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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 45 of 148 found.


An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Stueken, Eva, et al. Mission to Planet Earth: The First Two Billion Years. Space Science Reviews. 216/Art. 31, 2020. As if some global cognitive faculty has landed on this world and is retrospectively trying to learn how it all came to be, nine astroscientists with postings in Scotland, Austria, Germany, Japan, and the USA, including Helmut Lammer discuss features such as From Magma to a Water Ocean, Onset of Plate tectonics, and more.

Solar radiation and geological processes over the early million years of Earth’s history, along with the origin of life, steered our planet towards a long evolutionary course of habitability and the emergence of complex life. Crucial aspects included: (1) the redox state and volatile content of Earth’s geology, (2) the timescale of atmospheric oxygenation; (3) the origin of autotrophy, biological N2 fixation, and oxygenic photosynthesis; (4) strong stellar UV radiation on the early Earth, and (5) photochemical effects on Earth’s sulfur cycle. The early Earth presents as an exoplanet analogue that can be explored through the existing rock record, allowing us to identify atmospheric signatures diagnostic of biological metabolisms that may be detectable on other inhabited planets with next-generation telescopes. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Vogelsberger, Mark, et al. Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Formation. Nature Reviews Physics. 2/1, 2020. As a window upon what a worldwise sapiensphere is now achieving, MIT, University of Bologna, University of Florida and Leibniz Institute, Potsdam astrophysicists post a state of the universe survey with Cosmological Model, Initial Conditions, Dark Matter, Halo Mass Function, Gravitational Dynamics, Baryonic Physics headings and topics. Colorful graphic displays show off galactic webworks and topologies from black holes to radiation fields and stellar nurseries. A century or so after Lemaitre, Shapley, Hubble and others glimpsed myriad galaxies, a global persona now proceeds with all manner of their past, present, and future description. Whomever are we phenomenal peoples altogether to be actually doing this? See also The Expansion of the Universe is Faster than Expected by Nobel laureate Adam Riess in this issue.

Over the last decades, cosmological simulations of galaxy formation have been instrumental for advancing our understanding of their structures in the Universe. These simulations follow the non-linear evolution of galaxies modeling a variety of physical processes over a wide range of scales. This better understanding of the physics that shape galaxies, along with numerical methods, and computing power can now reveal many observed properties along with dark matter, dark energy, and ordinary matter in an expanding space-time. This review presents an overview of the methodology of cosmological simulations of galaxy formation and their different applications. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS

Balatsky, Alexander, et al. Dynamic Quantum Matter. Annalen der Physik. 532/2, 2020. This editorial introduces a special issue on these later 2010s abilities to treat and avail this fundamental realm in a similar way to “classical” stages. The select papers are from a workshop held at the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stockholm in December 2018. We cite as another instance of a 21st century revolution whereby, due to its worldwise occasion, is achieving, from this vista, an epic (re)unification of cosmic scales, with our humankinder self-discovery.

We are witnessing rapid developments in the field of quantum materials with the focus on some of the most profound concepts in condensed matter, including entangled orders, quantum coherence, and quantum topology. Therefore, non‐equilibrium quantum dynamics emerges as a design principle to create desired quantum materials and functionalities. We see a growing focus on dynamics as a way to understand and control the fundamental physical processes that emerge due to quantum coherence of entangled quantum matter. (1)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS

Berkelbach, Timothy and Michael Thoss. Special Topic on Dynamics of Open Quantum Systems. Journal of Chemical Physics. 152/020401, 2020. A summary introduction to 55 papers published last year in this journal, as cited in the references, involved with the broad technical study and avail of nature’s deepest realm. One might imagine the opening of a newly accessible frontier whence micro and macro realms become one and the same, so as to (re)join universe and human.

