopoietic milieu that makes itself is being found and verified.

The difficulty of designing autocatalysts that grow exponentially in the absence of enzymes, external drives or internal mechanisms constrains scenarios for the emergence of evolution in chemical and physical systems. Here, we analyze these difficulties by way of a simple, dimeric molecule that duplicates by templated ligation such that an autocatalyst can achieve exponential growth autonomously. We thus are able to develop a theoretical framework based on kinetic barrier diagrams. Our results provide a blueprint for elementary autocatalysts exhibiting a form of natural selection, whether on a molecular or colloidal scale. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Bovolenta, Giulia, et al. In-Depth Exploration of Catalytic Sites on Amorphous Solid Water: The Astrosynthesis of Aminomethanol. arXiv:2407.03493. We note this entry by Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Sapienza University of Rome and University of Stuttgart exochemists for one more notice of the pervasive occurrence of self-starter processes wherever they can, and to illume what truly seems a phenomenal life bearing, biocomplex, evolving milieu headed toward our global discovery and retrospect affirmation.

Chemical processes taking place on ice-grain mantles are a conducive nexus within interstellar environments. In this study, we analyzed of the catalytic effects of an amorphous solid water (ASW) surface on the reaction between ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (H2CO) to form aminomethanol (NH2CH2OH) using density functional theory. Our results indicate that the catalytic sites can be categorized into four groups by way of the interactions of the carbonyl oxygen and the amino group with the ice surface in the reactant complex. (Brief excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Pentsak, Evgeniy, et al. The Role of Acetylene in the Chemical Evolution of Carbon Complexity. arXiv:2405.01866. EP, Maria Murga and Valentine Ananikov, Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow astrochemists post a 118 page, 550 reference contribution which extensively quantifies the presence of C2H2 as a interstellar biomolecular precursor on a course toward life and evolution. In this instance also, catalytic agencies are seen as a prime driver. (I was once a combustion consultant with acetylene known as a highly reactive fuel gas, fire on earth and in the sky.) See also Torsion-rotational transitions in methanol as a probe of fundamental physical constants by J. S. Vorotyntseva and S. A. Levshakov at 2405.04542.

Acetylene, among the multitude of organic molecules discovered in space, plays a distinct role in the genesis of organic matter. Characterized by its unique balance of stability and reactivity, acetylene is the simplest unsaturated organic molecule known to have a triple bond and is one of the most prevalent organic molecules found across the Universe. This review discusses the formation and expansion of carbon skeletons involving acetylene from the origination of the first aromatic ring and nanosized carbon particles. A distinct focus is accorded to the recent research into catalytic processes involving acetylene molecules, which is a significant instrument in driving the evolution of cosmic carbon complexity. The insights garnered from this review underline the significance of acetylene in astrochemistry and potentially contribute to our understanding of the chemical evolution of the Universe. (Excerpt)

For instance, catalytic pathways for the formation of aromatic compounds in space environments are likely underexplored. Catalytic processes, encompassing crucial events such as the formation of aromatic compounds, could occur on the surfaces of comets, asteroids, planets, and interstellar dust grains, as corroborated by recent findings. We can anticipate more exciting discoveries in this area in the coming years. Our understanding of cosmic chemical processes will continue to broaden in the future. There is no doubt that missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, the forthcoming Dragonfly spacecraft and the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer will revolutionize our comprehension of the evolution of organic compounds in space. This approach will facilitate the precise quantification of how physical conditions influence organic transformations, thereby allowing us to track the evolution of acetylene and other organic molecules across various space environments. (78)

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Tostevin, Rosalie and Imad Ahmed. Micronutrient availability in Precambrian oceans controlled by greenalite format. Nature Geoscience. 6/1188, 2024. By the mid 2020s, global scientific techniques have become so advanced that University of Cape Town and Oxford University geochemists can finely quantify the certain elements involved in the formation of necessary biomineral protein-like components. Into this extreme summer, one might wonder at what sufficient point could it dawn, might it be possible to realize, that we peoples may just now be perceiving an innately fertile, procreative, independent reality which then requires our proactive Earthuman sustainability.

Metabolisms that evolved in the Archaean era (4.0–2.5 bya) preferentially selected iron, manganese and molybdenum to form metalloproteins, whereas the majority of zinc-, copper- and vanadium-binding proteins emerged later. Recent sedimentological work has uncovered iron silicate minerals. Here we quantify the diagenesis of an Fe(II) silicate mineral, a precursor to crystalline greenalite in seawater and hot hydrothermal fluids. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for metal availability in Archaean oceans that is consistent with temporal patterns of metal utilization predicted from protein structures and comparative genomics. (Excerpts)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

KAVLI-IAU SYMPOSIUM (IAUS 387): (Toward) Discovery of Life Beyond Earth and its Impact. kavli-iau-2024.durham.ac.uk/wordpress. A home page for this international conference held in Durham, UK, on April 15 – 19, 2024, A full array of Abstracts can be found such as Jacob Haqq Misra, Blue Marble Space Institute, Escaping the Great Filter: The future of civilization, Arwen Nicholson, University of Exeter, How probable is Gaia?, Giovanna Tinetti, University College London, Exoplanet atmospheres in the era of JWST and ARIEL, Stephen Webb, Science Writer, UK Reexamining the Fermi Paradox in the age of discovery and Frances Westall, CNRS, France, Life out there, expectations and reality.

