VI. Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies
1. Systems Physiology and Psychology: Somatic and Behavioral Development
By a novel “developmental systems theory” approach, cited herein, the same complex dynamics found to self-organize cosmos and evolution seem to be in similar effect to guide an infant’s and child’s advance in bodily maturation, visual perception, kinetic agility, behavior and sequential stages of cognition.
Achim, Kaia and Detlev Arendt. Structural Evolution of Cell Types by Step-Wise Assembly of Cellular Modules. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 27/102, 2014. European Molecular Biology Laboratory developmental biologists contribute further evidence about how brain and bodies came to evolve, develop, and diversify by way of cellular and modular repetitions. In essence, deep, constant homologies from anatomies to genes are ascertained. See also Animal Evolution: The Hard Problem of Cartilage Origins by Thibaut Brunet and Arendt in Current Biology (26/14, 2016), along with The Genetic Program for Cartilage Development has Deep Homology Within Bilateria by Oscar Tarazona, et al in Nature (533/86, 2016).
Cell types are composed of cellular modules exerting specific subfunctions. The evolutionary emergence and diversification of these modules can be tracked through the comparative analysis of genomes. Here, we survey recent advances elucidating the origin of neurons, of smooth and striated muscle cells and of the T- and B-cells of the immune system in the diverging lineages of animal evolution. Gene presence and absence analyses in various metazoan genomes allow mapping the step-wise assembly of key modules – such as the postsynaptic density characteristic for neurons or the z-disk characteristic for striated muscle – on the animal evolutionary tree. Using this approach, first insight into the structural evolution of cell types can be gained. (2014 Abstract)
Assmann, Birte, et al. Self-Organization in Spontaneous Movements of Neonates Generates Self-Specifying Sensory Experiences. arXiv:1902.10169. As their extensive reference list attests, four German child psychologists based at the Free University of Berlin post a 2019 affirmation of the dynamical systems theory approach initiated in the mid 1990s by Esther Thelen, Linda Smith, (search herein) and others. This insight that infants and children learn and develop by way of complex behavioral iterations, as so does the rest of evolutionary nature and culture, is now established and practiced. Once again human and universe, child and cosmos, become one and the same.
Movement experience and the coordination of perception and action are the basis of developing body awareness, emotion, motivation and cognition and the sense of self. The four limbs play a key role in the developing sense of body ownership, agency and peripersonal space. Neonatal limb movements were investigated by way of respective processes of self-organization and developing body awareness. With increasing age a shift from configurations with proximal to distal positions suggests a role of the proximal-distal dimension in movement development. We conclude that self-organization in spontaneous movements provides neonates with perceptual body- and self-specifying stimuli involved in developing body awareness and postulate the involvement of emotional and cognitive essences. (Abstract excerpt)
Bartsch, Ronny, et al. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact. PLoS One. November 10, 2015. RB, Bar-Ilan University, Kang Liu and Plamen Ivanov, Boston University, and Amir Bashan, Harvard Medical School scope out initial realizations that along with everything else, our bodily well-being, or lack thereof is wholly graced by and dependent on active webwork geometries. Their relative robustness or breakdown can then be a good measure of health or sickness (similar models are being applied to neural and behavioral states). See Network Medicine in the Age of Biomedical Big Data by Abjijeet Soanwane, (search) et al at arXiv:1903.05449 for an example of its actual utility.
We study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. (Abstract excerpt)
Bashan, Amir, et al. Network Physiology Reveals Relations between Network Topology and Physiological Function. Nature Communications. 3/702, 2011. A team of Bashan and Shlomo Havlin, Bar-Ilan University, Israel, Jan Kantelhardt, Martin Luther University, Germany, and Ronny Bartsch and Plamen Ivanov, Harvard Medical School, who also cite the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, contribute to 21st century realizations that bodily organismic functions, rather than a homeostasis, is actually a non-equilibrium dynamic intricacy of complex network systems. This Systems Soma section tries to document an historic revision and advance, which are here seen to have much promise for health and medicine.
The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiological systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiological network. We find that each physiological state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiological states, the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiological interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology. (Abstract)
Bergman, Lars, et al, eds. Developmental Science and the Holistic Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2000. Many contributions from an integral and dynamic perspective on the formation of vision, personality, and behavior.
Bjorklund, David and Bruce Ellis.
Children, Childhood, and Development in Evolutionary Perspective.
We examine children, childhood, and development from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by reviewing major assumptions of evolutionary–developmental psychology, including the integration of “soft” developmental systems theory DST with ideas from mainstream evolutionary psychology. We then discuss the concept of adaptive developmental plasticity and describe the core evolutionary concept of developmental programming and some of its applications to human development, as instantiated in life history theory and environmental influence. We then discuss the concept of adaptation from an evolutionary–developmental perspective, including ontogenetic and deferred adaptations. We conclude that evolutionary theory can serve as a metatheory for developmental science. (Abstract)
Boyer, Denis, et al. Non-Random Walks in Monkeys and Humans. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 9/842, 2011. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Princeton University, and VaccinApe, Bethesda, MD, researchers find, just as in every other stage and instance, nature’s common dynamical mathematics similarly guides the gracile kinectics of prosimian, hominid, and homo sapiens steps and journeys.
