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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 91 through 105 of 130 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Danku, Zsuzsa, et al. Knowing the Past Improves Cooperation in the Future. Nature Scientific Reports. 9/262, 2019. ZD and Attila Szolnoki, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, with Matjaz Perc, University of Maribor, Slovenia, achieve a mathematical basis as to why a reference to past experiences of successes and failures can improve cooperative responses going forward to new behavioral situations.

Cooperation is the cornerstone of human evolutionary success. Like no other species, we champion the sacrifice of personal benefits for the common good, and we work together to achieve what we are unable to achieve alone. Knowledge and information from past generations is thereby often instrumental in ensuring we keep cooperating rather than deteriorating to less productive ways of coexistence. Here we present a mathematical model based on evolutionary game theory that shows how using the past as the benchmark for evolutionary success, rather than just current performance, significantly improves cooperation in the future. Cooperation is promoted because information from the past disables fast invasions of defectors, thus enhancing the long-term benefits of cooperative behavior. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Thurner, Stefan. Virtual Social Science. arXiv:1811.08156. The Medical University of Vienna systems theorist opens with reference to the French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798-1857) who is seen as the original conceiver of a relation between social behavior and a physical basis, which he dubbed a sociophysics. With colleagues, into the 21st century and later 2010s, it may at last be possible to quantify a mathematical. formative relation between uniVerse and human. The novel achievement is aided by vast amounts of data from societal interactions such as iphone records, media postings, and especially multiplayer video games. Once again the generic node/link network topologies are in effect such that our communal discourse (socioinformatic) becomes akin to everywhere else since each and all spring from the same cosmo/physical source. This is a grand confirmation. Whenever will it be possible to conceive a global sapiensphere learning on her/his own?

Can we describe social systems quantitatively and predictively, when we know all the actions, interactions, and states of individuals? We interpret human societies as co-evolutionary systems of individuals and their interactions. Based on unique data of a society of computer game players, where all actions and interactions between all players are known, we show that this might indeed be possible. Within this framework we address a number of sociological classics, including formation of social networks, strength of relations, group formation, hierarchical organization, aggression management, gender differences, mobility, and wealth-inequality. We discover behavioral and organizational patterns of the homo sapiens and its society that were not visible with traditional methodology from the social sciences. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Batty, Michael. Inventing Future Cities. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018. The latest volume by the emeritus Professor of Planning at the University College London (search) who has been a leading urban complex systems theorist and real neighborhood to metropolis practical applier. I used his Fractal London image for a slide in 2005. Batty and colleagues draw upon mathematical methods of cellular automata, multiples network, dynamic self-organization and more in these studies.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Cogdell, Christina. Toward a Living Architecture?: Complexism and Biology in Generative Design. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2019. The UC Davis chair of design studies achieves a book-length survey of this multi-faceted endeavor, which harks back to Frank Lloyd Wright, Paolo Soleri, Christopher Alexander and others. It’s broad intent is to conceive and put into practice an aware human abidance of person and community which draws from and continues natural, organic vitalities. The vital volume gathers an array of dreamers and doers such as Rachel Armstrong, Achim Menges, Michael, Weinstock and many more so to identify, orient and exhibit going forward, with notice of biomimicry, sustainable, green, urban plan, and more case studies. See also Architectural Digest for special issues about morphogenesis, social metabolism, self-organized patterns to avail nature’s best ideas.

Toward a Living Architecture? is the first book-length survey of the emerging field of generative architecture and its nexus with computation, biology, and complexity. Christina Cogdell reviews the sciences this springs from such as complex systems, evolutionary theory, genetics and epigenetics, and synthetic biology. In a narrative that moves from the computational toward the biological and from current practice to visionary futures, Cogdell uses life-cycle analysis to parse the material, energetic, and pollution differences between different digital and biological design and construction approaches.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Macrohistory

Christian, David. Origin Story: A Big History of Everything. New York: Little Brown, 2018. The Macquarie University, Australia scholar (search) is the original conceiver in the early 2000s of the now popular academic field of “big history” whence our human phase is joined with the entire course of life’s cosmic, galactic, stellar, and planetary evolution. This is neatly told by a series of eight Thresholds from the big bang to an anthropocene currency. This long retrospective view opens upon salient themes and vectors such as an increase of relative complexity, informational knowledge, and a main trend of a rising collective intelligence. As Vladimir Vernadsky once saw, a noosphere of shared global reason appears to be forming over the biosphere. One might tnote that while Pierre Teilhard took a similar view, he read an oriented rise to our phenomenal humanity. Here the evolutionary passage is said to go on by Darwinian selection alone via an interplay of physical necessity and chaotic chance.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > major

Gabora, Liane and Cameron Smith. Exploring the Psychological Basis for Transitions in the Archaeological Record. arXiv:1812.06590. The University of British Columbia and Portland State University team continues their innovative studies upon the evolutionary advent of unlimited human creativity. These native abilities which seem deeply innate while infinite in their potential are then attributed to two major cognitive transitions.

Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > Old Earth

Schneider, Tapio, et al. Possible Climate Transitions from Breakup of Stratocumulus Decks under Greenhouse Warming. Nature Geoscience. Online February, 2019. As if we need another climate alarm, CalTech researchers note that Earth’s relative cloudiness plays an important part in maintaining a moderate temperature. But if the clouds go away due to excessive greenhouse gases, as they will, this disappearance will lead to runaway heat waves. The results are braced by paleoclimate studies which show that when this happened in the past, the planet did experience high temperatures. The work merited a news report A World Without Clouds by Natalie Wolchover in

Stratocumulus clouds cover 20% of the low-latitude oceans and are prevalent in the subtropics. They cool the Earth by shading large portions of its surface. However, as their scales are too small to be resolvable in global climate models, the effect of greenhouse warming has remained uncertain. Here we report how stratocumulus decks respond in large-eddy simulations that explicitly resolve cloud dynamics in a subtropical region. We find the stratocumulus decks become unstable and break up into scattered clouds when CO2 levels rise above 1,200 ppm. In addition to rising CO2 levels, this instability triggers a surface warming of about 8 K globally and 10 K in the subtropics. Once the stratocumulus decks have broken up, they only re-form when CO2 concentrations drop substantially below the level at which the instability first occurred. (Abstract)

Future > Old Earth

Wallace-Wells, David. The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming. New York: Tim Duggan/Crown, 2019. The author is a national fellow of the New America Foundation, whose website is an alternate place for truth, knowledge and empowerment for all Americans and peoples to face and mitigate climate change, along with many other injustices. Drawing upon much research, many interviews, via lucid vision and prose, the timely work states that to make this land, and the whole stressed bioworld succeed as a cosmic home for hope and futurity, it must first sustainably survive. I cite cosmic because after 200 pages of environmental perils, a novel expansive vista is broached as an incentive. With reference to Adam Frank, Marina Alberti, Axel Kleidon (search names) and others, to fully grasp its auspicious import, we need view our maybe rarest Earth from an astrobiological perspective. A final Part IV is entitled The Anthropic Principle which notes how many evolutionary biospheric breaks in our favor had to occur to get us to this moment. By these lights and reason, a worldwide unity (New Earthica?) need be forged right away so to “think like a planet.”

It is worse, much worse, than you think. If your anxiety about global warming is dominated by fears of sea-level rise, you are barely scratching the surface of what terrors are possible. In California, wildfires now rage year-round, destroying thousands of homes. Across the US, “500-year” storms pummel communities month after month, and floods displace tens of millions annually. Without a revolution in how billions of humans conduct their lives, parts of the Earth could become close to uninhabitable, and other parts inhospitable. It will be all-encompassing, shaping and distorting nearly every aspect of human life as it is lived today. Like An Inconvenient Truth and Silent Spring before it, The Uninhabitable Earth is both a meditation on the devastation we have brought upon ourselves and an impassioned call to action.

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Boers, Niklas, et al. Complex Networks Reveal Global Pattern of Extreme Rainfall Teleconnections. Nature Climate Change. January 30, 2019. Six atmosphere physicists including Jurgen Kurths with postings in the UK, Germany, and Russia quantify how even this liquid feature of regional and world weather can be found to exhibit nature’s intrinsic dynamics and topologies.

Climatic observables can be correlated across long spatial distances, and extreme events, such as heat waves or floods, are often related to such teleconnection. Here we display the global coupling pattern of extreme rainfall events by detecting complex networks in satellite data. We find that the distance distribution of significant connections around the globe decays via a power law up to distances of about 2,500 kilometres. We show that extreme-rainfall events in the monsoon systems of south-central Asia, east Asia and Africa are significantly synchronized. Analysis of the atmospheric conditions that lead to these global teleconnections confirms Rossby waves as the physical mechanism underlying these patterns. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Alberi, Kirstin, et al. The 2019 Materials by Design Roadmap. Journal of Physics D. 52/013001, 2019. Thirty-four coauthors from across the USA, Switzerland, the UK, Korea, Canada, Germany, and China gather some 17 two page entries such as Computational infrastructures for data generation, Materials informatics, Organic semiconductors, Lithium ion batteries, Peroskite photovoltaics and Multifunctional metallic alloys. We cite as a good example of humankinder’s rapidly expansive project of local and global mind over stochastic matter so as to take up, enhance and advance a cosmic creativity.

