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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 106 through 120 of 127 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Phenomenon > major

Turney, Peter. Modeling Major Transitions in Evolution with the Game of Life. arXiv:1908.07034. We cite this entry (bio below) as a rate exercise to consider and model a further phase of this iterative, nested emergent sequence as it may reach a worldwise personsphere individuality. See also Conditions for Major Transitions in Biological and Cultural Evolution at by the author at arXiv:1806.07941.

Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's book The Major Transitions in Evolution describes eight events in the evolution of life on Earth and a common theme that unites them. In each case, smaller entities came together to form larger, inclusive stages by way of symbiosis and/or cooperation. Here we present a computational simulation of evolving entities that includes symbiosis with shifting levels of selection. The experiments show that a small amount of symbiosis, added to the other layers, significantly increases the fitness of the population. We suggest that, in addition to providing new insights into biological and cultural evolution, this model of symbiosis may have practical applications in evolutionary computation, such as in the task of learning deep neural network models. (Abstract)

Dr. Peter Turney is a scientist based in Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. He is currently a Research Scholar with the Ronin Institute since 2018. He was a Senior Research Scientist at the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence from 2015 to 2017, a Principal Research Officer at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) from 1989 to 2014, and an Adjunct Professor at the University of Ottawa.

Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > Old Earth

Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove, et al. The Human Imperative of Stabilizing Global Climate Change at 1.50 C. Science. 365/eaaw6974, 2019. As the reality of catastrophic weather finally gains popular notice, if not governmental, a 21 person team from Australia, Germany, Jamaica, Italy, the UK, USA, Bahamas, Argentina, Switzerland, South Africa, France and China, a worldly group, scope out requirements and programs for holding to this feasible, viable limit. An increasing shift in public awareness, especially among young people since it is their future, can aid the vital changes in energies, consumption, waste, travel, the whole litany of sensible adjustments, which could mitigate and sustain.

surface temperature 1.0°C higher than during the pre-industrial period. We expand on the recent IPCC Special Report on global warming of 1.5°C and review the additional risks associated with higher levels of warming, each with major implications for multiple geographies, climates, and ecosystems. These conclusions are relevant for people everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where the escalation of climate-related risks may prevent the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. (Abstract)

Future > Old Earth

McKibben, Bill. Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out? New York: Henry Holt, 2019. The environmentalist writer whose 1989 work The End of Nature first broke the news of imminent climate change three decades later chronicles in studious detail, drawn from world travels and many interviews, how this catastrophic crisis is now far along. The first step is to move from denial to admission – most nations such as China and across Europe have done this, but America is bent on going backward and Brazil on burning rain forests. Yet across Africa, wherever possible, millions of trees are being planted. Only total, drastic changes such as gas to electric cars, cleaning up ocean pollution, no plastic waste, the whole litany, will begin to mitigate. But the wild card is whether individual and governmental decisive action can be mustered and coordinated in time. But a curious theme is the author’s use of a game and sport metaphor. In final regard, a meaningful valuation of Earthly ecospheric sustainable life and futurity set within a conducive cosmos is most important. McKibben also wrote the lead piece How We Survived Climate Change for Time magazine’s September 23, 2019 Climate Issue.

Future > Old Earth > anthropocene

Rodriques, Pablo and Catarina Lira. The Bio-Evolutionary Anthropocene Hypothesis. Biological Theory. Online July, 2019. With a subtitle of Rethinking the Role of Human-Induced Novel Organisms in Evolution, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro bioecologists consider ways that novel organisms will evolve as a result of our invasive human-induced “Anthroposphere” as it impacts and changes every fauna and flora bioregion.

