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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Genesis Vision
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Earth Life Emerge
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 46 through 60 of 63 found.

Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

vandermeer, John and Ivette Perfecto. Ecological Complexity and Agroecology. London: Routledge, 2017. University of Michigan senior professors of ecology, evolutionary biology, natural resources and environments (search) provide a unique textbook for this subject which can also represent a 2010s revolutionary, advantageous synthesis of this vital sustenance resource with nature’s innate underlay of self-organizing network patterns and processes. Chapter titles such as Multidimensionality, Coupled Oscillatory, Stochasticity and Critical Transitions discuss and apply the latest ecosmos code mathematical guidance. OK

While the science of ecology should be the basis of agroecological planning, many analysts have out-of-date ideas about contemporary ecology. Ecology has come a long way since the old days of "the balance of nature" and other notions of how ecological systems function. In this context, the new science of complexity has become vitally important in the modern science of ecology. The book’s organization consists of an introductory chapter, and a second chapter providing some of the background to basic ecological topics as they are relevant to agroecosystrems (e.g., soil biology and pest control). The core of the book consists of seven chapters on key intersecting themes of ecological complexity, including issues such as spatial patterns, network theory and tipping points, illustrated by examples from agroecology and agricultural systems from around the world.

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

Vandermeer, John, et al. New Forms of Structure in Ecosystems Revealed with the Kuramoto Model. arXiv:2006.16006. University of Michigan sustainability enviromentalists including Ivette Perfecto post a latest advance of their project to better understand diverse flora and fauna biotas by way of nonlinear network complexities. It opens with a review of prior glimpses of a natural, endemic nonlinearity in formative effect. Into the 2010s, global computational and communicative efforts are now well able to quantify independent, mathematical, complex adaptive self-organizations. This paper then cites a new perception that ecosystems are composed of periodic, interactive, synchronized oscillations between transitional phases such as predator/prey, invasion/resistance and so on. Thus, even myriad ecologies are found to be defined by a “chimera” condition, similar to other reams such as brains and metabolisms.

For a series of related work, see Viewing Communities as Coupled Oscillators: Elementary Forms from Lotka and Volterra to Kuramoto by Zachary Haijan-Forooshani and John Vandermeer in bioRxiv (May 27, 2020), The Community Ecology of Herbivore Regulation in an Agroecosystem: Lessons from Complex Systems by John Vandermeer et al in BioScience (69/12, 2019, reviewed herein), Chimera Patterns Induced by Distance-Dependent Power-Law Coupling in Ecological Networks by Tanmoy Banerjee, et al in Physical Review E (94/032206, 2016) and Synchronization Unveils the Organization of Ecological Networks with Positive and Negative Interactions by Andrea, Giron, et al in Chaos (26/065302, 2016). A unique text for this ecosmic ecosystem revolution is Ecological Complexity and Agroecology by John Vandermeer and Ivette Perfecto (Routledge, 2017, search).

Ecological systems, as is often noted, are complex. Equally notable is the common generalization that complex systems tend to be oscillatory, which could provide insights into the structure of ecological systems. A popular analytical tools for such studies is the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. Using a well-studied system of pests and their enemies in an agroecosystem, we apply this stylized model to ask whether its actual natural history is reflected in the dynamics of the qualitatively instantiated Kuramoto model. Indeed, synchrony groups with an overlying chimeric structure, depending on the strength of the inter-oscillator coupling, are found. We conclude that the Kuramoto model presents a novel window to better understand the interactive forms of ecological systems. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

Vandermeer, John, et al. The Community Ecology of Herbivore Regulation in an Agroecosystem: Lessons from Complex Systems. BioScience. 69/12, 2019. With 30 authors from 4 continents, this article well represents the 21st century discovery that flora and fauna environs are indeed graced and structured by a domain of nonlinear mathematic phenomena, just as everywhere else. In regard, an application of theoretical aspects, as the Abstract notes, onto invasive pest and pathogen management for coffee growers results in advanced, beneficial results.

