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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 61 through 75 of 102 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Nest > Microbial

Menon, Shakti, et al. Information Integration and Collective Motility in Phototactic Cyanobacteria. PLoS Computational Biology. April, 2020. Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Tamil Nadu, India researchers describe how bacterial groupings can be seen to exhibit and be modeled by active matter phenomena. In regard, quorum sensing is interpreted to proceed by way of integrating relevant information. Altogether another manifestation of universal principles and formations.

Microbial colonies in the wild often consist of large groups of heterogeneous cells that coordinate and integrate information across multiple spatio-temporal scales. We describe a computational model for the collective behavior of phototaxis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis that move in response to light. The results suggest that tracking individual cyanobacteria may provide a way to determine their mode of information integration. Our model allows us to address the emergent nature of this class of collective bacterial motion, linking individual cell response to the large scale dynamics of the colony. (Summary)

Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic

, Pfannschmidt. Thomas, et al. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.. May, 2020. We cite this introduction to a special collection as a good example of how much these mutualistic processes are now being found to pervade and serve the formation and activity of eukaryotic cells, a feature not considered at all a few years ago.

Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic

Varahan, Sriram, et al. Metabolic Constraints Drive Self-Organization of Specialized Cell Groups. eLife. June 26, 2019. Five Indian systems cell biologists contribute novel understandings of the many ways that cellular activities have a vitality of their own as they innately organize themselves into preferred states and solutions.

How phenotypically distinct states in isogenic cell populations appear and stably co-exist remains unresolved. We find that within a mature, clonal yeast colony in low glucose, cells arrange into metabolically disparate cell groups. Using this system, we model and experimentally identify metabolic constraints which drive such self-assembly. Our work suggests simple physico-chemical principles that determine how isogenic cells spontaneously self-organize into structured assemblies in complimentary, specialized states. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Multicellular

Fisher, R. M., et al. The Evolution of Multicellular Complexity: The Role of Relatedness and Environmental Constraints. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. July, 2020. University of Copenhagen bioecologists including J. J. Boomsma provide further natural properties that impelled unicell organisms to join into beneficial groupings. Their prevalence then seen to imply how often this imperative (obligate) major transition has occurred.

A major challenge in evolutionary biology has been to explain variations in multicellularity across independently evolved lineages from slime moulds to vertebrates. Social evolution theory highlights relatedness in vitally complex forms. However, there is a need to extend this perspective to relative environments. In this paper, we test (John) Bonner's 1998 hypothesis that such settings are crucial to its course, with aggregative multicellularity evolving more frequently on land and clonal multicellularity more often in water. Using a combination of scaling theory and phylogenetic comparations, we describe complex organizations across 139 species spanning 14 independent transitions to multicellularity. Our results show that physical environments impact how multicellular groups form, and thus affect the major evolutionary transition to obligate multicellularity. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Multicellular

Naranjo-Ortiz, Miguel and Toni Gabaldon. Fungal Evolution: Cellular, Genomic and Metabolic Complexity. Biological Reviews. April, 2020. As the life sciences proceed apace to record the anatomic presence of networks everywhere, here Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology geneticists explore in detail how these prolific microorganisms can be an exemplary way to study this interlinked and communicative phenomena. Within a sense of a transitional emergence from nucleotides and prokaryotes to mobile, varigated organisms, the fungi family do indeed provide an iconic, valuable model.

The question of how phenotypic and genomic complexity are related and shaped through evolution is a central to animal and plant biology. Recently, fungi have emerged as an alternative system of much value because they present a broad and diverse range of phenotypic traits and many different shapes. Fungal cellular organizations span from unicellular forms to complex, macroscopic multicellularity, with multiple transitions to higher or lower levels of cellular complexity occurring throughout their evolution. Similarly, fungal genomes have a diverse architecture with rapid changes in genome organization. We explore how the interplay of cellular, genomic and metabolic traits mediates the emergence of complex phenotypes. (Abstract)

Fungus compose a group of spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, including molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools.

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Brask, Josefine, et al. Animal Social Networks: An Introduction for Complex Systems Scientists. arXiv:2005.09598. University of Exeter animal behaviorists including Darren Croft show how equally real interactive relations between group members can reveal and achieve new insights and explanations. In regard, these topologies are not fixed or static in nature but provide a dynamic, beneficial matrix.

