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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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III. Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet Lifescape

1. Quantum Organics in the 21st Century

Giannozzi, Paolo, et al. Quantum ESPRESSO toward the Exascale. Journal of Chemical Physics. 152/154105, 2020. We cite this entry by fifteen European Union physicists as a current example of how this once intractable, basic domain is now readily being availed for all manner of material, computational, linguistic and practical advantages. This project noted below began in 2002, and is here reviewed “at the turn of the twenties.”

Quantum ESPRESSO is an open-source distribution of computer codes for quantum-mechanical materials modeling based on density-functional theory, pseudopotentials, and plane waves, and renowned for its performance on a wide range of hardware. In this paper, we present a review of the ongoing effort to port Quantum ESPRESSO onto heterogeneous architectures based on hardware accelerators, which will overcome the energy constraints that are currently slowing exascale computing. (Abstract)

Quantum ESPRESSO Foundation: QEF is the home of this project for materials modeling at the nanoscale. We pledge ourselves to an open vision of science and software engineering. We foster the design, development, maintenance, and distribution of high-quality open-source software for the quantum simulation of matter, and we are committed to the dissemination of the art and science of scientific computing, by promoting training courses worldwide.

Gogolin, Christian and Jens Eisert. Equilibration, Thermalisation, and the Emergence of Statistical Mechanics in Closed Quantum Systems. Reports on Progress in Physics. 79/5, 2016. Free University of Berlin, Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems (Google), researchers contribute to a 2010s reconception of quantum phenomena by which this realm and a macro-classic phase become increasingly intertwined and unified.

We review selected advances in the theoretical understanding of complex quantum many-body systems with regard to emergent notions of quantum statistical mechanics. We cover topics such as equilibration and thermalisation in pure state statistical mechanics, the eigenstate thermalisation hypothesis, the equivalence of ensembles, non-equilibration dynamics following global and local quenches as well as ramps. We also address initial state independence, absence of thermalisation, and many-body localisation. We elucidate the role played by key concepts for these phenomena, such as Lieb–Robinson bounds, entanglement growth, typicality arguments, quantum maximum entropy principles and the generalised Gibbs ensembles, and quantum (non-) integrability. We put emphasis on rigorous approaches and present the most important results in a unified language. (Abstract)

Goncalves, Carlos. Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration. arXiv:1402.1141. A University of Lisbon physicist joins the worldwide 2010s whole scale reimagination of this foundational realm, as every other realm has done, by way of lively nonlinear dynamics. This paper attends more to artificial neural networks, while a later issue, Financial Market Modeling with Quantum Neural Networks at arXiv:1508.06586 goes on to similarities in economic phenomena.

Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Several examples of quantum feedforward neural networks are addressed in regards to Boolean functions' computation, multilayer quantum computation dynamics, entanglement and quantum complementarity. The examples provide a framework for a reflection on the role of quantum artificial neural networks as a general framework for addressing complex quantum systems that perform network-based quantum computation, possible consequences are drawn regarding quantum technologies, as well as fundamental research in complex quantum systems science and quantum biology. (1402.1141 Abstract)

Econophysics has developed as a research field that applies the formalism of Statistical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics to address Economics and Finance problems. The branch of Econophysics that applies of Quantum Theory to Economics and Finance is called Quantum Econophysics. In Finance, Quantum Econophysics' contributions have ranged from option pricing to market dynamics modeling, behavioral finance and applications of Game Theory, integrating the empirical finding, from human decision analysis, that shows that nonlinear update rules in probabilities, leading to non-additive decision weights, can be computationally approached from quantum computation, with resulting quantum interference terms explaining the non-additive probabilities. The current work draws on these results to introduce new tools from Quantum Artificial Intelligence, namely Quantum Artificial Neural Networks as a way to build and simulate financial market models with adaptive selection of trading rules, leading to turbulence and excess kurtosis in the returns distributions for a wide range of parameters. (1508.06586 Abstract)

Heyl, Markus. Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions. Reports on Progress in Physics. 81/5, 2018. We post this paper by a MPI Physics of Complex Systems theorist as an example, of not yet widely appreciated 21st century revisions amongst studies of this fundamental domain. While it retains an older strangeness, this deepest strata has become treatable as dynamic, nonlinear phenomena similar to everywhere else in macro-classical realms. All of which augurs for an imminent, seamless synthesis, for example see Probing Quantum Features of Photosynthetic Organisms at arXiv:1711.06485 (Krisnanda).