Advances in renewable and sustainable energy technologies depend on our ability to design and realize materials with optimal properties. The increased use of computational tools, the generation of materials databases, and advances in experimental methods continue to accelerate these activities. This Roadmap presents an overview of the current state of computational materials prediction, synthesis and characterization approaches, materials design needs for various technologies, and future challenges and opportunities. The brief papers cover computational techniques, validation, materials databases, materials informatics, high-throughput combinatorial methods, advanced characterization approaches, and materials design issues in thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, solid state lighting, catalysts, batteries, metal alloys, complex oxides and transparent conducting materials. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Giuliani, Sameul, et al. Superheavy Elements: Oganesson and Beyond. Reviews of Modern Physics. 91/011001, 2019. Nine physicists from the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, USA, University of Erlangen and Technical University Darmstadt, Germany, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, India, and Massey University, New Zealand review the state of past, present and future art as human ingenuity, now of a global scale, has been able to discover, arrange, and begin to draw forth atomic elements. See also a special Periodic Table sections in Nature for January 31, 2019, and Science for February 1, 2019.

During the last decade, six new superheavy elements were added into the seventh row of the periodic table. This milestone was followed by proclaiming 2019 the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by the United Nations General Assembly. According to theory, due to their large atomic numbers, the new arrivals are expected to be qualitatively and quantitatively different from lighter species. The questions pertaining to superheavy atoms and nuclei are in the forefront of research in nuclear and atomic physics and chemistry. This Colloquium survey offers a broad perspective on the field and outlines future challenges. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Haba, Hiromitsu. A New Period in Superheavy Element Hunting. Nature Chemistry. 11/1, 2019. In a special issue for the 150th anniversary of the Periodic Table, a RIKEN Materials Research Group scientist considers how human ingenuity might proceed to expand nature’s iconic array of 118 elements via “islands of stability” all the way to atomic number 172. In regard, we emergent Earthlings seem to have reached some kind of “second singularity” whence cosmic material creation may pass to our respective human intention. See also Making the Heaviest Elements in the Universe: A Review of the Rapid Neutron Capture Process by John Cowen, et al at arXiv:1901.01410.

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Moeini, Samaneh and Tie Jun Cui. Reflective Metasurfaces: Fractal Coding Metamaterials. Annalen der Physik. 531/2, 2019. University of Aveiro, Portugal and Southeast University, Nanking, China informatic engineers (a global team posts in a German periodical) discern and deftly apply nature’s self-similar mathematics to create a novel realm of visionary surfaces.

Editor’s Note In article number 1800134, Samaneh Moeini and Tie Jun Cui propose a concept of fractal coding metamaterials, which can be used to design reflective metasurfaces with self‐similar pseudo‐random phase responses. The introduced coding strategy utilizes fractal interpolation functions. An analytical relation between the reflection phase distribution and the far‐field radiation pattern is derived.

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Windsor, Colin. Can the Development of Fusion Energy be Accelerated? Philosophical Transactions A. 377/20170446, 2019. A Tokamak Energy, UK engineer introduces the proceedings from a March 2018 Royal Society meeting on this issue of how to foster the research and construction of safer atomic fusion sources beyond calamity-prone fission reactors. Some papers are The European Roadmap towards Fusion Electricity, Towards a Compact Spherical Tokamak Pilot Plant, and Engineering Challenges for Accelerated Fusion.

This introduction reviews the unique opportunity of fusion power to deliver safe, carbon-free, abundant, base-load power. The differences from fission power are considered: especially why a Chernobyl, Three Mile Island or Fukushima accident could not happen with a fusion reactor. The Lawson triple product is introduced, along with tokamaks, or magnetic bottles, whose ability to approach close to fusion burn conditions has so far put them above their competitors. The question posed is whether the two developments of spherical tokamaks and high-temperature superconductors could lead to more economical fusion power plants and faster development than the current route. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Bhasin, Devesh and Daniel McAdams. The Characterization of Biological Organization, Abstraction and Novelty in Biomimetic Design. Design. 2/4, 2018. In this new MDPI online journal, in a topical Advances in Biologically Inspired Design issue, Texas A&M University engineers at once review prior creativities and solutions of evolutionary nature, so as to intentionally avail and carry forth to a better futurity. See also the MDPI journal Biomimetics which emphasizes more specific examples.

Through a billion year evolution, a latent record of successful and detailed design practices has developed in nature. The endeavors to exploit this resource have resulted in successful products in various fields including, but not limited to, networking, propulsion, surface engineering, and robotics. In this work, a study of existing biomimetic designs has been carried out according to the biological organizational level, the abstraction level, and a novelty measure. Through this review and categorization, we recognize patterns in existing biomimetic and bio-inspired products by analyzing their cross-categorical distribution. Using the distribution, we identify the categories which yield novel bio-inspired designs. (Abstract excerpt)

Biologically-inspired design is a design philosophy that encourages us to learn from nature, and results in the discovery of non-conventional solutions to problems that are often more efficient, economic, and elegant. Taking inspiration from nature has made (and can make) valuable contributions to engineering. In the last few decades, there has been increased attention on the significant technical innovations that can result from biological inspiration. This Special Issue is focused on the techniques, approaches and theories that facilitate biologically inspired design for engineering applications. Manuscript submissions on original research and literature reviews in the areas mentioned as keywords below are highly encouraged. (Issue Proposal)

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