Whether an ecological community is controlled from above or below remains a popular framework and takes on especially important meaning in agroecosystems. We describe the regulation from above of three coffee herbivores, a leaf herbivore, a seed predator, and a plant pathogen by various natural enemies, emphasizing the remarkable complexity involved. We emphasize the intersection of classical ecology with the burgeoning field of complex systems with reference to chaos, critical transitions, hysteresis, basin or boundary collision, and spatial self-organization, all aimed at the applied question of pest control in the coffee agroecosystem. (Abstract excerpt)

Regulation of this herbivore is therefore effected through a complex system involving a Turing process, nonlinear indirect interactions, critical transitions, hysteresis, chaos, basin or boundary collisions, and a hypergraph, all elements of the burgeoning field of complex systems. (984)

Earth Life > Nest > Gaia

Payne, Jonathan, et al. The Evolution of Complex Life and the Stabilization of the Earth System. Interface Focus. June, 2020. For an issue on The Origin and Rise of Complex Life, Stanford, Tufts, Yale, and University of Hawaii biogeologists advance understandings of planetary bioregulations as they long proceeded to modify and tailor environmental conditions to organismic life’s advantage.

Earth's increasing habitability could result from: (i) a decrease in the intensity of interactions among species; (ii) a decrease in the prevalence or intensity of geological triggers; (iii) a decrease in the sensitivity of animals to environmental disturbance; or (iv) an increase in the strength of stabilizing feedbacks within the climate system and biogeochemical cycles. There is evidence from palaeontology, geochemistry and comparative physiology that animals have become more resilient to an environmental change and that the evolution of complex life has, on the whole, strengthened stabilizing feedbacks in the climate system. The differential success of certain phyla and classes appears to result from anatomical solutions to the evolution of macroscopic size that arrived during Ediacaran and Cambrian time. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Sentience > Brain Anatomy

De la Fuente, Ildefonso, et al. Evidence of Conditioned Behavior in Amoebae. Nature Communications. 10/369, 2009. Twelve Spanish systems biologists describe the clever ways by which to perceive the life’s associative learning method in effect even in these early, unicellular organisms.

Associative memory is the main type of learning by which complex organisms endowed with evolved nervous systems respond to environmental stimuli. It has been found in different multicellular species, from cephalopods to humans, but never in individual cells. Here we describe a motility pattern consistent with associative conditioned behavior in the microorganism Amoeba proteus. We confirm a similar behavior in a related species, Metamoeba leningradensis. Thus, our results indicate that unicellular organisms can modify their behavior during migration by associative conditioning. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Sentience > Evolution Language

Prieur, Jacques, et al. The Origins of Gestures and Language. Biological Reviews. 95/3, 2020. Free University of Berlin and Normandie University paleolinguists advance understandings of the important role of early simian hand, eye and bodily motions as a form of rudimentary proto-language.

Investigating the deeper mechanisms of human and non‐human primate communication systems can shed light on the evolutionary roots of language. Reports on great apes suggest that gestures have been a crucial prerequisite for language. We review three processes that can explain this: phylogenetic ritualisation, ontogenetic ritualisation, and learning via social negotiation. Our scenario postulates that primates' communication is a complex trait shaped by a cost–benefit trade‐off of signal production in relation to four interlinked evolutionary and life cycle factors: species, individual and context‐related characteristics as well as behavioural characteristics. (Abstract excerpt)

WumanKinder: An Emergent Transition in Individuality

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Dresp-Langley, Birgitta. Seven Properties of Self-Organization in the Human Brain. Big Data and Cognitive Computing.. 4/2, 2020. In this MDPI online journal, a CNRS University of Strasbourg, France research director provides an extensive survey of how nature’s proclivity to organize itself so distinguishes our cerebral development and cognitive abilities.

