(logo) Natural Genesis (logo text)
A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
Table of Contents
Genesis Vision
Learning Planet
Organic Universe
Earth Life Emerge
Genesis Future
Recent Additions

A. Ecode 2023: EarthKinder Discovers a Universal, Independent Ecosmome to Geomome Exemplary Endowment

Vidielia, Blai, et al. Engineering Self-Organized Criticality in Living Cells. Nature Communications. 12/4415, 2021. Seven Barcelona system scientists including Ricard Sole identify and explain how cellular processes do, in fact, avail this optimum condition for their active viability. This novel appreciation is then carried forth as a way to better conceive new, beneficial biologic formations. And once again this leading edge paper goes on to note that this fittest resolve is likewise being found everywhere else so to prove a natural, one bigender code, universality.

Complex dynamical fluctuations, from intracellular noise, brain dynamics or computer traffic typically display bursting dynamics situated at a critical state between order and disorder. Living close to the critical point has adaptive advantages to an extent that it has been conjectured that life’s evolution could select for these critical states. In regard we consider the case of living cells to see if they reside in at a self-organized criticality (SOC) state. To do so we present an engineered gene network which actually displays SOC behavior, namely the proteolytic degradation of E. coli cells by means of a negative feedback loop that reduces congestion. Our critical motif is built from a two-gene circuit, where SOC can be successfully implemented. (Abstract excerpt)

Critical states are known to be part of the cognitive equipment of multicellular organisms from simple, non-neural placozoans to neural systems and animal collectives. The SOC motif might be an efficient way of generating phenotypic diversity in a microbial population and can be relevant to expand the space of synthetic biology computational designs into collective intelligence. Finally, given the analogies between our system and critical traffic in parallel computer networks, an extension of our approach could involve a 3D spatially explicit system and the development of statistical physics models of critical intracellular activity. (8)

Villani, Marco, et al. Evolving Always-Critical Networks. Life. 10/3, 2020. In this year of binocular clarity, systems physicists MV and Roberto Serra, University of Modena, and Salvatore Magri and Andrea Roli, University of Bologna, along with colleagues can well describe an optimum condition of self-organized criticality that active systems seek and prefer to reside at. As this section reports, some two decades of global research have now settled upon this vital iconic “criticality principle” from brains to genomes to quantum phases. The occasion at last achieves a resolve and proof that a reciprocal mutuality between apart/together, conserve/create, and so on is nature’s best beneficial balance (except politics which blindly pit one complement vs. the other). See also Dynamical Criticality: Overview and Open Questions by this team (Andrea Roli, et al) in the Journal of Systems Science and Complexity (31/647, 2018).

Living beings share several common features at the molecular level, but there are as yet few large-scale “operating rules” for all organisms. An interesting candidate is the “criticality” principle, which claims that biological evolution favors those regimes that are intermediaries between ordered and disordered states, “at the edge of chaos”. The reasons why this should be the case are discussed such as gene regulatory networks (GRN) which do in fact reside at the critical boundaries. In order to explore an “always-critical” state, we resort to simulated evolution via genetic algorithms which show that new individuals do indeed develop critical GRNs. (Abstract excerpt)

Therefore, critical states are in between ordered and disordered ones. The criticality principle states that these states are at an advantage with respect either to chaotic states, since they are more stable and controllable, or to ordered states, since they can better change in response to different conditions, without being stuck in the same state. If this is indeed the case, evolution should have modified the parameters in such a way that living beings are found near critical states—a statement that is, in principle, amenable to experimental verification. (2)

Let us revisit now the CP that has been introduced and discussed in Section 1, which claims that some dynamical states are advantaged with respect to other states, and that evolution drives living beings towards these “critical” states, which are neither fully ordered nor fully disordered. (13)

