VIII. Pedia Sapiens: A New Genesis Future
Our present collaborative discovery, as documented over some 3,500 pages, is meant to serve an intended humane, peaceful, egalitarian, viable local, global and ecosmic society. This vista is possible because the nested genesis it reveals occurs by an iterative repetition of the same genomic, cellular, pattern and process at each and every regnant stage. The promise is that intended, phenomenal human beings, once so informed, can respectfully continue and carry forth its complementary organic creativity of free individuals in supportive groups. An example could be ubuntu “proto-cellular” communities as noted in Sustainable Ecovillages. But as a malestrom of barbarians, weaponry, viral epidemics and more perils devastate, it requires an epochal unity of peoples and civilizations, to wit a geonate event to bear forth a bigender Pedia Sapiens.
As readers well know, we are far from any such awakened, aware transformation. The Old Earth: Our Critical Life Support Condition records overshot biospheric, physiological, homeostatic systems of climate, water, pollutants, biodiversity, coral reefs, cash economies, gun infestations, the whole nuclear litany. Unless we can overcome archaic religious, tribal, sectarian, ethnic genocides, cultural and political chasms, driven by absurd warlords and weaponry, along with the awful silencing and subjugation of women, we will surely perish. Anthropocene Moment: Kinder or Cinder follows to enter discourses upon this popular moniker. Global Climate as a Complex Dynamical System posts efforts to help understand weather by this hyper-intricate realm by these theories.
The topical subjects in A New Creation: An Evolution to Evolitionary Singular Event attempt to broach some representative aspects. Mind Over Matter: Quantum, Atomic, Chemical conveys how collective human acumen can lately delve into any depth and breadth so as to begin anew. Second Genesis: presents similar findings and daunting abilities at this sudden frontier. Moving on, Positive Personal Enhancement within Community looks at an historic turn from maladies of body, brain, and psyche to intentionally achieve better selves in viable societies. To this avail, Sustainable Ecovillages: me + We = US, A Complementary, Bicameral Democracy, and A Viable Gaia gather an array of endeavors, projects, pathways which portend a better way forward. OK
Furthermore, circa 2017, a third letter section was added as An Earthropic Principle: Novel Evidence for a Special Planet which broaches this incredible possibility, and opportunity. Indeed, a multitude of satellite, telescopic, instrumental and computational findings over the past decade have quantified a plethora of planets and solar systems across galactic reaches. By way of 17 and counting check points that only Earth seems to have passed through, a remarkable, unexpected realization may be adawning. Our precious home abode might just be, the very fantastic idea, one in a quintillion able to evolve to a current geonatal moment when a participatory observation and proactive cosmic choice can be made.
A. The Old World: Its Critical Life Support Condition
Although many historic and current technological advances have necessarily served to alleviate and improve the human condition, in their mostly unrestrained state they have now much overshot a finite bioplanet. Material consumption, energy usage, resource waste, weapons proliferation, plastics pollution, bioextinctions, and many other insults have led to recent volumes such as The Uninhabitable Earth by David Wallace-Wells and Falter by Bill McKibben. What follows herein is a generic litany, which grows in scope and intensity each year, which need be resolved if we are to achieve a sustainable transformation. But due to self-serving political and economic agendas, much confusion persists about the state of the global dynamic climate. A broad array of concerns are noted herein, with novel pathways to a better, successful world broached in following sections.
Global Climate Change The real threat is not a gradual warming and sea level rise but a critically poised complex weather system that can suddenly and unexpectedly change in a few years. Such instabilities are increasingly felt in extreme storms and floods or prolonged droughts. A number of sources on Abrupt Climate Change are included.
Military Armaments We are awash in guns, land minds, mortars, tanks, poison gas, warlords; land, sea and air weaponry of absurd, epidemic proportions. Their proliferation inflames ancient and present territorial, tribal, ethnic, religious, national, resource, gang, ideological conflicts, an anachronism as vital humankind converges upon itself over a finite biosphere. A prime danger remains thousands of nuclear warheads in uncontrolled circulation in an age of terror.
Human Population Lately over seven billion, it is projected to level off around ten billion by 2100. Asian countries, especially China, now try to enforce a one child policy for sheer survival. Many Third World lands, in their poverty, push the birth rate, often to have sons. A crucial overdue advance in the status of women to voice and vision equality is imperative.
