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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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VII. Our Earthuman Ascent: A Major Evolutionary Transition in Individuality

3. A Complementary Brain and Thought Process

Grossberg, Stephen. Towards Solving the Hard Problem of Consciousness. Neural Networks. 87/38, 2017. The Boston University pioneer systems neuroscientist (search) continues his half century of innovative theoretical contributions. Visit SGs website for more publications, along with many credits such as founding editor of this journal. The 50 page essay further finesses how dynamic brain resonances achieve an informed awareness by way of two reciprocal cognitive modes. This generative essence dubbed Complementary Computing proceeds by an integral interplay of ventral fast object What and slower dorsal holistic Where (Why) streams. Three quotes follow to properly report this advance, bold added. And we record that these insights add more scientific evidence for a natural, universally manifest, bigender trinity. But a deep disconnect remains between such findings and political, militarist societies and nations locked in mortal conflict between these very archetypes. .

The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how we experience qualia or phenomenal experiences, such as seeing, hearing, and feeling, and knowing what they are. To solve this problem, a theory of consciousness needs to link brain to mind by modeling how emergent properties of several brain mechanisms interacting together embody detailed properties of individual conscious psychological experiences. This article summarizes evidence that Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, accomplishes this goal. ART is a cognitive and neural theory of how advanced brains autonomously learn to attend, recognize, and predict objects and events in a changing world. ART has reached sufficient maturity to begin classifying the brain resonances that support conscious experiences of seeing, hearing, feeling, and knowing. This analysis also explains why not all resonances become conscious, and why not all brain dynamics are resonant. The global organization of the brain into computationally complementary cortical processing streams (complementary computing), and the organization of the cerebral cortex into characteristic layers of cells (laminar computing), figure prominently in these explanations of conscious and unconscious processes. (Abstract excerpts)

The first paradigm is called Complementary Computing. Complementary Computing describes how the brain is organized into complementary parallel processing streams whose interactions generate biologically intelligent behaviors. A single cortical processing stream can individually compute some properties well, but cannot, by itself, process other computationally complementary properties. Pairs of complementary cortical processing streams interact, using multiple processing stages, to generate emergent properties that overcome their complementary deficiencies to compute complete information with which to represent or control some faculty of intelligent behavior. (44-45)

For example, the category learning, attention, recognition, and prediction circuits of ART are part of the ventral, or What, cortical processing stream for perception and cognition. The ventral stream exhibits properties that are often computationally complementary to those of the dorsal, or Where and How, cortical processing stream for spatial representation and action. One reason for this What–Where complementarity is that the What stream learns object recognition categories that are substantially invariant under changes in an object’s view, size, and position. These invariant object categories enable our brains to recognize valued objects without experiencing a combinatorial explosion. They cannot, however, locate and act upon a desired object in space. Where stream spatial and motor representations can locate objects and trigger actions towards them, but cannot recognize
them. By interacting together, the What and Where streams can recognize valued objects
and direct appropriate goal-oriented actions towards them. (45)

Habib, Reza, et al. Hemispheric Asymmetries of Memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 7/6, 2003. The left prefrontal cortex is involved with episodic memory encoding while right PFC processes memory retrieval and remembering.

Halford, Graeme, et al. Relational Knowledge: The Foundation of Higher Cognition. Trends in Cognitive Science. 14/11, 2010. Neuroscientists from Australia and Japan claim, which much technical theory, that an integrative, semantic analogy is of premier importance in the evolution and conduct of operational thought. With a nod to the “dual process” school, this phase is seen as complementary to analytic particulars.

Han, Shihui and Ernst Poppel, eds. Culture and Neural Frames of Cognition and Communication. Berlin: Springer, 2011. An edition in Springer’s On Thinking series based on a Sino-German workshop on cognitive neurosciences held in Beijing, October, 2008. A project of Peking University and Munich University, it was sponsored by the Parimenides Center in Munich. Parimenides, a 5th century Greek scholar, embodies the view of a deeper, primary dimension beyond appearances, from which our world emanates and gains significance. This volume discusses bicameral Asian and European societies with regard to relative cerebral substrates and integral and analytical complements. Initial chapters by neuroscientists such as Bruce Wexler, Joan Chiao, Genna Berko, Georg Northoff and Yinn Ma draw on neuroimaging techniques to nuance neural anatomies between the reciprocal cultures. Papers by Nalini Ambady, Dida Fleisig, Yoshihiro Miyake, Elenora Rossi, and colleagues go on to insights about life’s self-making development upon a sequentially bilateral planet. For example, westerners seem to abstract figures from ground, while eastern attention is more upon the field context in which articles abide. Contributions by Albrecht von Muller and Britt Glatzeder are noted herein.

Hartwigsen, Gesa, et al. How does Hemispheric Specialization Contribute to Human-defining Cognition? Neuron. 109/13, 2021. MPI Human Cognition and Brain Sciences, University of Montreal (Yoshua Bengio) and McGill University neuropsychologists advance our growing understandings of how totally important the asymmetric, complementary halves of our cerebral endowment are to every aspect of cognitive activity. The paper then achieves a rarest comparison with the dual process model to faster, serial detail and slower, holistic context systems. Into the 2020s, a vital realization these bigender archetypes signify nature’s universal parents to children bicameral code-script.

