VIII. Earth Earns: An Open Participatory Earthropocene to Ecosmocene CoCreativity
1. Mind Over Matter and Energy: Quantum, Atomic, Chemical Connectomics
Points, Laurie, et al. Artificial Intelligence Exploration of Unstable Protocells Leads to Predictable Properties and Discovery of Collective Behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Online January, 2018. University of Glasgow chemists including Leroy Cronin (search) continue their clever modeling of early life phases by way of new AI computational techniques to better achieve retrospective insights. See also Lee Cronin’s lab web page for more articles and advances.
Protocell models are used to investigate how cells might have first assembled on Earth. Some can be simple in kind, while able to exhibit complex and unpredictable behaviors. How such rudimentary systems came together to yield complex, life-like behaviors remains a key question. Herein, we illustrate by way of oil-in-water droplets how automated experimentation, image processing, physicochemical analysis, and machine learning allows can reveal the driving forces behind their behaviors. Using this process, we were able to relate droplet formulation and swarming to collective behavior via predicted physical properties. Overall, this work shows that the combination of chemistry, robotics, and artificial intelligence enables discovery, prediction, and mechanistic understanding in ways that no one approach could achieve alone. (Abstract excerpt, edits)
Prescott, Tony, et al, eds. Living Machines: A Handbook of Research in Biomimetics and Biohybrid Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. With a Preface by Terence Sejnowski, the 600+ page volume achieves a conceptual and practical entry to this evolitionary transition (aka Genesis 2.0) via our palliative and beneficial furtherance of nature’s dynamic biologic creativity. A first section reviews how Life self-organizes, reproduces, metabolizes, uses energy, evolves and develops, by way of active organic materials. Attributes such as vision, touch, chemosensation, and strength, along with movement, learning, control, decision making, voice and pattern recognition and more are discussed throughout. Some entries are Self-Organization by Stuart Wilson, Growth by Barbara Mazzolini, A General Theory of Evolution by Terence Deacon, Capabilities by Paul Verschure, Consciousness by Anil Seth, and Ethics by Hannah Maslen and Julian Savulescu.
harness the principles discovered in nature and embody them in new artifacts, and biohybrid systems, which couple biological entities with synthetic ones. Living Machines surveys this flourishing area of research such as self-organization and co-operativity, biologically-inspired active materials, self-assembly and self-repair, learning, memory, control architectures and self-regulation, locomotion in air, on land or in water, perception, cognition, control, and communication. In all of these areas, the potential of biomimetics is shown through the construction of a wide range of devices and animal-like robots. Biohybrid systems is relatively new but is likely to shape the future of humanity.
Prokopenko, Mikhail, ed. Guided Self-Organization: Inception. Berlin: Springer, 2014. As realizations grow of a revolutionary genesis nature, whose active procreation is now passing to our human facilitation, a CSIRO, Australia, information physicist gathers an early collection to explore how we might respectfully go about this. Leading players as Daniel Polani, Nihat Ay, Carlos Gershenson, Claudius Gros, and Christof Koch, broach approaches such as Complexity, Emergence, Self-organization, Homeostasis, and Autopoiesis; Synergistic Mutual Information; Neural Topologies; and Self-organizing Swarms. Yes, 27 men and 1 woman, the whole vista should be more organic, but a vital turn, if respectfully understood, toward a better future.
Raabe, Dierk, et al.
Accelerating the design of compositionally complex materials via physics-informed artificial intelligence..
Nature Computational Science.
MPI Institute for Iron Research members post a thorough, illustrated survey of many ways that the latest AI machine learning capabilities can initiate and foster a new worldwise phase of radical cocreative advances. A further novel attribute is a substantial basis arising from the field of condensed matter physics. Sections include Physics-based modeling of descriptors, AI for Compositionally Complex Materials, Hybrid Methods and Active Learning in Materials Science image whence a human being sits at the center of past stochastic and future intentional planetary and multiversal contributions going forward.
The chemical space for designing materials is practically infinite. This makes disruptive progress by traditional physics-based modeling alone challenging. Yet, training data for identifying composition–structure–property relations by artificial intelligence are sparse. We discuss opportunities to discover new chemically complex materials by hybrid methods where physics laws are combined with artificial intelligence. (Raabe)
Ratner, Mark and Daniel Ratner.
Nanotechnology: A Gentle Introduction to the Next Big Idea.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall,
A readable survey of advances in smart materials, biostructures, energy storage, optics, magnets, electronics, self-healing systems, catalysts, proteins, and so on by means of acting upon molecules and topologies in this one-billionth of a meter size. As a note, the prefix "nano" seems to have become a buzzword for any kind of novel technology.
Ricard, Timothy, et al. Adaptive, Geometric Networks for Efficient Coarse-Grained Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Post-Hartree–Fock Accuracy. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. Online May, 2018. We cite this entry by Indiana University chemists and physicists in an American Chemical Society publication as an example of the intentional application of nature’s intrinsic dynamic topologies to newly co-create and carry forth an improved animate, beneficial materiality.