Anthropogenic changes in the biosphere, driven mainly by human cultural habits and technological advances, are altering the direction of evolution on Earth, with ongoing and permanent changes modifying uncountable interactions between organisms, the environment, and humankind itself. While numerous species may go extinct, others will be favored due to strong human influences. The Bio-Evolutionary Anthropocene hypothesizes that directly or indirectly human-driven organisms, including alien species, hybrids, and genetically modified organisms will have major roles in the evolution of life in all habitats. We predict that humankind and novel organisms will interact within a strong evolutionary bias that will lead to unexpected, and probably irreversible, outcomes of life on our planet. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > Old Earth > anthropocene

Stephens, Lucas, et al. Archaeological Assessment Reveals Earth’s Early Transformation through Land Use. Science. 365/897, 2019. A summary report by many coauthors from the Harvard ArchaeoGlobe Project which describes retro global visualizations which move the initial date of homo sapiens impacts some millennia further back. See also a commentary How Humans Changed the Face of Earth by Neil Roberts in the same issue.

Environmentally transformative human use of land accelerated with the emergence of agriculture, but the extent, trajectory, and implications of these early changes are not well understood. An empirical global assessment of land use from 10,000 years before the present (yr B.P.) to 1850 CE reveals a planet largely transformed by hunter-gatherers, farmers, and pastoralists by 3000 years ago, considerably earlier than thought. Archaeological reconstruction of global land-use history illuminates the deep roots of Earth’s transformation and challenges the emerging Anthropocene paradigm that large-scale anthropogenic global environmental change is mostly a recent phenomenon. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > Old Earth > anthropocene

Tsing, Anna, et al, eds. Arts of Living on a Damaged Planet: Ghosts and Monsters of the Anthropocene. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2017. A collection from a UC Santa Cruz 2014 gathering so as to allow and consider radically organic, vitalist, creaturely options to this lumpen age of mechanized, rapacious consumption. A guiding theme became novel appreciations of life’s pervasive symbiotic and autopoietic essence across internal, communal and ecological scales, beyond only isolate individuals. Luminous papers such as Symbiogenesis, Sympoiesis, and Art Science Activisms by Donna Haraway, Holobiont by Birth by Scott Gilbert and The Postmodern Synthesis in Biology by Margaret McFall-Ngai, along with lively images bring an especial glow. A final entry is Coda. Beautiful Monsters: Terra in the Cyanocene by Dorion Sagan since this vivid array is inspired by and draws upon Lynn Margulis’ biospheric vision.

Living on a damaged planet challenges who we are and where we live. This timely anthology calls on twenty eminent humanists and scientists to revitalize curiosity, observation, and transdisciplinary conversation about life on earth. As human-induced environmental change threatens multispecies livability, this volume puts forward a bold proposal: entangled histories, situated narratives, and thick descriptions offer urgent “arts of living.” Included are essays by scholars in anthropology, ecology, science studies, art, literature, and bioinformatics who posit critical and creative tools for collaborative survival in a more-than-human Anthropocene. Ghosts and Monsters are tentacular, windy, and arboreal arts that invite readers to encounter ants, lichen, rocks, electrons, flying foxes, salmon, chestnut trees, mud volcanoes, border zones, graves, radioactive waste—in short, the wonders and terrors of an unintended epoch.

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Donges, Jonathan, et al. Earth system modeling with endogenous and dynamic human societies: the copan:CORE open World-Earth modeling framework. arXic:1909.13697. A dozen German and Swedish scientists with a main base at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research proceed with a comprehensive program going forward to gain ever better analyses, quantifications and hopefully sustainable remediations of our hyper-active global atmosphere and consumptive societal-industrial civilization. In regard we need to get a real sense of Earthkinder taking care of her/his self and do all we personally and collaboratively do to facilitate and survive.

Earth system dynamics in the Anthropocene need to well take into account the increasing magnitude of processes operating in human societies, their cultures, economies and technosphere, along with their entanglement with physical, chemical and biological global systems. This paper (i) proposes design principles for constructing World-Earth Models (WEM) for Earth system analysis of the Anthropocene, i.e., models of social (World) - ecological co-evolution on up to planetary scales, and (ii) presents the copan:CORE open simulation modeling framework for developing, composing and analyzing such WEMs based on the proposed modular principles. Thereby, copan:CORE enables the epistemic flexibility needed for Earth system analysis of the Anthropocene given the diverse theories and methodologies used for describing socio-metabolic/economic and socio-cultural processes. (Abstract)

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Ghil, Michael and Valerio Lucarini. The Physics of Climate Variability and Climate Change. arXiv:1910.00583. In a 70 page entry, an Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris and a University of Reading, UK physicist show how sophisticated applications of nonlinear mathematical principles, in effect everywhere else, can well serve to quantify hyper-complex world weather patterns and processes.