Principles of self-organization play an increasingly central role in models of human activity. Notably, individual human displacements exhibit strongly recurrent patterns that are characterized by scaling laws and can be mechanistically modelled as self-attracting walks. Recurrence is not, however, unique to human displacements. Here we report that the mobility patterns of wild capuchin monkeys are not random walks, and they exhibit recurrence properties similar to those of cell phone users, suggesting spatial cognition mechanisms shared with humans. We also show that the highly uneven visitation patterns within monkey home ranges are not entirely self-generated but are forced by spatio-temporal habitat heterogeneities. If models of human mobility are to become useful tools for predictive purposes, they will need to consider the interaction between memory and environmental heterogeneities. (Abstract)
Bulf, Hermann, et al. Infants Learn Better from Left to Right. Nature Scientific Reports. 7/2437, 2017. University of Milano-Bicocca and Université Paris Descartes cognitive psychologists quantify an innate propensity of babies to visually scan from left to right, which is attributed to an early favoring of the integral right hemisphere. See also Number-Space Mapping in the Newborn Chick Resembles Humans’ Mental Number Line by Rosa Rugani, et al in Science (347/534, 2015) which reports the same proclivity, re second quote.
These early directional cues might shape the direction of infants’ spatial representation of order depending on the dominant direction of their cultural environment. Alternatively, the emergence of a left-to-right spatial organization of ordered dimensions during the first months of life might be rooted in biologically-determined neural constraints in the human brain. Indeed, the right hemisphere is dominant in visuo-spatial task, and it has recently been proposed that early temporal asymmetries in hemispheric maturation, with a temporal advantage for the right over the left hemisphere, may determine a leftward asymmetrical exploration of visual space that would constrain the structure of infant’s representational space. The possibility of a link between a right hemispheric dominance and a left-to-right representation of ordinal information is also suggested by studies with non-human animals. (Bulf 4)
Cairns, Robert. The Making of Development Psychology. Richard Lerner, ed. Handbook of Child Psychology, Volume 1. New York: Wiley, 1998. A century-long history of the field of developmental psychology it grew from individual conjectures to humankind’s global collaborative endeavor.
In June 1994, a Nobel Foundation symposium comprised of noted biologists and psychologists called for an integrated unified framework for the study of development. No single source or single investigator can be credited, since it has become an interdisciplinary, international movement. (92)
Cangelosi, Angelo and Matthew Schlesinger. Developmental Robotics: From Babies to Robots. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015. A Foreword by Linda Smith, cofounder with the late Esther Thelen of dynamical systems theory for infant and child maturation, sets the theme of the work. University of Plymouth, UK, and Southern Illinois University researchers draw upon such features of human learning as self-organization, enaction, multifaceted causes, intrinsic motivation, cognitive bootstrapping, and so on, to achieve similar robotic behaviors. The core concept is the recognition that children teach and guide themselves on a progressive individuation course. An effective robotic entity should be built with open programs capable of similar responses. Another theme is a parallel between self-ontogeny and evolutionary phylogeny. See also Developmental Process Emerges from Extended Brain-Body-Behavior Networks by Lisa Byrge, Olaf Sporns, and Linda Smith in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (18/8, 2014).
Developmental robotics is a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach to robotics that is directly inspired by the developmental principles and mechanisms observed in children's cognitive development. It builds on the idea that the robot, using a set of intrinsic developmental principles regulating the real-time interaction of its body, brain, and environment, can autonomously acquire an increasingly complex set of sensorimotor and mental capabilities. This volume, drawing on insights from psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, and robotics, offers the first comprehensive overview of a rapidly growing field.
Cao, Miao, et al. Developmental Connectomics from Infancy through Early Childhood. Trends in Neuroscience. 40/8, 2017. Connectome: a complete set of neural elements (neurons, brain regions, etc.) and their interconnections (synapses, fiber pathways, temporal correlations.) National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, and Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia researchers scope out a further apply of neural imaging studies such as the Human Connectome Project to this relevant neonate to child life stage. Two salient efforts are the Developing Human Connectome Project and the Baby Connectome Project (Google each). A main intent is to quantify an optimal global balance between information segregation and integration.
The human brain undergoes rapid growth in both structure and function from infancy through early childhood, and this significantly influences cognitive and behavioral development in later life. A newly emerging research framework, developmental connectomics, provides unprecedented opportunities for exploring the developing brain through non-invasive mapping of structural and functional connectivity patterns. Within this framework, we review recent neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies investigating connectome development from 20 postmenstrual weeks to 5 years of age. Specifically, we highlight five fundamental principles of brain network development during the critical first years of life, emphasizing strengthened segregation/integration balance, a remarkable hierarchical order from primary to higher-order regions, unparalleled structural and functional maturations, substantial individual variability, and high vulnerability to risk factors and developmental disorders. (Abstract)
Courage, Mary and Mark Howe. From Infant to Child: The Dynamics of Cognitive Change in the Second Year of Life. Psychological Bulletin. 128/2, 2002. A historical and current review of the field whose studies have ranged from the constructivism of Piaget to new nativism and modularity theories. In this transitional second year occurs self-awareness and the profusion of language.
For example, the development of behavior that appears to be discontinuous or disorderly at the performance level but which arises from underlying processes that are themselves continuous and orderly (e.g., an infant’s vocabulary acquisition or first steps) is consistent with the self-organizing properties that typify non-linear dynamic systems. (268)