Many animals live in societies where individuals frequently interact socially with each other. Animal social network research, however, seems to not be well known by scientists outside of the animal behaviour field. Here we provide an introduction for complex systems researchers. In this paper, we describe what animal social networks are and how they are scientifically important; we give an overview of common methods; and highlight challenges where interaction between animal social network and general complex systems research could be valuable. We hope that this will help to facilitate future interdisciplinary collaborations and lead to better integration of these networks into the field of complex systems. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Couzin, Iain. Collective Animal Migration. Current Biology. 28/17, 2018. The MPI Animal Behavior pioneer systems behavior researcher provides a good summary to date of this 21st century discovery of common dynamic phenomena across all manner of active, mobile organisms and their groupings from embryonic forms to aquatic, avian, herding and onto people on the move. See his lab website for a stream of collegial papers.

Migratory movement is a strategy employed by a broad range of taxa as a response to temporally and spatially varying environments. Migrating animals can often be seen to move together, sometimes in vast numbers. Despite this, the social aspects of migration have, to date, received very limited attention. Synchronisation of migratory behaviour among organisms, itself, does not imply that migrants utilize social information. However, as will be outlined here, there is there is growing evidence that many migratory animals do utilize social cues, and that collective factors could shape migration in a variety of important ways. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Deutsch, Andreas, et al. Multi-scale Analysis and Modelling of Collective Migration in Biological Systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. July, 2020. Senior complexity scientists AD, Technical University Dresden, Peter Friedl, Radboud University, Luigi Preziosi, Polytechnic University of Torino, and Guy Theraulaz, University of Toulouse introduce a special issue with this title. A full page graphic (second quote) depicts ten examples from neural maturation to cellular, insect, fish, bird and mammalian activities whence the same patterns and processes occur across this wide expanse. Some papers herein are An Agent-based Approach for Modelling Collective Dynamics in Animal Groups, Collective Migration during Early Development of Zebrafish, Collective Migration from the Wildebeest to the Neural Crest (search Shellard), Dynamic Heterogenity during Epithelial Wound Closure, and Collective Information Processing in Human Phase Separation (Jayles). As its 125 references span the 21st century, this 2020 synopsis can report the presence of an independent, mathematical source code program which universally iterates and exemplifies in vital kind everywhere. In regard, as a pandemic and other perils rage, we would do well to realize that an actual ecosmos uniVerse in our cognitive midst that is just being discovered by our worldwise EarthKinder.

Collective migration has become a paradigm for emergent, coherent behaviour in systems of moving and interacting individual units. Collective cell migration is important in embryonic tissue and organ development, as well as pathological processes, such as cancer invasion and metastasis. Animal group movements enhance individuals' decisions and aid navigation through environments. The articles in this theme issue on compile a range of mathematical models and multi-scale methods for the analysis of collective migration which uncover new unifying organization principles of collective behavior from individual to collective forms. As a common theme, self-organized collective migration is the result of ecological and evolutionary constraints both at the cell and organismic levels. (Abstract excerpt)

Figure 1, Collective migration in biological systems. (a) Collectively migrating neural crest cells in Xenopus embryos; (b) E-cadherin negative MMT cells invading three-dimensional fibrillar collagen; (c) collective migration of cancer cells in vitro (d) electronmicrograph showing the aggregate formed by seven sperm cells of the dear moue;
(e) collective migration and aggregation by chemotaxis in the social amoeba;(f) a colony of termites on a march; (g) a migratory swarm of locusts; (h) a school of bigeye trevally Caranx sexfasciatus; (i) a flock of greater snow goose; (j) the great wildebeest migration in the Serengeti National Park.

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Grueter, Cyril, et al. Multilevel Organization of Animal Society. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. May, 2020. Sixteen researchers posted in Australia, China, Germany, the USA, Switzerland, and India including Larissa Swedell describe how animal groupings typically array into multiple nested networked units. And we note that a diagram display of this threading out appears as another epitome of life’s iterative evolutionary emergence whether bodies, brains or organisms.