Quantum theory provides an extensive framework for the description of the equilibrium properties of quantum matter. Yet experiments in quantum simulators have now opened up a route towards the generation of quantum states beyond this equilibrium paradigm. While these states promise to show properties not constrained by equilibrium principles, such as the equal a priori probability of the microcanonical ensemble, identifying the general properties of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics remains a major challenge, especially in view of the lack of conventional concepts such as free energies. The theory of dynamical quantum phase transitions attempts to identify such general principles by lifting the concept of phase transitions to coherent quantum real-time evolution. This review provides a pedagogical introduction to this field. (Abstract)

Heylighen, Francis. Entanglement, Symmetry Breaking and Collapse: Correspondences between Quantum and Self-Organizing Dynamics. hecco.vub.ac.be/?q=node/21. This is a Working Paper by the ECCO Evolution, Complexity & Cognition Group director, based at the Free University of Brussels. A full edition is online at its website. In regard, it achieves a rare contrast of these two prime but heretofore unrelated scientific fields and approaches unto a dynamically creative natural genesis. As this merger unfolds, a need is to blend and clarify the different terms that each uses. Looking ahead, complex adaptive systems of interacting agents ought to find affinities with quantum arcana because each is really trying to describe the same phenomena. Although not specifically cited, a tendency for quantum systems to be in some indeterminate superposition state, which is neither one thing or its opposite (3) seems quite akin to complex self-organized criticalities.

Huang, Hsin-Yuan and Richard Kueng. Predicting Features of Quantum Systems using Classical Shadows. arXiv:1908.08909. We cite this paper by CalTech mathematical physicists as a 2019 example of how, while a mindset of intractable strangeness still holds, quantum phenomena has become widely treatable as and interchangeable with macro-matter dynamic complexities.

Predicting features of complex, large-scale quantum systems is essential to the characterization and engineering of quantum architectures. We present an efficient approach for predicting a large number of linear features using classical shadows obtained from very few quantum measurements. This sampling rate is completely independent of the system size and saturates fundamental lower bounds from information theory. These highlight advantages compared to existing machine learning approaches. (Abstract excerpt)

Ijjas, Anna and Paul Steinhardt. A New Kind of Cyclic Universe. arXiv:1904.08022. The Harvard and Princeton astrophysicist team continues their theoretical finesse of a spatial and temporal series of cosmoses which seems to occur without original inflationary events. We also note as an example of how clever, collaborative human persons on a minute bioworld can be able to altogether quantify and consider entire universes. See later postings at 2006.04999 and 2006.01172 which merited a Quanta report Big Bounce Simulations Challenge the Big Bang by Charles Wood. (August 4, 2020). See an update Entropy, Black Holes and the New Cyclic Universe at 2108.07101. Anna Ijjas is now at the MPI for Gravitational Physics.

Combining intervals of ekpyrotic (ultra-slow) contraction with a (non-singular) classical bounce naturally leads to a novel cyclic theory of the universe in which the Hubble parameter, energy density and temperature oscillate periodically, but the scale factor grows by an exponential factor from one cycle to the next. The resulting cosmology not only resolves the homogeneity, isotropy, flatness and monopole problems and generates a nearly scale invariant spectrum of density perturbations, but it also addresses a number of age-old cosmological issues that big bang inflationary cosmology does not. There may also be wider-ranging implications for fundamental physics, black holes and quantum measurement. (Abstract)

First, the new cyclic theory resolves the homogeneity, isotropy, flatness, and monopole problems and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic, gaussian density fluctuations without requiring special initial conditions or triggering the kind of quantum runaway that leads to the multiverse effect. Second, the density perturbations are generated without producing a primordial spectrum of tensor fluctuations, a combination that is in agreement with current observations. Third, the evolution of the universe is described to leading order by classical equations of motion at every stage. (1)

Ippoliti, Xiao, et al. Observation of Time-Crystalline Eigenstate Order on a Quantum Processor. arXiv:2107.13571. We cite this posting by some 100 coauthors across the USA in association with Google Quantum AI as an exemplary instance of a 21st century Quantum Organics revolution as this once arcane domain becomes treatable as any “classical” complex, network system. (By so doing both phases now meld and inform each other.) A further aspect would be the degree to which collective Earthuman sapience seems able to delve into any depth (and breadth) of an encoded ecosmic reality, so as to begin and continue on to a new, second cocreative genesis.

Quantum many-body systems display rich phase structure in their low-temperature states. However, much of nature is not in thermal equilibrium. Remarkably, it was recently predicted that out-of-equilibrium systems can exhibit novel dynamical phases such as the discrete time crystal (DTC). These active states can occur in periodic many-body systems by way of an eigenstate-order. As a result, the entire many-body spectrum exhibits quantum correlations and long-range order. Here we describe the typical spatiotemporal response of a DTC for generic initial states. These results establish a scalable approach to study non-equilibrium phases of matter on current quantum processors. (Abstract excerpt)

jaeger, Gregg, et al. Second Quantum Revolution: Foundational Questions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 375/20160397, 2016. GJ, Boston University, Andrei Khrennikov, Linnaeus University, Sweden and Paolo Perinotti, University of Pavia, Italy introduce a special issue to survey this 21st century and 2010s conceptual frontier. Some papers are Quantum-like Dynamics Applied to Cognition, Contexuality in Canonical Systems, and Quantum Potentiality Revisited. See also The Second Quantum Revolution: Challenges of Molecular Chemistry by Matteo Atzori and Roberta Sessoli in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (141/29, 2019) for another use of this phrase.