The principle of self-organization has become a significant part of the emerging field of computational philosophy. Self-organizing systems have been described in various domains in science and philosophy including physics, neuroscience, biology, medicine, ecology, and sociology. In regard, there are (at least) seven key properties of self-organization identified in brains: 1) modular connectivity, 2) unsupervised learning, 3) adaptive ability, 4) resiliency, 5) plasticity, 6) local-to-global arrangement, and 7) dynamic system growth. These are defined here via insights from neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience and Adaptive Resonance Theory (S. Grossberg), and from physics to show that self-organization achieves functional stability and plasticity with minimum complexity. (Abstract excerpt)

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Papadimitriou, Christos, et al. Brain Computation by Assemblies of Neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/14464, 2020. Veteran Columbia University, Georgia Tech, and Graz University of Technology computer scientists propose and discuss ways how the content of neural associations might be projected and traced all the way to thoughtful linguistic results.

Our expanding understanding of the brain at the level of neurons and synapses, and the level of cognitive phenomena such as language, leaves a formidable gap between these two scales. Here we introduce a computational system which promises to bridge this gap: the Assembly Calculus. It encompasses operations on assemblies of neurons, such as project, associate, and merge, which appear to be implicated in cognitive phenomena, and can be shown, analytically as well as through simulations, to be plausibly realizable at the level of neurons and synapses. We demonstrate the reach of this system by proposing a brain architecture for syntactic processing in the production of language, compatible with recent experimental results. (Significance)

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology

Harvard Human Immunomics Initiative. Google key words. In the midst of the Coronavirus pandemic, this is an April 2020 Harvard School of Public Health project which seeks to foster global collaborations to gather, coordinate, study, test and advance the broad endeavor of effective vaccines. Frontier applications of AI and deep learning methods are a key feature. It is alluded that the result might ultimately act as a planetary immune system with better responses. For a companion effort, see Here’s How to Use Tech to Turn COVID-19 Tragedy into a Global Immune System (Google) on the Atlantic Council website. For complex system insights see Quantitative Immunology for Physicists by Gregoire Altan-Bonnet, et al in Physics Reports (Vol. 849, 2020, search). This site has also broached a Global Geonome component in the Cultural Code section

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology

votsis, Athanasios and Riina Haavisto. Urban DNA and Sustainable Cities. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 7/4, 2019. We cite this entry because these Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki geographers consider how a broadly conceived analog genetic-like source code may help explain many features of smaller and larger dynamic human habitations. See also A Model of Urban Evolution based on Innovation Diffusion by Juste Raimbault at arXiv:2004.15023 for similar views.

The concept of Urban DNA has served to describe how a set of growth parameters may encode the manner in which cities evolve in space and the forms they may assume. The five growth coefficients of the SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Exclusion, Urban, Transport, Hillshade) cellular automaton model of land use change are often seen as genetic in kind. It is also important to understand whether urban DNA classes relate to outcomes in terms of livability and sustainability. The results distinguish six such types of cities: multinodal, dispersed cities, with mixed outcomes; multinodal, contiguous, slow-growing; transport-oriented, dispersed, fast-growing; large, buzzy, constrained; dense, contiguous, fast-growing; and transport-oriented, contiguous, interactive cities. (Abstract excerpt)

The paper aims to develop a behavioral taxonomy of cities by discerning their urban DNA and exploring the performance of city types in a variety of livability and sustainability indicators and indices. (1-2) Urban (regional) DNA is an analogy to biological DNA: it consists of growth coefficients similar to how proteins compose biological DNA. The notion has found resonance in urban growth processes which encode rules that dictate how the repetition of elementary socio-spatial entities achieves certain urban forms and urban functions across scales. (3)

Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future

Future > Old World

Xu, Chi, et al. Future of the Human Climate Niche. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/11350, 2020. International scholars from China, the UK, USA, Denmark and the Netherlands including Tim Lenton and Marten Scheffer point out that while anthropo sapiens has spread all over the Earth, the most inhabiting populations have confined themselves to narrower, defined zones. By this view, these preferred areas come under even more impact, constraint and imminent peril.

