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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 46 through 60 of 64 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Gender

Keresztes, Laszlo, et al. Identifying Super-Feminine, Super-Masculine and Sex-Defining Connections in the Human Braingraph. arXiv:1912.02291. Eotovos University, PIT Bioinformatics Group researchers continue their project to avail the latest flow of neuroimaging results, now available via open access, which further support these title gender distinctions (search Balazs Szalkai for earlier postings). As the quotes say, ever again a woman’s cognitive faculties are found to be generally superior to male capacities.

For more than a decade now, thousands of cerebral connections with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) techniques have been achieved and published. In the present contribution, by applying the 1200 Subjects Release of the Human Connectome Project, we identify just 102 connections out of the total number of 1950 connections in the 83-vertex graphs of 1065 subjects, without any error about the sex of the subject. We were able to identify two graph edges out of these 102, whose weights measured in fiber numbers are high, then the connectome belongs to a female subject, independent of other edges. Similarly, we have identified 3 edges from these 102, whose weights, if two of them are high and one is low, imply that the graph belongs to a male subject. We call the former state super-feminine and the other super-masculine. (Abstract excerpt)

It is known for several years that the female and the male connectomes have different properties as graphs. The work of [28] has proven – on a publicly un-available dataset – that the ratio of inter-hemispheric connections vs. the intra-hemispheric connections differs in males and females. Our group has shown on a publicly available dataset that several deep graph-theoretical properties, which are usually applied in the characterization of the quality of large computer interconnection networks [29], are better in the braingraphs of women than in men. (2)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Cultural Code

Diessel, Holger. The Grammar Network: How Linguistic Structure is Shaped by Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019. As this site reports, we seem to be in the midst of an historic scientific shift from finding discrete, nodal parts to identifying the many animate netflex relations in between. Here a Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, linguist shows that even our vernacular communications can be seen to exemplify these connective topologies. After recounting their general properties, how they are in effect for sign conveyance, cognitive decisions, social discourse, and more is illustrated. A “taxonomic” view, akin to systematic classes, is then applied to linguistic associations, symbolic relations, and schema constructions. A reference is also made to self-organized complex systems as they are used to parse this conversation (Bybee, Beckner, et al herein). The work goes on to explain that changing modes of societal usage play a key formative role. As I log in along with The Grammar of the (Atomic) Elements (Ghosh), it is becoming evident that the natural ecosmos does seem to be a literal narrative.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Cultural Code

Martin, Andrea and Giosue Baggio. Modelling Meaning Composition from Formalism to Mechanism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 375/20190298, 2019. MPI Psycholinguistics and Norwegian University of Science and Technology scholars introduce a special issue with this title in search of a more thoroughly parsed explanation. Among the authoritative contributors are Peter Hagoort, Laura Gwilliams, Marco Baroni, Liina Pylkkanen, Alona Fyshe and Petra Hendricks.

Human thought and language have expressive power because meaningful parts can be assembled into more complex semantic structures. This quality underlies our ability to compose meanings into novel configurations, and sets us apart from other species and current computing devices. Furthermore, composing parts into complex structures does not threaten the existence of constituent parts as independent units: parts and wholes exist simultaneously yet independently from one another. This independence is evident in human behaviour, but it seems at odds with the brain's sensitivity to statistical patterns. Everyday language is productive and expressively accurate because it goes beyond statistical regularities. Philosophy and linguistics explain this by realizing that language and thought are “compositional” in kind. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Perc, Matjaz. The Social Physics Collective. Nature Scientific Reports. 9/16459, 2019. The University of Maribor, Slovenia, polyscholar (search) introduces a special collection of papers within this journal to contain ways that our behaviors and activities across a wide domain such as epidemics, crime, warfare, financial markets and more.