Until 1995, the only known planets orbited our Sun. Now we have evidence for over 5,000 exoplanets orbiting other stars, and expect to find billions more. In the 1960s, Frank Drake began a search for radio signals. The space age brought opportunities to explore our Solar System with telescopes and probes. Planetary atmospheres can now be analyzed for the signs of life. This present decade sees a once-in-a-lifetime investment into the ‘Search for Life Beyond Earth.’ Both NASA and ESA have active and planned missions focused on exoplanets. Meanwhile, new Machine Learning (ML) algorithms will serve the search for technosignatures at scale. Beyond science, the worldwide quest raises questions of policy, law, philosophy, and theology. (Intro Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

burnRemo, et al, . A radius valley between migrated steam worlds and evaporated rocky cores. Nature Astronomy. 8/4, 2024. MPI Astronomy, University of Bern, IBM Research, and Geneva Observatory and Ludwig-Maximilians-University astrophysicists including Julia Venturini are able to detect the presence of an integral solar system topology which serves to array and constrain planetary movements. See also Peas-in-a-Pod Across the Radius Valley: Rocky Systems are Less Uniform in Mass but More Uniform in Size and Spacing by Armaan Goyal and Songhu Wang at arXiv:2405.14091 and Wide Binary Orbits are Preferentially Aligned with the Orbits of Small Planets, but Probably Not Hot Jupiters by Sam Christian, et al at 2405.10379.

The radius valley (or gap) which separates smaller super-Earths from larger sub-Neptunes, is a key feature that theoretical models must explain. Here we use an advanced coupled formation and evolution model that describes the planets’ growth and evolution starting from solid, moon-sized bodies in the protoplanetary disk to mature Gyr-old planetary systems. The model results demonstrate that the observed radius valley can be interpreted as the separation of less massive, rocky super-Earths formed in situ from more massive, ex situ, water-rich sub-Neptunes. Therefore, we provide a hybrid theoretical explanation of the radius gap and cliff caused by both planet formation (orbital migration) as well as evolution (atmospheric escape). (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Faridani, Thea, et al. More Likely Than You Think: Inclination-Driving Secular Resonances are Common in Known Exoplanet Systems.. arXiv:2406.09359.. We cite this work by UCLA, Georgia Tech and Yale University astroscientists as another current perception of solar systems as a whole interactive entity wherein planetary locations and transits influence each other. See also The PLATO Mission at arXiv:2406.05447 for another version.

Multi-planet systems face significant challenges to detection. One mechanism to excite mutual inclination between planets is secular resonance, where the nodal precession frequencies align such as to increase the efficiency of angular momentum transport between them. In this work, we explore known three-planet systems, determine whether they are in (or were in) secular resonance due to evolving stellar oblateness, and demonstrate the implications of resonance on their detectability and stability. We show that about 20% of three planet transiting systems seem to undergo these resonances early in their lives. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Gillmann, Cedric, et al. Gillmann, Cedric, et al. Venus. arXiv:2404.07669.. arXiv:2404.07669.. After many years of relative neglect for lack of insufficient evidence, ten astroscientists based in the USA, France and Switzerland (NASA, CalTech, Sorbonne) including Giada Arney now scope out a major endeavor to learn all about and understand this close by but radically different neighbor. See also, for example, Necessary Conditions for Earthly Life Floating in the Venusian Atmosphere at 2404.05356 about chemical comparisons and microbial life.

After decades of absence, interest in Venus surges anew in planetary science. Future missions are planned which will pave the way to encounter many mysteries our closest Solar System neighbor. Building on the legacy of past works, we discuss the state of our understanding of Venus from both observation and modeling. We describe each envelope of the planet from its atmosphere to interior with an eye for the most recent advances. We then briefly discuss coupled modelling efforts to better constrain the evolution of the planet.