Many human cognitive faculties arise from flexible interplay between specific neural modules, within hemispheric asymmetries. Here, we discuss how these computational design principles can enable advanced cognitive operations such as semantic understandings of world structure, logical reasoning, and communication via language. We draw parallels to dual-processing theories of cognition akin to (Daniel) Kahneman’s System 1 and System 2. We integrate these aspects with the global workspace theory to explain the dynamic relay of information between both modes. (Abstract excerpt)

Hellige, Joseph. Laterality. Ramachandran, V. S., editor-in-chief. Encyclopedia of the Human Brain. Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2002. A summary article that affirms a basic complementarity of higher and lower frequency, categorical and spatial, processing capabilities between left and right hemispheres. Also surveyed is their evolutionary path through the animal kingdom and the right to left developmental sequence in humans.

Herve, Pierre-Yves, et al. Revisiting Human Hemispheric Specialization with Neuroimaging. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 17/2, 2013. Groupe d’Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, Université Bordeaux Ségalen, neuroscientists report novel instrumental insights and verifications of the functional lateralization of our asymmetrical brains. These new capabilities can better assess the relative engagement of each side from early childhood to adult maturation. In general, a consistent leftward shift develops with age from an early “inter-hemispheric” balance to a dominant LH “intra-hemispheric connectivity.” Again the RH is found to specialize for visuospatial attention and the LH for language.

Hickok, Gregory and Steven Small, eds. Neurobiology of Language. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press, 2015. A UC Irvine cognitive scientist and a neurologist assemble an 89 chapter treatise with main sections about Neurobiological Foundations, Behavioral Foundations, Large-Scale Models, Development, Learning, and Plasticity, Perceptual Analysis of the Speech Signal, Word and Sentence Processing, Discourse Processing and Pragmatics, Speaking, Conceptual Semantic Knowledge, Written Language, Animal Models, Memory for Language, Breakdown and Treatment, and Prosody, Tone, and Music. We enter here because in many places the volume endorses a dual process theory (search e.g. Nina Kraus, Maryanne Wolf, Laura Otis) which involves a whole brain interplay of left side letter detail and right half prosody relations. In regard see 24. Are Pathways and Streams in the Auditory Cortex by Josef Rauschecker and Sophie Scott, and 27. The Dual Loop Model in Language by Cornelius Weiller, et al. As a surmise, it seems that cerebral form and activity always reverts to these complementary archetypes.

Hugdahl, Kenneth and Rene Westerhausen, eds. The Two Halves of the Brain Information Processing in the Cerebral Hemispheres. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010. The editors are biological and medical psychologists at the University of Bergen, Norway. The volume is a broad review and update upon this cerebral complementary microcosm that influences every aspects of our lives. Eight sections cover Genetic and Evolutionary Perspectives, Hemispheric Asymmetry in Nonmammalian Species, Neuroimaging, Hormones, Sex Differences, and Sleep Asymmetry, Asymmetry of Perception, Asymmetry of Cognition, Neurological and Pediatric Disorders, and Asymmetry in Schizophrenia and Psychosis.

Iturria-Medina, Yasser, et al. Brain Hemispheric Structural Efficiency and Interconnectivity Rightward Asymmetry in Human and Nonhuman Primates. Cerebral Cortex. 21/1, 2011. After decades of worldwide study, a team of neuroscientists from Cuba, Chile, England, Spain, and Germany further confirm the presence of complementary halves and archetypal attributes of a left detailed focus and right holistic survey that braces our neural and cognitive capacity. As an epochal advance, it begs the grand discovery of this yang masculine and yin feminine universal microcosm in our own brains, and equally Earthwide west and east, north and south, with an Islamic corpus callosum. And if we individually and globally might press on to our own knowledge, which this website seeks to document, what wondrous, saving witness might appear for we peoples altogether?

Evidence for interregional structural asymmetries has been previously reported for brain anatomic regions supporting well-described functional lateralization. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the two brain hemispheres demonstrate dissimilar general structural attributes implying different principles on information flow management. Common left hemisphere/right hemisphere structural network properties are estimated and compared for right-handed healthy human subjects and a nonhuman primate, by means of 3 different diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging fiber tractography algorithms and a graph theory framework. In both the human and the nonhuman primate, the data support the conclusion that, in terms of the graph framework, the right hemisphere is significantly more efficient and interconnected than the left hemisphere, whereas the left hemisphere presents more central or indispensable regions for the whole-brain structural network than the right hemisphere. From our point of view, in terms of functional principles, this pattern could be related with the fact that the left hemisphere has a leading role for highly demanding specific process, such as language and motor actions, which may require dedicated specialized networks, whereas the right hemisphere has a leading role for more general process, such as integration tasks, which may require a more general level of interconnection. (Abstract, 56)

Ivry, Richard and Lynn Robertson. The Two Sides of Perception. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998. Three decades of theory and experiment affirms a holistic propensity for the right brain hemisphere and a discrete, narrower focus in the left. With regard to connecting dots, the right side glimpses the whole but misses its necessary points while the left notes all the separate dots with no idea that they make up an image.

Kahneman, Daniel. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011. The emeritus Princeton University behavioral psychologist and 2002 Nobel laureate in economics offers a popular, chatty exposition of the dual process school of thought as due to Seymour Epstein, Jonathan Evans (search) and others.

In recent years an exciting body of work has emerged from various quarters devoted to exploring the idea that there is a fundamental duality in the human mind. (1) Typically, one of the processes is characterized as fast, effortless, automatic, nonconscious, inflexible, heavily contextualized, and undemanding of working memory, and the other as slow, effortful, controlled, conscious, flexible, decontextualized, and demanding of working memory. (1)

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