Natural Resources Exploitation of temperate and tropical forests, strip mining, monocrop soil erosion, aquifer depletion, overfishing and hunting, the litany goes on, threaten the ecological carrying capacity of the biosphere.
Energy Expenditure The overshoot impact of fossil fuel power plants, heavy industry, high horsepower vehicles, a non-renewable coal and oil economy, ostentatious lifestyles, has raised carbon dioxide levels which accelerate a greenhouse effect.
Pollution The waste products of a material First World, a burdened Second and catch-up Third foul the atmosphere, contaminate oceans, rain acid on trees, poison the soil and limit diversity so as to degrade their own quality of life.
Economic Corruption An inhibiting factor to resolution of these interlinked concerns, which needs emphasis, is an economy and culture obsessed with money. Whether governmental, corporate, financial market, consumptive, and so on, good greed, along with an orgy of guns, daunts social justice, green life styles, a vital sustainable revolution.
Brooks, Rosa. How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2016.
Caldicott, Helen, ed. Sleepwalking to Armageddon: The Threat of Nuclear Annihilation. New York: New Press, 2017.
Diamond, Jared. Upheaval: Turning Points for Nations in Crisis. New York: Little, Brown, 2019.
Hansen, James, et al. Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 16/3761, 2016.
Mora, Camilo, et al. Broad Threat to Humanity from Cumulative Climate Hazards. Nature Climate Change. November, 2018.
Otto, Ilona, et al. Social Tipping Dynamics for Stabilizing Earth’s Climate by 2050. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 117/2354, 2020.
Schneider, Tapio, et al. Possible Climate Transitions from Breakup of Stratocumulus Decks under Greenhouse Warming. Nature Geoscience. Online February, 2019.
Turner, Monica, et al. Climate Change, Ecosystems and Abrupt Change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. January, 2020.
Vallacher, Robin, et al. Attracted to Conflict: Dynamic Foundations of Destructive Social Relations. Berlin: Springer, 2013.
Wallace-Wells, David. The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming. New York: Tim Duggan/Crown, 2019.
View the 110 Bibliographic Entries
1. An Anthropocene to Earthropocene Moment
We add a 2010s section for references in consideration of a latest evolutionary epoch signified by a human name so to supersede the Holocene of the last 10,000 years. A generic web definition is: The Anthropocene defines Earth's most recent geologic time period as being human-influenced, or anthropogenic, based on overwhelming global evidence that atmospheric, geologic, hydrologic, biospheric and other earth system processes are now altered by humans. As disparate entries convey, while a Anthropo Sapiens hyper-civilization impact is obviously modifying everything, how to situate its origins, and to recognize the geologic, oceanic, environmental, biodiverse, sustaniability influences and perils remains much underway.
But as I write in 2016, it would seem we are cutting it much too close. In reality, civilizations are madly clashing and crashing across the globe. Rather than a 21st century worldwide wisdom and concerted mission to select and save this precious bioplanet, we seem bent on going back to barbaric dark ages, this time armed with terminal weapons. The goal and promise of an integral planetary scale and vision would be a phenomenal organic vitality and sustanence for all creatures and children. Maybe we men have made such a mess, as time immemorial only women can save us.
2020: We now add an Earthropocene title, which is more appropriate and realistic for this unitary ecosphere is our proper altogether abide. This revolutionary (paradigm) shift from rampant, conflictual nations, is conceptually and practically imperative.
Donges, Jonathan, et al. Reconnecting Human Dynamics to Earth System Dynamics. Anthropocene Review. Online August, 2017.
Gaffney, Owen and Will Steffen. The Anthropocene Equation. Anthropocene Review. Online February, 2017.
Nicholson, Simon and Sikina Jinnah, eds. New Earth Politics: Essays from the Anthropocene. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2016.
Oppermann, Serpil and Serenella Iovino, eds. Environmental Humanities: Voices from the Anthropocene. London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016.
Steffen, Will, et al. Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115/8252, 2018.
View the 45 Bibliographic Entries
2. Global Climate Change as a Complex Dynamical System
This is new subsection added in 2011 about how the hyper-complex intricacy of world weather, which is traced from paleological times, is coming to be appreciated, distinguished, and quantified by the same nonlinear critically self-organizing, scalar dynamics as everywhere else. Again the universal one code is present even in this stormy realm. In regard, "global warming" phase is an unfortunate misnomer for these nonlinear currents then portend abrupt, catastrophic change as more likely. It would serve climate scientists, under siege from well-funded deniers, to cite themselves say as “physicians of the planet” givine wellness and illness reports. See Geosphere, Hydrospehre, and Atmosphere for further entries.