Recent theoretical and experimental successes in quantum physics are considered by many to be forging a second quantum revolution. These successes clearly indicate that important quantum technological improvements are on the way. However, many important foundational issues in quantum theory have not yet been clearly resolved, e.g. the quantum measurement problem, the justification of the application of the quantum formalism for macroscopic systems, the possibility of going beyond quantum theory, quantum non-locality, the relativistic treatment of entanglement and an indisputable understanding of the probabilistic structure of Bell's argument.

Jia, Ding. Correlational Quantum Theory. arXiv:2001.03142. We cite this entry by a University of Waterloo doctoral student also associated with the Perimeter Institute for novel views of how this field might continue to advance, as the quotes say. His implication of a correlative organic cosmos would serve to bridge once and future millennia. A further notice is an employ of the “qudit” term to represent higher level combinations (search) above two “qubits.”

A correlational dialect is introduced within the quantum theory language to give a unified treatment of finite-dimensional informational/operational quantum theories, infinite-dimensional quantum field theories, and quantum gravity. Theories are written in terms of correlation diagrams which specify correlation types and strengths. Feynman diagrams emerge as topological classes of correlation diagrams without any perturbative considerations. The correlational formalism is applied in a study of correlation constraints, revealing new classes of quantum processes that evade previous characterizations of general quantum processes including quantum causal structure. (Abstract)

Quantum theory has gone through several phases of evolution. It started as the quantum mechanics of particles, and as a theory of fields. More recently the quantum theory of information has been on the rise. Will the future reveal yet new phases of quantum phenomena? Our vision is that besides particles, fields, and bits (dits), correlations should also be used as a fundamental concept in constructing quantum theories. Generally, we understand quantum correlation as anything that is mediated and has a quantifiable strength in a quantum theory. As such correlations transcend the distinction between particles and fields, which both involve mediated quantifiable correlations, and go beyond qubits, which are limited to finite dimensions). (1)

Qudit: The unit of quantum information described by a superposition of d states, where d is an integer greater than two; the generalization to base d of a qubit. (Wiktionary)

Kirchner, Stefan, et al. Colloquium: Heavy-electron Quantum Criticality and Single-particle Spectroscopy. Reviews of Modern Physics. 92/011002, 2020. A seven person international effort from Zhejiang University, Vienna University, MPI Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Rice University, TX provides deeply technical excursion through these newly open frontiers where strong signatures of critically poised states can again be found. For specific case, they appear in ytterbium, rhenium, silicon compositions and other complex chemicals, that is to say, innately throughout material nature.

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) have become indispensable tools in the study of correlated quantum materials. Both probe complementary aspects of the single-particle excitation spectrum. ARPES and STM can study the electronic Green’s function, a central object of many-body theory. This review focuses on heavy-electron quantum criticality, especially the role of Kondo destruction. Particular emphasis is placed on the question of how to distinguish between the signatures of the initial onset of hybridization-gap formation, which characterizes the low-energy physics and, hence, the nature of quantum criticality. (Abstract excerpt)

I. QUANTUM CRITICALITY: Quantum phase transitions occur at zero temperature and like their finite temperature counterparts, they can be either first order or continuous. In contrast to the finite temperature case where thermal fluctuations drive the transition, quantum fluctuations, encoded already at the Hamiltonian level, are responsible for the occurrence of a quantum phase transition. If the transition is continuous, characteristic, critical scaling ensues in its vicinity which reflects the singular correlations of the ground state wave function. (3)

Kremen, Anna, et al. Imaging Quantum Fluctuations near Criticality. Nature Physics. December, 2018. We note this paper by Bar Ilan, Israel, Ohio State, and North Dakota University researchers for its frontier content and because it suggests a systemic tendency to reach a critical point.

A quantum phase transition (QPT) occurs between two competing phases of matter at zero temperature, driven by quantum fluctuations. Although the presence of these fluctuations is well established, they have not been locally imaged in space, and their dynamics has not been studied so far. We use a scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image fluctuations near the QPT from a superconductor to an insulator. We find fluctuations of the diamagnetic response in both space and time that survive well below the transition temperature, demonstrating their quantum nature. The lateral dimension of these fluctuations grows towards criticality, offering a new measurable length scale. This paves a new route for future quantum information applications. (Abstract)

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