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Kaltenegger, Lisa. Alien Earths: The New Science of Planet Hunting in the Cosmos. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2024. The Carl Sagan Institute to Search for Life in the Cosmos director and astronomy professor at Cornell University provides a best current guide to the celestial planetarium show of a galactic, star-studded, profligate world spacescape. As a frequent traveler to and speaker at scientific conferences, readers are advised of major search projects such as the Webb telescope, along with frontier findings. If one might note a theme, it is the wide variety of planets covered with lava, oceans, toxic gases and host stars of red dwarfs, clusters, and all else. As the display goes on we learn about global wanderers not in orrerys. But a late chapter is No Place Like Home, since a valid analog has not yet been found.

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Rauer, Heike, et al. The PLATO Mission. arXiv:2406.05447.. The main public posting all about the epic ESA planet hunter observance, as the quotes say. Some 200 coauthors such as Conny Aerts, Alessandro Morbidelli and Hans Deeg sight ahead into the 2030s as empowered and informed by a new phase of astronomic search and discover. Our own take would be to attribute the mega project to an Earthropo to Ecosmo sapiensphere on her/his twinity own. Another aspect is a view of candidate worlds and their host star as a whole integrated unit. Altogether the endeavor could imply an intended participatory purpose to achieve a vital description and recognition of a genesis universe.

PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars) is ESA's M3 mission designed to detect and characterise extrasolar planets, along with asteroseismic monitoring select stars. With the complement of radial velocity observations from the ground, planets will be viewed for their radius, mass, and age with high accuracy. These features will introduce a comparative exoplanetology which can place our Solar System planets in a broader context. Here we review the science objectives, target samples and fields, and describe the instrument and the mission profile. PLATO is scheduled for a launch date in later 2026. (Excerpt)

PLATO is the M3 mission in the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program of the European Space Agency. With 26 telescopes of 20 cm class, that all together collect photons like a telescope of 1 m class covering a field of view 10,000 times the area of the full Moon, it will survey the brightest stars in the sky for transiting planets. PLATO sensitivity and operation mode will allow the detection of earth analogues - for mass and orbit - orbiting solar-like stars, a task that will not be covered by any other project in this decade. (platomission.com)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

wood, J. M., et al. Terrestrial planet formation from a ring: long-term simulations accounting for the giant planet instability. arXiv:2404.17259. Université Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO and University of Toronto astronomers including Alessandro Morbidelli discuss the latest Earthuman studies about how global worlds of all great and small kinds come to form and reside in vicarious solar systems. These origins are not readily revealing themselves so more finesse is required. But one wonders over the whole scenario whence. a collaborative sapiensphere carries out a retrospective task of scientific self-representation. Whom are we all to do this and for what reason?

The process leading to the formation of the terrestrial planet remains elusive. In a previous publication, we have shown that, if the first generation of planetesimals forms in a ring at about 1 AU and the gas disk's density peaks at the ring location, planetary embryos of a few Martian masses can grow. In this work, we extend our simulations beyond the gas-disk stage to account for the phase of giant planet instability. About half of the model forms a pair of Venus and Earth analogues and about 10% form a Mars analogue. The timing of the giant planet instability affects the terrestrial system's excitation state and the last giant impacts. The best-case scenario is that the Moon-forming event occurred between 50 and 80 My. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Self-Selection

Gillmann, Cedric, et al. Interior Controls on the Habitability of Rocky Planets. Space Science Technology. 4/0075, 2024. ETH Zurich geophysicists now proceed to add another influential factor for life’s evolutionary presence as the interior geochemical make-up and its temporal course which may then affect surface environments.

No matter how exotic other terrestrial planets are revealed to be, the most interest regards their habitability. The characterization of exoplanets for life has been a major driver for space exploration. Conducive environs for terrestrial planets have proved elusive, as surface conditions depend on the complex interplay of many processes throughout its evolution. Here we review how the interior of a rocky planet can affect geological and atmospheric features over time. Instead of listing criteria assumed to be critical for life, we discuss how the bulk-silicate planet can influence the onset, continuation and cessation of habitability. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Self-Selection

Moore, Keavin, et al.. Water Evolution & Inventories of Super-Earths Orbiting Late M-Dwarfs. arXiv:2406.19923. As astronomic techniques become ever more sophisticated, Earth & Planetary Sciences, McGill University exoplanet researchers including Nicolas Cowen can come up with one more feature that will seriously affect long-term habitability. As the quote says, a finely-nuanced zone is found between all wet or bone dry conditions.

Super-Earths orbiting M-dwarf stars may be the most common habitable planets in the Universe. However, their habitability is threatened by intense irradiation from their host stars, which drives water to escape to space. We present a box model of water cycling and evaporation for terrestrial planets of mass 1--8 M⊕ orbiting in the habitable zone of a late M-dwarf. Planets with more water become flooded, while those with less have desiccated surfaces. A super-Earth at the inner edge of a habitable zone tends to end up as either a waterworld or dry desert; only a narrow range of initial water inventory yields an Earth-like land-sea-air abide. (Abstract)

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