2020: As a viral pandemic ravages, it is said that the intense scientific and public effort being marshalled ought to next be applied to deal with and migate wild atmospheric climate changes, indeed a planetdemic for which we similarly need adapt sensible behaviors and expenditures.
Boers, Niklas, et al. Complex Networks Reveal Global Pattern of Extreme Rainfall Teleconnections. Nature Climate Change. January 30, 2019.
Franzke, Christian and Terence O’Kane, eds. Nonlinear and Stochastic Climate Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
Lucarini, Valerio. Introduction to the Special Issue on the Statistical Mechanics of Climate. Journal of Statistical Physics. 179/5-6, 2020.
Lovejoy, Shaun and Daniel Schertzer. The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Palmer, Tim and Bjorn Stevens. The Scientific Challenge of Understanding and Estimating Climate Change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116/24390, 2019.
Selvam, Amujuri Mary. Self-Organized Criticality and Predictability in Atmospheric Flows: The Quantum World of Clouds and Rain. International: Springer, 2017.
Yalcin, G. Cigdem, et al. Extreme Event Statistics of Daily Rainfall: Dynamical Systems Approach. Journal of Physics A. 49/154001, 2016.
View the 59 Bibliographic Entries
B. A New CoCreation: A Singular Evolitionary Advance
Now for some good news. This multi-phase section was surveyed in the Genesis Future introduction and proceeds from physical matter and genomic curations onto personal welfare, protocell villages, an organic democracy and of critical import, a sustainable ecosphere. The Evolution to Evolition phrase is meant to convey the imminent epochal change in the course of cosmic and biological development of chancy optimums from myriad precarious candidates to one of self-selected volitional, informed diversity and unity within an ordained familial genesis. We use this certain module to collect recent entries about life's apparent open-ended creative potentials going forward.
Adams, Alyssa, et al. Physical Universality, State-Dependent Dynamical Laws and Open-Ended Novelty. Entropy. 19/9, 2017
Banzhaf, Wolfgang, et al, eds. Evolution in Action: Past, Present and Future. International: Springer, 2020.
Davies, Paul. Does New Physics Lurk Inside Living Matter? Physics Today. August 2020.
Packard, Norman, et al. Open-Ended Evolution and Open-Endedness. Artificial Life. 25/1, 2019.
View the 8 Bibliographic Entries
1. Mind Over Matter: Quantum, Atomic, Chemical Connectomics
This section gleans and glosses how collective human acumen seems to have become able to learn all about and delve into any depth and breadth of quantum, physical and material realms. Through computation, visualization, instrumentation, satellites, daily web postings, global collaborations, and so on, our supermindful knowability seems poised and primed to begin a new ordained co-creation. For example, an active method is to apply a sense of “material genomes” in prescriptive effect. Other approachs imagine a 21st century phase of “alchemical” transformations. But as a caveat, we do not mean any artificial technology take over in this occasion. Rather than machines as before, human beings in local and global community may now take up their intended purpose as the temporal center and leading edge of a genesis procreation.
2020: By virtue of these deep capabilities, which are incredible and infinite in their potential, it need well dawn upon us all that a open evolitionary cocreation beckons to carry forward a biospheric and biocosmic future destiny.
Alberi, Kirstin, et al. The 2019 Materials by Design Roadmap. Journal of Physics D. 52/013001, 2019.
Atzori, Matteo and Roberta Sessoli. The Second Quantum Revolution: Challenges of Molecular Chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141/29, 2019.
Canfield, Paul. New Materials Physics. Reports on Progress in Physics. 83/016001, 2020.
Carrasquilla, Juan and Roger Melko. Machine Learning Phases of Matter. Nature Physics. 13/5, 2018.
Cronin, Leroy, et al. Catalyst: The Metaphysics of Chemical Reactivity. Chem. 4/8, 2018.
Deane-Drummond, Celia, et al, eds. Technofutures, Nature and the Sacred. Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2015.
Klishin, Andrei, et al. Statistical Physics of Design. New Journal of Physics. 20/103038, 2018.
Nosengo, Nicola. The Material Code. Nature. 533/23, 2016.