Open quantum systems that exchange energy or particles with their environment occur in a wide variety of fields including chemical physics, condensed matter physics, quantum information, optics, and thermodynamics. Examples in chemical physics range from molecules in solution and at surfaces to molecular junctions, where single molecules are coupled to electrodes at different chemical potentials or temperatures. The coupling to the environment gives rise to dynamical processes such as fluctuations, dephasing, relaxation, thermalization, nonequilibrium excitation, and transport. The understanding of these processes is a major goal in the field of condensed-phase chemical dynamics. (1)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS

Jia, Ding. Correlational Quantum Theory. arXiv:2001.03142. We cite this entry by a University of Waterloo doctoral student also associated with the Perimeter Institute for novel views of how this field might continue to advance, as the quotes say. His implication of a correlative organic cosmos would serve to bridge once and future millennia. A further notice is an employ of the “qudit” term to represent higher level combinations (search) above two “qubits.”

A correlational dialect is introduced within the quantum theory language to give a unified treatment of finite-dimensional informational/operational quantum theories, infinite-dimensional quantum field theories, and quantum gravity. Theories are written in terms of correlation diagrams which specify correlation types and strengths. Feynman diagrams emerge as topological classes of correlation diagrams without any perturbative considerations. The correlational formalism is applied in a study of correlation constraints, revealing new classes of quantum processes that evade previous characterizations of general quantum processes including quantum causal structure. (Abstract)

Quantum theory has gone through several phases of evolution. It started as the quantum mechanics of particles, and as a theory of fields. More recently the quantum theory of information has been on the rise. Will the future reveal yet new phases of quantum phenomena? Our vision is that besides particles, fields, and bits (dits), correlations should also be used as a fundamental concept in constructing quantum theories. Generally, we understand quantum correlation as anything that is mediated and has a quantifiable strength in a quantum theory. As such correlations transcend the distinction between particles and fields, which both involve mediated quantifiable correlations, and go beyond qubits, which are limited to finite dimensions). (1)

Qudit: The unit of quantum information described by a superposition of d states, where d is an integer greater than two; the generalization to base d of a qubit. (Wiktionary)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > exouniverse

masaki, Shogo, et al. Anisotropic Separate Universe Simulations. . Suzuka College, Kyoto University and University of Toyko physicists open the paper by noting that worldwide scientific collaborations now make it possible to theoretically consider entire cosmoses with regard to variable parameters and properties. In a philoSophia view, how fantastic is it that we phenomenal human beings are altogether capable of considering and quantifying a whole universe.

The long-wavelength coherent overdensity and tidal force affect time evolution of cosmic structure formation and therefore clustering observables through the mode coupling. In this paper we develop an "anisotropic" separate universe (SU) simulation technique to simulate large-scale structure formation. We modify the TreePM N-body simulation code to implement the anisotropic SU simulations, and then study the "response" function of matter power spectrum that describes how the matter power spectrum responds to the large-scale tidal effect as a function of wavenumber and redshift for a given global cosmology. We test and validate the SU simulation results from the comparison with the perturbation theory predictions and the results from high-resolution PM simulation. We find that the response function displays characteristic scale dependences over the range of scales down to nonlinear scales, up to k ~ 6 h/Mpc. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Organic

Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel, et al. Mineral Self-Organization on a Lifeless Planet. Physics of Life Reviews. January, 2020. JM G-R, University of Granada, Laboratory for the Study of Crystallogenesis, Mark van Zuilen, University of Paris, Institute of Earth Physics, and Wolfgang Bach, University of Bremen, each a veteran geoscientist, post a decisive report to date that Earth’s primordial land and sea materiality has an intrinsic propensity to catalyze, vivify, and develop into a prebiotic chemical milieu. As the 2010 decade of intensely accelerating worldwide research comes to a fruitful close like this, it is becoming possible to quantify and affirm that an organic universal genesis, an oriented evolutionary gestation to our curious, learned humankinder, does indeed exist on its independent own. See also for example, Inorganic Reactions Self-organize Life-like Microstructures Far from Equilibrium Knoll, Pamela and Oliver Steinbock by Pamela Knoll and Oliver Steinbock in the Israel Journal of Chemistry (58/6, 2018).

It has been experimentally found that, under alkaline conditions, silica is able to induce the formation of self-assembled inorganic-inorganic composite materials similar in morphology, texture and nanostructure to hybrid biomineral structures that, millions of years later, life was able to self-organize. These mineral self-organized structures (MISOS) have been shown to be effective catalyzers for prebiotic chemical reactions and to create compartmentalization within the solutions where they form. We reason that, during the very earliest history of this planet, there was a geochemical scenario that inevitably led to the existence of a large array of simple and complex organic compounds, many of which were relevant to prebiotic chemistry.