Systems that exhibit complex behaviours are often found in a dynamical condition which is poised between order and disorder. This observation is the essence of the criticality hypothesis, which states that such an active balance can attain the highest level of computational capabilities and an optimal trade-off between robustness and flexibility. Recent results in cellular and evolutionary biology, neuroscience and computer science have heightened interest in a preferred criticality state as a candidate general law in adaptive complex systems. (Roli, et al Abstract)

Voit, Maximilian and Hildegard Meyer-Ortmans. Emerging Criticality at Bifurcation Points in Heteroclinic Dynamics. Physical Review Research. 2/043097, 2020. Jacobs University, Bremen physicists enter one more finely perceived instance of nature’s deep propensity to seek, arrive and poise at this optimum condition, which lately seems to be in evidence at each and every occasion.

Heteroclinic dynamics is a suitable framework to describe transient dynamics that is characteristic for ecological as well as neural systems, in particular for cognitive processes. We consider different heteroclinic networks and zoom into the dynamics that emerges right at different bifurcation points. We identify features of criticality such as a proliferation of the dynamical repertoire and slowing down of the dynamics at the very bifurcations and in their immediate vicinity. It qualifies these bifurcation points as candidates for working points in systems which store and transfer information. (Abstract)

Wang, Zi-Han, et al. Power-law Distribution and Scale Invariant Structure from the First CHIME/FRB Fast Radio Burst Catalog. arXiv:2212.05229. As the abstract notes, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Yangzhou University and Frontier Research Center for Gravitational Waves, Shanghai Jiao Tong University physicists describe a strong. pervasive presence across levels and realms of hyper-active celestial phenomena of a tendency to arrive at a self-organized critical state. See also Scale Invariance in X-ray Flares of Gamma-ray Bursts at 2212.08813 for another SOC instance effect.

We study the statistical property of fast radio bursts (FRBs) based on a selected sample of 190 one-off FRBs in the first CHIME/FRB catalog. Three power law models are used in the analysis, and we find the cumulative distribution functions of energy can be well fitted by power law models. The q values in the Tsallis q-Gaussian distribution are constant with small fluctuations for different temporal scale intervals, indicating a scale-invariant structure of the bursts. The earthquakes and soft gamma repeaters show similar properties, which are consistent with the predictions of self-organized criticality systems. (Abstract)

Wei, Jun-Jie. Scale Invariance in X-ray Flares of Gamma-ray Bursts.. arXiv:2212.08813.. In advanced studies of these wide-spread celestial phenomena, a Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of China astronomer once again winds up with a notice and explanation of their intrinsic SOC character.

X-ray flares are produced by the reactivation of the central energy source with a dissipation mechanism as the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this work, we study for the first time the differential size and return distributions of X-ray flares with known redshifts. We find that the duration, energy, and waiting time can be well fitted by a power-law function. The q-Gaussian distributions keep steady for temporal interval scales, imply a scale-invariant structure of GRB X-ray flares. These statistical features can be well explained within the physical framework of a self-organizing criticality system. (Excerpt)

West, Bruce, et al. Relating Size and Functionality in Human Social Networks through Complexity. PNAS. 117/31, 2022. We cite this entry by University of North Texas systems theorists along with Robin Dunbar, Oxford University in a major journal to show how much the pervasive presence of optimum critically organized phenomena everywhere is being perceived as a prime generative feature. In this instance, its dynamic self-organization is seen to structure and arrange our public affairs in accord with Dunbar’s popular scale (search) from a nominal five to as high as 150 members.

(Robin) Dunbar hypothesized, on the basis of empirical evidence, that a typical individual can have a stable relation with at most 150 other people. We establish that this results from the internal dynamics of a complex network. We study network models having phase transitions with criticality generates intermittent events, with time interval scales between successive events being independent. The scaling index depends on network size and direct calculations show a maximum for networks of 150 size and for information exchange efficiency. (Significance)

Extensive empirical evidence suggests that there is a maximal number of people with whom an individual can maintain social relationships. We argue that this arises as a consequence of a natural phase transition in the dynamic self-organization among individuals within a social system. We present the calculated size dependence of the scaling properties of complex social network models to argue that this collective behavior is an enhanced form of collective intelligence. (Abstract)

In keeping with the criticality hypothesis, it is reasonable to associate functionality and size with the emergence of complexity. This step is achieved by critical dynamics and events. Complexity is manifest in the collective behavior of nonlinear dynamic networks by way of the concept of collective intelligence (18356).