Ravoo, Bart. Frontiers of Molecular Self-Assembly. Israel Journal of Chemistry. 59/868, 2019.
Yeo, Jingjie, et al. Materials-by-Design: Computation, Synthesis, and Characterization from Atoms to Structures. Physica Scripta. 93/5, 2018.
View the 142 Bibliographic Entries
2. Second Genesis: Life Begins Anew via an EarthWise CoCreativity
While Mind Over Matter reviews new abilities to fathom and restart an animate physical creation, Second Genesis will here report and document similar natural palliative and positive genetic and biological capabilities. At the outset as these potentials suddenly open and beckon we cite ethical concerns, more so throughout this site, which need play a guiding role. As evolution may finally reach its emergent term of geonatal (cosmonatal) self-cognizance, our collective, sapient knowledge can help mitigate, revise, and enhance life’s genotype source and phenotype cellular beingness. Life’s long, arduous contingent phase, a cobbled, tinkered, brutal yet an oriented development, might at last reach its intended curative and creative resolve and fulfillment. A Second Genesis phrase is proffered as distinguished by a successful passage of the parental cosmome bigender endowment to our future kinderkind edification.
2020: Within the compass of this singular, geonatal moment, our worldwise EarthKinder prodigious progeny has suddenly achieved an awesome capability to begin all over again in a better way. As these qualities arise on a special bioplanet, it can appear as an intended, ordained occasion of a self-chosen and cocreative natural genesis.
Bhasin, Devesh and Daniel McAdams. The Characterization of Biological Organization, Abstraction and Novelty in Biomimetic Design. Design. 2/4, 2018.
Cheng, Feng, et al. Directed Evolution 2.0. Chemical Communications. 51/9760, 2015.
Davies, Jamie. Real-World Synthetic Biology. Life. 9/1, 2019.
Feldman, Aaron and Floyd Romesberg. Expansion of the Genetic Alphabet. Accounts of Chemical Research. Online December, 2017.
Hagen, Kristin, et al, eds. Ambivalences of Creating Life: Societal and Philosophical Dimensions of Synthetic Biology. Dordrecht: Springer, 2016.
Karalkar, Nilesh and Steven Benner. Synthetic Darwinism and the Aperiodic Crystal Structure. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 46/188, 2018.
Sole, Ricard. The Major Synthetic Evolutionary Transitions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371/20160175, 2016.
View the 113 Bibliographic Entries
3. Positive Personal Enhancement within Community
This section about individual benefit and fulfillment in service gathers and reports an eclectic array of maybe how ones bodily, psychic, and behavioral life can be made better. Two aspects will be highlighted – longevity as the extension of healthy, productive life span, and the positive psychology turn to emphasize and inform an enhanced, creative, relational life style. If we may take license, our singular moment could be seen as an historic reprieve and advance from sinners to winners.
2020: Within the double uniVerse and humanVerse revolution/Revolition in our worldwise midst, as true microcosms children, women and men are transformed into intended, empowered, worthy cocreators.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Isabella Selega Csikszentmihalyi, eds. A Life Worth Living. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Lopez, Shane, et al, eds. Positive Psychology: The Scientific and Practical Explorations of Human Strengths. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2015.
Pluess, Michael, ed. Genetics of Psychological Well-Being. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Seligman, Martin. Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being. New York: Atria Books, 2012.
VanderWeele, Tyler. On the Promotion of Human Flourishing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114/8148, 2017.
View the 56 Bibliographic Entries
4. Sustainable Ecovillages: me + We = US
It is vital to appreciate that humankind has not only realized an overall genesis cosmology but one whose nested development proceeds by the same creative complementary system at each and every stage. A dynamic, emergent scale of being and becoming accrues as the formative principles infuse and empower everywhere. The great benefit is that once discovered, these common themes can be respectfully carried forth to a genesis futurity of viable “protocell” communities (Andersson, Dunbar, et al) in a Viable Gaia section to follow. Rather than a homogeneous globalization, often misunderstood, a new evolitionary stage would be a biospheric network of urban and rural communities. Examples of constant guiding principles might be:
• An equitable, reciprocal partnership of women and men. (Complementarity)
• A mutuality of free individuals joined in shared relationship. (Creative Union)
• Spontaneous free association without central authority. (Self-organization)
• Modular personal diversity in a beneficial social unity. (Symbiosis)
• Coherent boundaries for self-referential communities. (Autopoiesis)
In an epilogue to The Human Web (2003), the eminent historian William McNeill makes just such a proposal. For thousands of years, homo sapiens dwelt in familial bands of 50 to 100 members. But with the fragmentation, diaspora and suburbanization of modern societies, this identity and cohesion has been lost. Based on an organic evolution with a recurrence of the same cellular form, McNeill advises that our social future should again be composed of “primary communities” of similar number of participants. Such a 21st century recovery of African ubuntu wisdom of “I am because We are” would be wonderful. These books, magazines and websites herein introduce a vital option to a consumptive, unjust, violent and unsustainable civilization. Also included are entries to an organic, environmental architecture.