We introduce a new coarse-graining technique for ab initio molecular dynamics that is based on the adaptive generation of connected geometric networks or graphs specific to a given molecular geometry. The coarse-grained nodes depict a local chemical environment and are networked to create edges, triangles, tetrahedrons, and higher order simplexes based on (a) a Delaunay triangulation procedure and (b) a method that is based on molecular, bonded and nonbonded, local interactions. The geometric subentities thus created, that is nodes, edges, triangles, and tetrahedrons, each represent an energetic measure for a specific portion of the molecular system, capturing a specific set of interactions. (Abstract excerpt)
Rigden, John. Hydrogen: The Essential Element. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002. A report on a growing intentional effort to move beyond the old carbon-fossil fuel economy, as part of a long “decarbonization” process, in order to achieve clean, efficient, widely available energy sources.
Ritter, Alex. Smart Materials. Basel: Birkhauser, 2007. Across Europe the frontiers of design in interior and exterior architecture are employing a plethora of novel forms of matter. For example, thermochromic and electrochromic surfaces change color and texture due to heat or current in applications from clothing to wall geometries. One gets the sense from this illustrated volume, as a case in point, of human imagination beginning to take over and evoke the latent potentials of a genesis creation.
Ritter, Robert, et al. Fabrication of Nanopores in 1 nm Thick Carbon Nanomembranes with Slow Highly Charged Ions. Applied Physics Letters. 102/063112, 2013. In this reference cited in “Extreme Atoms” in Nature’s “Quantum Atom” feature (498/22, 2013) for the 100th anniversary of Neils Bohr’s paper, European physicists from TU Wien-Vienna University of Technology, Halmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Technische Universitat Dresden, and Universitat Bielefied, seem capable, per the Abstract, of open abilities to learn about, and to then fashion material creation to our own measured betterment and purposes. Similarly, the Nature paper noted makings of “hollow, giant, antimatter, super heavy, whatever, atomic origami.” We cite as one more example of humankind’s collaborative intellect and capability to achieve a second intentional genesis.
We describe the use of slow highly charged ions as a simple tool for the fabrication of nanopores with well-defined diameters typically between 10 and 20 nm in freestanding, 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes (CNMs). When CNMs are exposed to a flux of highly charged ions, for example Xe40+, each individual ion creates a circular nanopore, the size of which depends on the kinetic and potential energy of the impinging ion. The controlled fabrication of nanopores with a uniform size opens a path for the application of CNM based filters in nanobiotechnology. (Abstract)
Rose, Frisco, et al.. AFLUX: The LUX Materials Search API for the AFLOW Data Repositories. Computational Materials Science. 137/362, 2017. Duke University, University of North Texas, and Central Michigan University researchers including Stefano Curtarolo study database resources to serve this incipient advent a intentional creation of beneficial material forms. See also The AFLOW Library of Crystallographic Prototypes by this group in the same journal (136/Supp. 1, 2017). As one may peruse, we note how much this approach is broadly similar to genomic curations in journals such as Nucleic Acids Research and Database.
Automated computational materials science frameworks rapidly generate large quantities of materials data for accelerated materials design. In order to take advantage of these large databases, users should have the ability to efficiently search and extract the desired data. Therefore, we have extended the data-oriented AFLOW-repository Application-Program-Interface (API) to enable programmatic access to search queries. A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)-based search API is proposed for the construction of complex queries for remote creation and retrieval of customized data sets. It is expected that the new language, AFLUX, from “Automatic Flow of LUX (light)”, will enable remote search operations on the AFLOW set of computational materials science data repositories. In addition, AFLUX facilitates the verification and validation of the data in the AFLOW repositories. (Abstract)
Rosenthal, Elisabeth and Felicity Barringer. Green Promise Seen in Switch to LED Lighting. New York Times. May 30, 2009. Beyond all the hybrid hype, a truly siginificant energy-saving advance is the replacement of bulbs altogether by bright Light Emitting Diodes. With an indefinite life and twice as efficient as even compact bulbs, their full utilization would result in a 50% drop in carbon dioxide emissions. Mainly based on gallium nitride (GaN and InGaN) semiconductors, they represent a premier case of appropriate technology. And their further import could be as a harbinger of a dawning Light Age.
Rutherford, Adam. Creation: How Science is Reinventing Life Itself. New York: Current Books, 2014. Akin to Michael Tennesen’s The Next Species, a British geneticist and journalist takes the widest view of cosmic evolution whereof humankind becomes a potential second singularity. This long passage occurs over two main parts. The Origin of Life is seen as Begotten, Not Created with earth’s rough course traced from nucleotides to a noosphere. The Future of Life then goes on, if we may so choose, as Created, Not Begotten. This awesome new Genesis creation, just bursting upon us, most of all involves reading and reprogramming nature’s genetic Digital DNA code.
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