The climate system is a forced, dissipative, nonlinear, complex and heterogeneous system that is out of thermodynamic equilibrium which exhibits variability on many scales of motion, in time as well as space, and is subject to natural as well as anthropogenic impacts. This paper reviews the observational evidence on climate phenomena and the governing equations of planetary-scale flow, as well as the key concept of a hierarchy of models for the climate sciences. Recent advances in the application of dynamical systems theory and of nonequilibrium statistical physics are brought together for the first time and shown to complement as they help understand and predict the system's behavior. These dual viewpoints permit a self-consistent handling of subgrid-scale phenomena as stochastic processes, as well as the crucial issues of climate sensitivity, response, and predictability. (Abstract excerpts)

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Moon, Woosok and John Wettlaufer. Coupling Functions in Climate. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 377/0006, 2019. In a special issue on how complex networks convey information, Stockholm University mathematicians apply these dynamic geometries to hyper-complex world weather conditions.

We examine how coupling functions in the theory of dynamical systems provide a quantitative window into climate dynamics. We demonstrate the method on two tropical climate indices, the El-Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), to interpret the mutual interactions between these air–sea interaction phenomena in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The coupling function reveals that the ENSO mainly controls the seasonal variability of the IOD during its mature phase. This demonstrates the plausibility of a network model for the seasonal variability of climate systems based on such coupling functions. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Arute, Frank, et al. Quantum Supremacy using a Programmable Superconducting Processor. Nature. 574/505, 2019. We note this entry with some 90 co-authors from Google AI Quantum to the University of Illinois for its historic claim of qubit-based computations which ran at a faster speed and demonstrated more capability than classic machines. While said to be debatable, we note this milestone as our collective human ingenuity enters a new intentional phase of genesis procreation going forward.

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Parisi, Jason and Justin Ball. The Future of Fusion Energy. Singapore: World Scientific, 2019. Oxford University and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology physicists cover the range from basic principles to plasma confinement, construction, problems on to the ITER project below. The project is then set in a context of human beings gaining ever more access, control and usage of natural solar energies from combustions to this hypercomplex avail of atomic force. In an even wider vista, it could appear that our human phenomenon is meant to do this, which we to soon need realize, so as to migitate climate change in time.

In an engaging narrative, this popular science book explains the basic tools to understand how fusion works, its potential, and contemporary research issues. Written by young engineer researchers in the field, it shows how physical laws and the Earth's energy resources motivate the current fusion program — a broad endeavor that is approaching a critical point. The world's largest fusion reactor to date, a 35 nation joint effort dubbed ITER Tokamak (www.iter.org) is nearing completion. Its success could trigger a worldwide race to build a power plant, but failure could delay fusion by decades. To these ends, this book details how ITER's results could be used to design an economically competitive power plant as well as some of the many alternative fusion concepts. (Publisher edits)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Patterson, Eann, et al. An Integrated Digital Framework for the Design, Build and Operation of Fusion Power Plants. Royal Society Open Science. 6/10, 2019. As a next stage in this broad project to research and construct, a team of British nuclear scientists and engineers lay out programs going forward to achieve a practical, safe and effective fusion model, instead of and beyond problematic fission methods. Google these titles MIT launches multimillion-dollar collaboration to develop fusion energy and UK hatches plan to build world's first fusion power plant to reach news items in Nature.