2020: As baby steps forward, as already in practical, viable evidence on each continent, a first transition to ecovillage social protocell communities can be offered.
Andersson, Claes and Petter Tornberg. Toward a Macroevolutionary Theory of Human Evolution: The Social Protocell. Biological Theory. Online December, 2018.
Armstrong, Rachel. Vibrant Architecture: Matter as a CoDesigner of Living Structures. Online: De Gruyter Open, 2015.
Bohm, Steffen, et al. Ecocultures: Blueprints for Sustainable Communities. London: Routledge, 2014.
Downton, Paul. Ecopolis: Architecture and Cities for a Changing Climate. Dordrecht: Springer, 2009.
Jarvis, Helen. Saving Space, Sharing Time: Integrated Infrastructures of Daily Life in Cohousing. Environment and Planning A. 43/3, 2011.
Kammen, Daniel. Sustainable Communities. Scientific American. December, 2017.
Litfin, Karen. Ecovillages: Lessons for Sustainable Community. London: Polity Books, 2014.
Scott, Andrew and Eran Ben-Joseph. ReNew Town: Adaptive Urbanism and the Low Carbon Community. London: Routledge, 2011.
Wilson, David Sloan. The Neighborhood Project: Using Evolution to Improve My City, One Block at a Time. New York: Little, Brown, 2011.
View the 57 Bibliographic Entries
5. A 2020 Naturome Bicameral Democracy
A crucial benefit would be to apply the abiding universal bigender principles the United States and all elections everywhere. As viewers know, this country ever splits into right/left, Republican/Democrat, conservative/liberal, red/blue, COVID mask or baldface destructive polarization. These preferences broadly align individual autonomy or communal support, militarism/negotiation, conflict/tolerance, past/future, see Complementarity of Civilizations for more. For example, the 2000 election between Al Gore and George Bush divided in half to a few votes out of a 100 million. Again in 2004 the vote again came out 51/49 with one side pitted against the other, rather than mutual reciprocity. Recent elections in Germany, France, Mexico, Africa, have similarly split, often with violent results.
For another take, the United States constitution was based by Thomas Jefferson upon 18th century Newtonian mechanics. Could we altogether imagine a 21st century natural governance guided by an organic, self-organizing, symbiotic, entity and empathy reciprocity? Our two parties are locked either-or, conserve/create gridlock conflict. An obvious, naturome resolve, it is respectfully proposed, would be me + We = US as a truly unified, familial, participatory, egalitarian, peaceable resolve.
2020: As the global halo of girls and boys illustrates, by just this simple, crucial shift from opposites against to brother and sister together can a new future genesis begin.
Abele, Andrea and Bogdan Wojciszke. Communal and Agentic Content: A Dual Perspective Model. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Volume 50, 2014.
Arash, Abizadeh. Representation, Bicameralism, Political Equality, and Sortition. Perspectives on Politics. Online January, 2020.
Cornell, Drucilla and Nyoko Muvanqua, eds. Ubuntu and the Law: African Ideals. New York: Fordham University Press, 2012.
Fiske, Susan. Political Cognition Helps Explain Social Class Divides. Cognition. 188/108, 2019.
Grossmann, Matt and David Hopkins. Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. New York: Oxford University, 2017.
Landemore, Helene. Democratic Reason: Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.
Wiesner, Karoline, et al. Stability of Democracies: A Complex Systems Perspective. European Journal of Physics. 40/1, 2019.
View the 68 Bibliographic Entries
6. A Viable Gaiasphere: Planetary Patriots and Matriots
Alberti, Marina. Cities That Think like Planets. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2016.
Battro, Antonio, et al, eds. Children and Sustainable Development. International: Springer, 2017.