We show that for thousands of years, humans have concentrated in a surprisingly narrow subset of Earth’s available climates, characterized by mean annual temperatures around ∼13 °C. This distribution likely reflects a human temperature niche related to fundamental constraints. We demonstrate that depending on scenarios of population growth and warming, over the coming 50 y, 1 to 3 billion people are projected to be left outside the climate conditions that have served humanity well over the past 6,000 y. Absent climate mitigation or migration, a substantial part of humanity will be exposed to mean annual temperatures warmer than nearly anywhere today. (Significance)

Future > Old World > Climate

Cheung, Kevin and Ugur Osturk. Synchronization of Extreme Rainfall During the Australian Monsoon: Complex Network Perspectives. Chaos. 30/6, 2020. Macquarrie University and GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam systems environmentalists describe how network centrality measures such as degree and local clustering are suitable for and can be graphed unto active stormy weather.

Future > Old World > Climate

Ghil, Michael and Valerio Lucarini. The Physics of Climate Variability and Climate Change. Reviews of Modern Physics. Online March, 2020. Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris and University of Reading, UK geoscientists post an 86 page tutorial as dynamic geologic, oceanic and atmospheric phases become amenable to nonlinear analysis. Along the way, the presence of critical phases and transitions are indeed seen in effect. When this general endeavor began two decades ago, akin to quantum realms, weather and climatic phases seemed so intricate and intractable they would daunt any analytical attempt. As the first Abstract sentence states this worldwild realm is now included amongst nature’s universal recurrence. See also Stochastic Resonance for Non-Equilibrium Systems by V. Lucarini at arXiv:1910.05048.

The climate system is a forced, dissipative, nonlinear, complex and heterogeneous system out of thermodynamic equilibrium with a natural variability on many scales of motion in time and space. This paper reviews observational evidence on climate phenomena and governing equations of planetary-scale flow. Recent advances in the application of dynamical systems theory and nonequilibrium statistical physics are brought together help understand and predict the system’s behavior. These complementary views permit a self-consistent handling of subgrid-scale phenomena as stochastic processes, as well as a unified handling of natural climate variability and forced climate change. (Abstract)

Future > Old World > Climate

Selvam, Amujuri Mary. Self-Organized Criticality and Predictability in Atmospheric Flows: The Quantum World of Clouds and Rain. International: Springer, 2017. The senior physicist author is deputy director of the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology in Poona. As the quote says, the volume is a sophisticated, exemplary witness that even hyper-active complex weather phenomena can be found to reside in nature’s universally preferred state.

This book presents a new concept of General Systems Theory and its application to atmospheric physics. It reveals that energy input into the atmospheric eddy continuum, whether natural or manmade, results in enhancement of fluctuations of all scales, such as the high-frequency fluctuations of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and the El-Nino–Southern Oscillation cycles. These atmospheric flows then exhibit a self-organised criticality via long-range spatial and temporal correlations which manifest as fractal self-similar patterns with an inverse power law form. Since the probability distributions of amplitude and variance are the same, atmospheric flows exhibit quantum-like chaos. Long-range correlations inherent to power law distributions of fluctuations are identified as nonlocal connection or entanglement exhibited by quantum systems such as electrons or photons.

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Alsharif, Mohammed, et al. Sixth Generation (6G) Wireless Networks: Vision, Research Activities, Challenges and Potential Solutions. Symmetry. 12/4, 2020. An international team posted in Korea, Nigeria, Oman, Turkey, and Pakistan scope out this new hyper-dimensional worldwise knowledge transmission system. By order of magnitude advances and reach it promises ever faster speeds and content capacity. Once again, our premise is that this noosphere, conceived a century ago by V. Vernadsky and P. Teilhard, into the 21st century is manifestly coming to its (her/his) own knowledge and revolutionary discovery.

The standardization activities of fifth generation communications are clearly over and deployment has commenced globally. To sustain the competitive edge of wireless networks, industrial and academia synergy have begun to conceptualize the next generation of wireless systems (sixth generation, 6G) aimed at laying the foundation for communication needs of the 2030s. In support, this study highlights promising lines of research from the recent literature for the 6G project. Thus, this article will contribute significantly to opening new horizons for future research directions. (Abstract excerpt)

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