More than two centuries ago Henri de Saint-Simon envisaged physical laws to describe human societies. Driven by advances in statistical physics, network science, data analysis, and information technology, this vision is becoming a reality. Many of the grandest challenges of our time are of a societal nature, and methods of physics are increasingly playing a central role in improving our understanding of these challenges, and helping us to find innovative solutions. The Social Physics Collection at Scientific Reports is dedicated to this research.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Spaget, Michael, et al. Toward a Unified Understanding of Casualty Distributions in Human Conflict. arXiv:1911.01994. As many entries across the social and cultural sections lately record an exemplary presence of dynamic networks, scales and forms, here London, Radboud, Michigan State and George Washington University (Neil Johnson) report that even the chaotic carnage of small and large warfare can be seen to exhibit systemic regularities. Such broad, consistent evidence would then necessarily imply a common, independent mathematical source. In 2019 as internecine conflicts spread and intensify like wildfires, might our nascent sapiensphere be at last able to realize and avail such a natural organizational code-program in time?

We are able to resolve various disparate claims and results that stand in the way of a unified description and understanding of human conflict. First, we reconcile the numerically different exponent values for fatalities across entire wars and within single wars. We go on to explain how a true theory of human conflict is able to provide a quantitative explanation of how most observed casualty distributions follow power-laws and why they deviate from them. Combined, our findings strengthen the notion that a unified framework can be used to understand and quantitatively describe human conflict. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Tsarev, Dmitriy, et al. Phase Transitions, Collective Emotions and Decisions-Making Problem in Heterogeneous Social Systems. Nature Scientific Reports. 9/18039, 2019. We cite this entry by ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Information Tech, Optics, Engineering) and Linnaeus University, Sweden (Andrei Khrennikov) researchers as an example of novel perceptions of and evidence for physical and quantum phenomena in all manner of psychological and societal realms. As a result, this communal phase can take upon a guise as active biological/sociological matter. As Auguste Comte (1798-1857) once glimpsed, by way of our late worldwide abilities, personal and planetary human abide can indeed be joined with and exemplify an independent, conducive, fertile milieu.

This paper considers collective decision-making as a second order phase-transition which occurs in heterogeneous information-oriented communities with information exchange between individuals. We examine a quantum-like model of two-level cognitive systems interacting with a socially contextual information field. We introduce a new approach for valence and arousal variables, used in cognitive sciences for the description of collective emotion states. The model predicts a super-radiant phase transition leading to coherent polarization in the societal unit. We show that a critical (social) temperature is determined by the population imbalance (valence), detuning, field coupling strength parameter and social viability. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

D’Acci, Luce, ed. The Mathematics of Urban Morphology. Springer: Birkhauser, 2019. The editor is a Polytechnic University of Torino urban planner. This is a latest volume about ongoing projects to study, design and create human abidements from close locales to a megacities based on organic metabolic, morphogenetic, diverse/unity, energetic, and sustainable features. Its main sections are Fractals, Cellular Automata, Complexity, Other Quantifications and Humanistic and Multidisciplinary Aspects. Chapters include A Fractal Approach to Explore Australian Urban Form and Neighborhood Scales, Foundations of Cellular Automata and Complexity Theory, Space Syntax: A Network Configuration, and Taking Cities as a Coherent Whole. Herein the emphasis is on nested networks, self-organized liveliness, pattern and process language, self-similarities, and more. See also, for example, The Handbook of Urban Morphology (Wiley, 2018) and Urban Morphology (Springer 2016) and Theories and Models of Urbanization edited by Denise Pumain (Springer 2020).

This edited volume provides a resource for urban morphology, the study of urban forms and structures, offering a vital mathematical perspective. The first part covers fractals and how self-similar structures sort themselves through competition. This is followed by cellular automata, and how they generate fractal forms. The third part focuses on networks such as street topologies, while the fourth presents complexity in relation to urban structures. A variety of quantitative models are cited as study examples.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Pumain, Denise and Juste Raimbault. Perspectives on Urban Theories. arXiv:1911.02854. Systems geographers Denise, a senior Parisian polyscholar (bio below) and Juste, now at University College London, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, post a chapter to appear in Theories and Models of Urbanization (Springer, 2020) in its Lecture Notes in Morphogenesis series. By a broad view, after 21st century studies which found that city settlements innately take upon and hold to active nonlinear, complex, nested network, fractal scale, animate features, a new phase of their integrative notice and adaptation is now underway. Similar projects are forming in Japan and China, check this eprint site. See also, for example Urban Scaling Laws by Diego Rybski, et al in Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science (46/9, 2019).