Brown, Valerie and John Harris. The Human Capacity for Transformational Change: Harnessing the Collective Mind. London: Routledge, 2014.
Callicott, J. Baird. Thinking Like a Planet. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Egmond, Klaas Van. Sustainable Civilization. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Kelbessa, Workineh. African Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics. 37/4, 2016.
Lenton, Timothy and Bruno Latour. Gaia 2.0. Science. 361/1066, 2018.
Levin, Simon, et al. Social-Ecological Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems. Environment and Development Economics. 18/2, 2013.
Nelson, David, et al. Clinical Ecology: Transforming 21st Century Medicine with Planetary Health in Mind. Challenges. 10/1, 2019.
Som, Sanjoy. Common Identity as a Step to Civilization Longevity. Futures. Online August, 2018.
Yuxin, Jia and Jia Xuelai. The Anthropocosmic Perspective on Intercultural Communication: Learning to be Global Citizens. Intercultural Communication Studies. 25/1, 2016.
View the 150 Bibliographic Entries
C. An Earthropic Principle: Novel Evidence for a Special Planet
A September 2018 article Alone in the Milky Way by John Gribbin in Scientific American makes just this case. A full page graphic, the first of its kind, displays a series of Improbable Coincidences from the big bang through stellar formations, metallicity content, galactic and solar habitable zones, good timings at each bottleneck stage, vicarious surface conditions in life’s favor, early prokaryote to eukaryote cellular success, and onto the chancy appearance of Homo sapiens with our cultural and technological civilization.
As we reach a grand conclusion, this Natural Genesis sourcesite has covered some 3,500 pages by way of 8,400 entries. A steady, worldwise flow of evidential findings has described a conducive, ecosmos which populates itself with myriad solar incubator – habitable planet systems. But an unexpected, auspicious occasion is beginning to be realized. As the next survey of fortuitous events and features conveys, our home Earth Gaiasphere may well be the fittest, optimum candidate to have evolved and emerged this far to a decisive opportunity of self-recognition and self-selective victory.
For a citation, we propose to expand “Anthropic principle” whence cosmic parameters have precise values which allow life and people to exist (Part III. G). An “Earthropic principle” could denote an epic discovery that amongst an infinity of stochastic bioworlds our special planet has achieved a rarest temporal and spatial concatenation. How fantastic is it that aware, cocreative Earth and Earthlings may be the first, best, or last one in a quintillion.
2020: The new Introduction will place this incredible distinction and destiny as a central point opportunity to come altogether and therefore choose Earth.
Benign G-Type Star Our sun has been on relatively good behavior for billions of years. While M red dwarfs make up some 80% of galactic stars, this preferred solar type and temperature range is more conducive for life and evolution.
Multiple Suns are Common A majority of stellar objects are found to occur in vicarious double pairings or triple combinations. Binary star regimes in constant motion are considered to be hostile, highly variable environs.
Stellar Clusters in Galaxies Another usual condition is a tendency for stars to cluster together in fluid galactic groupings, which makes suns with orbital planets harder to form and maintain. Our star is not in a crowded area.
Stable Solar System Our own warm sun with an array of eight distinct worlds has experienced a rare long-term stability. A ninth outer planet or more is seen as disruptive. Most exosolar arrays found so far exhibit all manner of chaotic instabilities.
Unique Orbital Geometries For another anomaly, our familiar orrery of worlds all lie in the same plane, with mostly well spaced, circular orbits. A Bohr atom type swarm of planets every which way, often close in, is more prevalent.
Solar Habitable Zone Precious Earth resides in a relatively benign middle location from the sun between fried too near and frozen far out. So situated, its daily rotation and 365 day annual orbit are very conducive.
Galactic Habitable Zone The solar system is located half way from a prohibitive center and too far outer bands. By virtue, beneficial metallicities can occur in the sun and for planetary accretions.
Jupiter’s Journeys This orderly milieu is due to past movements of the gas giant Jupiter in toward the sun and back again. This is known as a “grand tack,” which served to remove a usual inner crush of rocky worlds, leaving only Mercury.
Rare Ratio of Land and Water Among thousands of exoworlds found so far, Earth has a unique 30 – 70 % division of dry land and ocean over a long time. A more usual state, e.g. Mars and Venus, and through the galaxy, is a default to all arid, wet/icy, or gaseous.