Zamponi, Nahuel, et al. Scale Free Density and Fluctuations in the Dynamics of Large Microbial Ecosystems. arXiv:2206.12384. Four senior researchers with postings in the USA, Argentina, Poland, and Italy including Dante Chialvo discuss how these critically poised features, just as everywhere else from the ISM to the Internet it seems, serve suffuse and enhance bacterial assemblies. Once again a vital, dynamic poise between stability and flexibility, aka “nature’s sweet spot” as coined by Chialvo, seems best.

Microorganisms self-organize in extensive communities exhibiting complex fluctuations. But the ways that these systems can achieve variability along with a basic robustness is not well explained. Here we analyze three aspects of microbiota and plankton: density changes, the correlation structure and an avalanching fluidity. Our results find scale-free densities, anomalous variance' stages, abundance relations and stationary scale-free waves in effect. These behaviors, which typically occur in critically poised systems, suggest this active state is a way to explain both the robust and irregular phases and processes of copious microbial colonies.

Zhou, Zheng, et al. Fractal Quantum Phase Transitions: Critical Phenomena Beyond Renormalization. arXiv:2105.05851. We note this entry by Fudan University, Chongqing University, Technical University of Munich and Princeton University physicists as they proceed to find one more instance of nature’s dynamic preference even way down in this long arcane, foundational realm.

Quantum critical points connecting different phases have broad implications in modern many-body physics. Their universal features are determined using the renormalization group (RG) theory, since salient properties at the phase transition point can be discerned by coarse-graining the local fluctuations and focusing on the physics at the long wavelength limit. Based on this observation, a wide class of universal phenomena can be revealed by symmetry, locality, and dimensionality. Here we investigate a special type fractal symmetry. (1)

Zimatore, Giovanna, et al. Self-organization of Whole-Gene Expression through Coordinated Chromatin Structural Transition. Biophysics Reviews. September, 2021. Five geneticists posted in Italy, Japan, and Poland including Masa Tsuchiya provide still another, significant genomic example of nature’s persistence to reach and reside at an optimum reciprocal poise.

The human DNA molecule is a long polymer collapsed into the micrometer space of the cell nucleus. This simple consideration leads to gene-by-gene regulation which better contrasts with the physical reality in the presence of cell state transitions that involvef thousands of genes. This state of affairs invites a statistical mechanics approach where specificity arises from a selective unfolding of chromatin driving the rewiring of gene expression patterns. The arising of “expression waves” marking state transitions can be related to chromatin reorganization through self-organized critical control of whole-genome. (Excerpt)

Zimmern, Vincent. Why Brain Criticality is Clinically Revelant. Frontiers in Neural Circuits. August, 2020. A UT Southwestern Medical Center child neurologist provides an actual survey of the palliative implications of this by now accepted, phenomenal condition whence our brains seek and become poised at this optimum dynamic state.

The past 25 years have seen increased number of publications related to criticality in neuroscience. But recent writings on this topic make brief mention of clinical applications to such disorders as epilepsy, neurodegenerative disease, neonatal hypoxia, along with sleep issues and developmental-behavioral pediatrics. In this scoping review, studies of brain criticality involving human data of all ages are evaluated for their clinical relevance. In regard, the prime concepts behind criticality (e.g., phase transitions, long-range temporal correlation, self-organized criticality, power laws, branching processes) will precede their neurological occasion. (Excerpt)

Previous   1 | 2 | 3 | 4