At the end of the five years of work in our GeoDiverCity program, we brought together a diversity of authors from different disciplines. Each person was invited to present an important question about the theories and models of urbanization. They are representative of a variety of currents in urban research. Rather than repeat here the contents of all chapters, we propose two ways to synthesize the scientific contributions of this book. In a first part we replace them in relation to a few principles that were experimented in our program, and in a second part we situate them with respect to a broader view of international literature on these topics. (Abstract)

Denise Pumain trained in geography at Ecole Normale Supérieure; she was a Lecturer and Professor from 1970 at the University of Paris-Sorbonne, Director of the European Research Group Spatial Simulation for Social Sciences, 2006–2013, Principal Investigator of ERC GeoDiverCity (Google), 2011–2016, and other such projects. Her scientific interest is to develop an evolutionary theory of urban societies by transferring concepts and models from self-organizing complex systems.

Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Lenton, Timothy, et al. Climate Tipping Points are Too Risky to Bet Against. Nature. 575/592, 2019. Seven senior climate scientists including Will Steffen and Hans Schellnhuber seek to inform and warn that near and far world weather, as a hyper-complex, quite over-stressed dynamical system, is capable of a sudden, abrupt change of (attractor) state. But then Hollywood has long picked up on this peril with biosphere busters such as The Day After Tomorrow, Geostorm, Category Seven, Twister, and more.

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Palmer, Tim and Bjorn Stevens. The Scientific Challenge of Understanding and Estimating Climate Change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116/24390, 2019. Senior Oxford University and MPI Meteorology theorists are concerned that present local and global quantifications remain quite inadequate to this imperative project of gaining deeper accuracies and understandings, which can then aid prediction and mitigation.

Given the slow unfolding of what may become catastrophic changes to Earth’s climate, many are understandably distraught by failures of public policy to rise to the magnitude of the challenge. Few in the science community would think to question the scientific response to the unfolding changes. However, is the science community continuing to do its part to the best of its ability? In the domains where we can have the greatest influence, is the scientific community articulating a vision commensurate with the challenges posed by climate change? We think not. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Atzori, Matteo and Roberta Sessoli. The Second Quantum Revolution: Role and Challenges of Molecular Chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141/29, 2019. Materials scientists posted in France and Italy cite this title phrase to designate present progress in the actual applications of quantum phenomena such as coherence, sensing, optics, entanglement and more. In this title regime, they are used to form hierarchical super-structures in biomaterials. See also A Chemical Path to Quantum Information by Stephen von Kugelgen and Danna Freedman in Science (366/1107, 2019).

An implementation of modern Quantum Technologies might benefit from the remarkable properties shown by molecular spin systems. In this Perspective, we highlight the role that molecular chemistry can have in the current second quantum revolution, i.e., the use of quantum principles to create novel advanced technologies. We review the current status of the field by identifying recent advances made by the molecular chemistry community, such as the design of molecular spin qubits with long spin coherence and multiqubit architectures. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Canfield, Paul. New Materials Physics. Reports on Progress in Physics. 83/016001, 2020. The DOE Ames (Iowa) Laboratory senior condensed matter physicist introduces and surveys this open frontier of the historic transfiguration of cosmic substance from its long, contingent phase to a radically intentional, informed, sustainable, biocreative futurity. As a spokesperson for this national and global research community, a new era of material recreation and enhancement beckons whence all manner of formulations can be beneficially made anew.