Plate Tectonics Still another rarity is the past movement and contact of continental land masses over many millions of years. Their geological and climatic dynamics are seen to foster evolutionary development, which a stationary mantle would not do.
A Timely Oxygenated Atmosphere Earth life’s embryonic biosphere was able to achieve at an early age (Gaian bottleneck) a stable optimum of a 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen balance. Below 15% or above 25% oxygen would starve or burn environments and organisms.
Asteroid Impact Rates By many paleo-studies, it has been found that Earth sustained a tolerable degree of asteroid hits, while the more usual rain of many more collisions which would be catastrophic to life and intelligence able to learn all this.
An Ideal Moon However it happened, Earth has had a largish moon in just the right place for a long duration. Its presence then causes moderate tidal flows and basins to foster stromatolites and cyanobacteria at life’s origins, go onto mediate weather, light up a dark night for hominins, and more favors.
A Good Axial Tilt for Seasons Earth’s polar axis goes through a 23.5 degree swing each year, aka obliquity, which causes vital seasonal variations. While a 10 to 50 degree range may harbor life, a spring, summer, autumn, winter cycle seems well suited.
Arboreal Tree Height As evident on Earth, life’s evolution was fostered by the right amount of ground water so that fertile forests could grow to an optimal size.
Planetary Magnetism Earth has maintained liquid surface water and an airy atmosphere over eons aided by a strong magnetic dipole moment. Other planets such as Venus and Mars do not have this vital feature.
Stellar Spectral Energy Radiance As a sun shines, it must do so at an appropriate rate over a long time span so that life on a habitable, orbital world can evolve from simple to complex entities like us.
We post next a sample of salient citations in support of these auspicious qualities. Please browse Astrobiology, Exoearths, Green Galaxy, and throughout for more reports.
Batygin, Konstantin and Greg Laughlin. Jupiter’s Decisive Role in the Inner Solar System’s Early Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112/4214, 2015.
Canales, Manuel, et al. One Strange Rock. National Geographic. March, 2017.
Chopra, Aditya and Charles Lineweaver. The Case for a Gaian Bottleneck: The Biology of Habitability. International Journal of Astrobiology. 16/1, 2016.
Cirkovic, Milan. The Great Silence: Science and Philosophy of Fermi’s Paradox. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.
Frank, Adam, et al. Earth as a Hybrid Planet: The Anthropocene in an Evolutionary Astrobiological Context. Anthropocene. Online August, 2017.
Gribbin, John. Alone in the Milky Way. Scientific American. September, 2018.
Lingam, Manasvi and Abraham Loeb. Physical Constraints for the Evolution of Life on Exoplanets. arXiv:1810:02007.
Morbidelli, Alessandro, et al. Topical Collection on the Delivery of Water to Proto-Planets, Planets and Satellites. Space Science Reviews. 214/7, 2018.
Prantzos, Nikos. A Probabilistic Analysis of the Fermi Paradox in Terms of the Drake Formula. arXiv:2003.04802.
Secco, Luigi, et al. Habitability of Local, Galactic and Cosmological Scales. arXiv:1912:01569.
Smith, Howard A. The End of Copernican Mediocrity: How Modern Astrophysics Has Reinvigorated the Spiritual Dimension. Zoe Imfeld and Andreas Losch, eds. Our Common Cosmos. London: Bloomsbury, 2018.
Waltham, David. Lucky Planet: Why Earth is Exceptional. New York: Basic Books, 2014.
Webb, Stephen. If the Universe is Teeming with Aliens-- Where is Everybody? New York: Springer, 2015.
View the 103 Bibliographic Entries
D. Ecosmocene Destiny: The Greening of the Galaxy
Baum, Seth, et al. Long-Term Trajectories of Human Civilization. Foresight.Online January, 2019.
Dosovic, Vladimir, et al. Advanced Aspects of the Galactic Habitability. arXiv:1904.01062.
Dyson, Freeman. A Vision of a Green Universe. New York Review of Books. October 13, 2016.
Haussler, David. Odds for an Enlightened Rather than Barren Future. arXiv:1608.05776.
Kaku, Michio. The Future of Humanity. New York: Doubleday, 2018.
Salcido, Jaime, et al. What Does the Future of Our Universe Hold?. arXiv:1710.06861.
Zenil, Hector. Reprogramming Matter, Life, and Purpose. arXiv:1704.00725.
View the 71 Bibliographic Entries