Multilevel societies (MLSs), stable nuclear social units within a larger collective with multiple nested social levels, occur in several mammalian lineages. Their architectural complexity and size impose require their members to find adaptive solutions in disparate domains. Here, we propose a unifying terminology and operational definition of MLS. To identify new avenues for integrative research, we synthesise current literature on the selective pressures underlying the evolution of MLSs and their implications for cognition, intersexual conflict, and sexual selection. Mapping the drivers and consequences of MLS provides a reference point for the social evolution of many taxa, including our own species. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Jayles, Bertrand, et al. Collective Information Processing in Human Phase Separation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. July, 2020. In this same Collective Migration in Biological Systems issue, nine University of Toulouse researchers proceed to trace commonly recurrent people behavioral patterns all the way to deep physical phenomena. Our review issue introduction review (A. Deutsch herein) thus makes a proposal that in mid 2020, if of a mind to view and allow, a revolutionary genesis universe with its own genetic-like source code program has been well documented and explained.

In our digital societies, individuals interact through interfaces whose impact on collective dynamics can be important. In some contexts, segregation processes of human groups have been shown to share similarities with phase separation phenomena in physics. Here, we study the effect of information filtering on collective segregation behaviour of human groups. We introduce a model that describes the random motion of a group of pedestrians in a confined space, and which faithfully reproduces and allows interpretation of the results. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Shellard, Adam and Roberto Mayor. Rules of Collective Migration from the Wildebeest to the Neural Crest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. July, 2020. In this Collective Migration in Biological Systems issue, University College London biologists go on to report, explain and depict life’s constant active groupings from self-propelled particles to bacteria, cancer and every Metazoan phylum. An especial point is the common affinity between early developmental processes and large herds on the move.

Collective migration, the movement of groups in which individuals affect the behaviour of one another, occurs at every scale from bacteria up to whole species' populations. Universal principles of collective movement can be applied at all levels. In this review, we describe the rules governing collective motility, with a specific focus on the neural crest, an embryonic stem cell population that undergoes extensive migration during development. We will discuss how the underlying principles of individual cell behaviour, and those that emerge from a supracellular scale, can explain collective migration. (Abstract)

Three rules of collective migration: Attraction: a behaviour that causes individuals to steer towards the centre of mass, which is the average position of individuals within a certain radius. Repulsion: a factor that causes individuals to steer away from all its neighbours. Alignment: a behaviour whence individuals line up with others close by, such that it moves with the averaged heading of the nearby individuals.

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

vandermeer, John and Ivette Perfecto. Ecological Complexity and Agroecology. London: Routledge, 2017. University of Michigan senior professors of ecology, evolutionary biology, natural resources and environments (search) provide a unique textbook for this subject which can also represent a 2010s revolutionary, advantageous synthesis of this vital sustenance resource with nature’s innate underlay of self-organizing network patterns and processes. Chapter titles such as Multidimensionality, Coupled Oscillatory, Stochasticity and Critical Transitions discuss and apply the latest ecosmos code mathematical guidance. OK

While the science of ecology should be the basis of agroecological planning, many analysts have out-of-date ideas about contemporary ecology. Ecology has come a long way since the old days of "the balance of nature" and other notions of how ecological systems function. In this context, the new science of complexity has become vitally important in the modern science of ecology. The book’s organization consists of an introductory chapter, and a second chapter providing some of the background to basic ecological topics as they are relevant to agroecosystrems (e.g., soil biology and pest control). The core of the book consists of seven chapters on key intersecting themes of ecological complexity, including issues such as spatial patterns, network theory and tipping points, illustrated by examples from agroecology and agricultural systems from around the world.

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

Vandermeer, John, et al. New Forms of Structure in Ecosystems Revealed with the Kuramoto Model. arXiv:2006.16006. University of Michigan sustainability enviromentalists including Ivette Perfecto post a latest advance of their project to better understand diverse flora and fauna biotas by way of nonlinear network complexities. It opens with a review of prior glimpses of a natural, endemic nonlinearity in formative effect. Into the 2010s, global computational and communicative efforts are now well able to quantify independent, mathematical, complex adaptive self-organizations. This paper then cites a new perception that ecosystems are composed of periodic, interactive, synchronized oscillations between transitional phases such as predator/prey, invasion/resistance and so on. Thus, even myriad ecologies are found to be defined by a “chimera” condition, similar to other reams such as brains and metabolisms.