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Voegle, Kilian, et al. Genetically Encoded Membranes for Bottom-Up Biology. ChemSystemsChem. Online August, 2019. Technische Universitat Munchen biophysicists including Friedrich Simmel discuss ways to achieve synthetic self-assembled cellular compartments such as external feeding and fusion, chemical reactions, lipid metabolisms, peptide basal, and more. Graphic illustrations impress with how readily our human capabilities seem suited for such an intelligent, intentional take up and over, in a respectful Gaiaspheric manner, of life’s Earthly and cosmic evolutionary gestation.

The creation of self‐replicating cell‐mimicking systems – artificial cells – is one of the major goals of bottom‐up synthetic biology. An essential aspect is the presence of membranous compartments which can grow and divide in synchrony with the internal dynamics of the cells. In the context of autonomously self‐replicating systems, genetically encoded membranes are of particular interest. Herein, we discuss typical approaches taken for the creation of cell‐like microcompartments via self‐assembly of amphiphiles. We address some of the challenges associated with the generation of phospholipid or peptide‐based membranes via genetic and enzymatic processes. (Abstract)

Artificial living systems are often conceived as compartmentalized chemical systems that are able to grow and divide, replicate and pass on genetic information, which would convey the potential for Darwinian evolution. The creation of such systems necessarily involves the realization and study of out of equilibrium chemical reaction networks that control molecular self‐assembly and self‐organization processes. A key challenge in this context is the encapsulation of the systems and the coupling and coordination of their internal gene replication and metabolism with the dynamics of the compartment resulting in growth and division. (1)

Future > New Earth > democracy

Geier, Fabian, et al. The Physics of Governance Networks: Critical Transitions in Contagion Dynamics on Multilayer Adaptive Networks Applied to the Sustainable Use of Renewable Resources. European Physical Journal Special Topics. 228/2357, 2019. Complexity scientists from Germany and Sweden mainly at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research including Jurgen Kurths and Jonathon Donges, apply the latest theories as they focus on a common tendency to seek and reach an optimum reciprocal balance. By our natural philoSophia view, collective human ingenuity begins to realize a universal mathematic dynamics which underlie and guide our historic, societal affairs. In regard, by a 21st century revelation and revolution could align with life’s complementary preference, rather than mutual conflict. See also Governance Networks in Public Administration and Policy by Christopher Koliba, et al, eds. (Routledge, 2018) which advocates an avail of complex adaptive systems.

Adaptive networks can serve to model phenomena such as contagion and spreading dynamics, critical transitions and complex structure formation. Here, we study multilayer adaptive networks with dynamic node states and present an application to the governance of sustainable resource use. We focus on a three layer model, where a governance network interacts with a social network of resource users which in turn interacts with an ecological network of renewable resources. Our results uncover mechanisms which lead to emergent critical transitions in contagion dynamics and show how they can be analyzed and understood with relevance complex adaptive systems from physics and epidemiology to sociology and global sustainability science. (Abstract excerpts)

Future > New Earth > democracy

Maner, Jon. Dominance and Prestige: A Tale of Two Hierarchies. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 26/6, 2017. A Florida State University psychologist contributes to a growing perception that dual but often oppositional social styles are in wide existence. Within these title terms, the “Dominance” mode is narcissist, aggressive, uses coercive, intimidates, rules by fear, while Prestige favors agreement, relations, empathy, respect, and so on. Examples are given as Dani warriors in New Guinea and Donald Trump, or Tsimane communities in Bolivia and Martin Luther King. See also his 2016 chapter Dominance and Prestige: Dual Strategies for Social Hierarchies in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 54), and a 2019 paper A Dual Model of Leadership and Hierarchy by Mark Van Vugt and Jennifer Smith, below.

Dominance and prestige represent evolved strategies used to navigate social hierarchies. Dominance is a strategy through which people gain and maintain social rank by using coercion, intimidation, and power. Prestige people gain and maintain social rank by displaying valued knowledge and skills and earning respect. The current article synthesizes recent research about differences between dominance- versus prestige-oriented individuals, including personality traits and emotions, strategic behaviors in social interactions, leadership mores, and physiological correlates of both behaviors. The article also reviews effects that dominance versus prestige has on the functioning and well-being of social groups. (Abstract)

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