This review presents a survey of, and guide to, New Materials Physics research. It begins with an overview of the goals of New Materials Physics and then presents important ideas and techniques for the design and growth of new materials. An emphasis is placed on the use of compositional phase diagrams to inform and motivate solution growth of single crystals. The second half of this review focuses on the vital process of generating actionable ideas for the growth and discovery of new materials and ground states. Motivations ranging from (1) wanting a specific compound, to (2) wanting a specific ground state to (3) wanting to explore for known and unknown unknowns, will be discussed and illustrated with abundant examples. The goal of this review is to inform, inspire, an even entertain, as many practitioners of this field as possible. (Abstract)

Humanity needs to find the materials that will ease is growing needs for reliable, renewable, clean, energy and/or will allow for greater insight into the mysteries of collective and, in some cases, emergent states. In this talk I will present a broad overview of New Materials Physics and discuss the three basic motivations for making n advance: wanting a specific compound; wanting a specific ground state; searching for known and unknown unknowns. Materials discussed will span superconductors, quasicrystals, heavy fermions, fragile magnets, topological electronic systems, local moment magnets and more. (PC 2017 APS talk)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Khajetoorians, Alexander, et al. Designer Quantum States of Matter Created Atom-by-Atom. arXiv:1904.11680. In an article to appear in Nature Reviews Physics, Radboud University, Delft University of Technology and Utrecht University scientists including Ingmar Swart review this future frontier as our globally collaborative human agency begins a second, intentional material creation. An Integrated Nanolab will then avail tunneling, spin lattices, topography, atomic resolution, quasiparticles, magnetism, spectroscopy qualities and much more.

With the advances in high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy as well as atomic-scale manipulation, it has become possible to create and characterize quantum states of matter bottom-up, atom-by-atom. We review recent advances in creating artificial electronic and spin lattices that lead to exotic quantum phases of matter from topological Dirac dispersion to complex magnetic order. We also project future perspectives in non-equilibrium dynamics, prototype technologies, engineered quantum phase transitions and topology, as well as the evolution of complexity from simplicity in this newly developing field. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Emani, Prashant, et al. Quantum Computing at the Frontiers of Biological Sciences. arXiv:1911.07127. Eighteen system geneticists from across the USA and onto the UK, including Marc Gerstein and Alan Aspuru-Guzik, scope out how the latest informational processing abilities by the unique properties of this physical realm can foster a new speedy phase of decipherment, discovery and biocreativity. Case examples are then drawn from an organismic span of genomes (GWAS) to cells, organic systems, brains, consequent behaviors and onto integrations across disciplines.

The search for meaningful structure in biological data is aided by advances in computational technology and data science. However, challenges arise as we push the limits of scale and complexity in biological problems. Classical computing hardware and algorithms continue to progress, but new paradigms to circumvent current barriers to processing speed are needed. Here we seek to innovate quantum computation and quantum information methods with polynomial and exponential speedups by way of machine learning. In regard, we explore the potential for quantum computing to aid in the merging of insights from genetics, genomics, neuroimaging and behavioral phenotyping. We highlight the need for a common language between biological data analysis and quantum computing algorithms across the biological sciences. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Lawson, Christopher, et al. Common Principles and Best Practices for Engineering Microbiomes. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 17/725, 2019. In a Tractability and Translation section, a thirteen member team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Montana, Tennessee, Minnesota, Purdue, UC Santa Barbara, Michigan, Delft, and Lawrence Berkeley Labs scope out procedures as our composite human intellect begins to manage and make anew our microbial inhabitants. Some are symbiotic, but others are viral invasive. Thus, an historic phase of palliative and beneficial apply, with all due respects, is in commencement. See also Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: Microorganisms and Climate Change by Ricardo Cavicchioli, et al in this journal (June 18, 2019).

In a Tractability and Translation section, a thirteen member team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Montana, Tennessee, Minnesota, Purdue, UC Santa Barbara, Michigan, Delft, and Lawrence Berkeley Labs scope out procedures as our composite human intellect begins to manage and make anew our microbial inhabitants. Some are symbiotic, but others are viral invasive. Thus, an historic phase of palliative and beneficial apply, with all due respects, is in commencement. See also Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: Microorganisms and Climate Change by Ricardo Cavicchioli, et al in this journal (June 18, 2019).

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