For a series of related work, see Viewing Communities as Coupled Oscillators: Elementary Forms from Lotka and Volterra to Kuramoto by Zachary Haijan-Forooshani and John Vandermeer in bioRxiv (May 27, 2020), The Community Ecology of Herbivore Regulation in an Agroecosystem: Lessons from Complex Systems by John Vandermeer et al in BioScience (69/12, 2019, reviewed herein), Chimera Patterns Induced by Distance-Dependent Power-Law Coupling in Ecological Networks by Tanmoy Banerjee, et al in Physical Review E (94/032206, 2016) and Synchronization Unveils the Organization of Ecological Networks with Positive and Negative Interactions by Andrea, Giron, et al in Chaos (26/065302, 2016). A unique text for this ecosmic ecosystem revolution is Ecological Complexity and Agroecology by John Vandermeer and Ivette Perfecto (Routledge, 2017, search).

Ecological systems, as is often noted, are complex. Equally notable is the common generalization that complex systems tend to be oscillatory, which could provide insights into the structure of ecological systems. A popular analytical tools for such studies is the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. Using a well-studied system of pests and their enemies in an agroecosystem, we apply this stylized model to ask whether its actual natural history is reflected in the dynamics of the qualitatively instantiated Kuramoto model. Indeed, synchrony groups with an overlying chimeric structure, depending on the strength of the inter-oscillator coupling, are found. We conclude that the Kuramoto model presents a novel window to better understand the interactive forms of ecological systems. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Ecosystems

Vandermeer, John, et al. The Community Ecology of Herbivore Regulation in an Agroecosystem: Lessons from Complex Systems. BioScience. 69/12, 2019. With 30 authors from 4 continents, this article well represents the 21st century discovery that flora and fauna environs are indeed graced and structured by a domain of nonlinear mathematic phenomena, just as everywhere else. In regard, an application of theoretical aspects, as the Abstract notes, onto invasive pest and pathogen management for coffee growers results in advanced, beneficial results.

Whether an ecological community is controlled from above or below remains a popular framework and takes on especially important meaning in agroecosystems. We describe the regulation from above of three coffee herbivores, a leaf herbivore, a seed predator, and a plant pathogen by various natural enemies, emphasizing the remarkable complexity involved. We emphasize the intersection of classical ecology with the burgeoning field of complex systems with reference to chaos, critical transitions, hysteresis, basin or boundary collision, and spatial self-organization, all aimed at the applied question of pest control in the coffee agroecosystem. (Abstract excerpt)

Regulation of this herbivore is therefore effected through a complex system involving a Turing process, nonlinear indirect interactions, critical transitions, hysteresis, chaos, basin or boundary collisions, and a hypergraph, all elements of the burgeoning field of complex systems. (984)

Earth Life > Nest > Gaia

Lenton, Timothy, et al. Life on Earth is Hard to Spot. Anthropocene Review. May, 2020. Gaia advocates TL, University of Exeter, Sebastien Dutreuil, University of Aix-Marseille, and Bruno Latour, Sciences Po, France note the long last acceptance of James Lovelock’s biospheric self-regulation over evolutionary spans by life’s composite vitalities. But this organic essence, here noted with a capital L, is not immediately evident. A teleology issue also needs to be clarified, which perturbs R. Dawkins, but overall a 2020 vision of a habitable bioworld is now well in place as evinced by its practical utility for Earth systems scientists.

The triumph of the Gaia hypothesis was to spot the extraordinary influence of Life on the Earth. ‘Life’ is the clade including all extant living beings, as distinct from ‘life’ the class of properties common to all living beings. ‘Gaia’ is Life plus its effects on habitability. Life’s influence on the Earth was hard to spot for several reasons: biologists missed it because they focused on life not Life; climatologists missed it because Life is hard to see in the Earth’s energy balance; Earth system scientists opted instead for abiotic or human-centred approaches to the Earth system; Scientists in general were repelled by teleological views that Life acts to maintain viable conditions. Instead, we reason from organisms’ metabolisms outwards, showing how Life’s coupling to its environment has led to profound effects on Earth’s biosphere. (Abstract)

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