The primal phase involves a silica-rich high-pH ocean and is powered by two main factors: a) a quasi-infinite source of carbon molecules synthesized abiotically from serpentinization reaction, and b) the formation of self-organized silica-metal mineral composites that catalyze the condensation of molecules in a methane-rich reduced atmosphere. We discuss the plausibility of this geochemical scenario, review the details of the formation of MISOS and its catalytic properties and the transition towards a slightly alkaline to neutral ocean. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Cichos, Frank, et al. Machine Learning for Active Matter. Nature Machine Intelligence. February, 2020. As many studies herein find that the movements of living systems from colloids and microbes to birds and people seem to be guided by and exhibit common self-organizing patterns, Leipzig University and University of Gothenburg add a further AI technique. An opening graphic cites molecular motors, turbulence, living crystals, growing tissues, chemotaxis, foraging, swimming, clustering and more, while a second shows convolutional neural nets, reservoir computing, genetic algorithms and other skill-sets. In regard, as brain-based deep AI gains wide, analytic utility, evinced by this application to an lively materiality, another window upon a natural genesis which avails and repeats the same iconic, bicameral, triality code everywhere is opened.

Machine learning techniques have already been successfully applied to active-matter data—for example, deep neural networks to analyse images and track objects, and recurrent nets and random forests to analyse time series. Yet machine learning can also help with the complexity of biological active matter, to establish a relation between the genetic code and bacterial behaviour, navigation strategies in complex environments, and to map physical cues onto animal behaviours. In this Review, we highlight the current state of the art and discuss opportunities and challenges. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Gadiyaram, Vasundhara, et al. From Quantum Chemistry to Networks in Biology: A Graph Spectral Approach to Protein Structure Analyses. arXiv:1912.11609. Indian Institute of Science, Karnataka and University of Illinois, Urbana researchers provide a good example of the present integrative frontiers as 2020 science fulfills its stage of common unification from universe to humankinder.

This perspective presents a multidisciplinary characterization of protein structure networks. Our approach will be to synthesize concepts from quantum chemistry, polymer conformations, matrix mathematics, and percolation theory. We then construct protein networks in terms of non-covalently interacting amino acid side chains and to distill information from their graph spectra such as structural integrity. In conclusion, we suggest a further unifying approach to protein structure analyses for larger, more complex networks, such as metabolic and disease networks. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Biology Physics

Gompper, Gompper, Gerhard, et al. The 2019 Motile Active Matter Roadmap. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 32/29, 2020. This is a broadly European state of the art collection for this fluid field, which is hardly a decade old. As the quotes note, some 40 researches post papers such as Active Brownian Particles: From Collective Phenomena to Fundamental Physics by Thomas Speck, Self-organized Collective Patterns by Fernando Peruani, and Patterns of Collective Motion in Huge Flocks of Starlings by Charlotte Hemelrijk. Its popularity and expansive subject increasingly attest to an animate, lively natural materiality.

Activity and autonomous motion are fundamental in living and engineering systems. The new field of active matter now focuses on the physical aspects of propulsion mechanisms, and on motility-induced collective behavior of a larger number of member agents. The scale ranges from microswimmers to cells, fish, birds, and people. A major challenge for understanding and designing active matter is their nonequilibrium nature due to persistent energy consumption. The vast complexity of phenomena and mechanisms involved in the self-organization and dynamics of motile active systems comprises a major challenge. Hence, going forward this important research area requires a concerted, synergetic, interdisciplinary approach. (Abstract excerpt)

Active matter is a novel class of nonequilibrium systems composed of a large number of autonomous agents. The scale of agents ranges from nanomotors, microswimmers, and cells, to crowds of fish, birds, and humans. Unraveling, predicting, and controlling the behavior of active matter is a truly interdisciplinary endeavor at the interface of biology, chemistry, ecology, engineering, mathematics, and physics. Recent progress in experimental and simulation methods, and theoretical advances, now allow for new insights into this behavior, which should ultimately lead to the design of novel synthetic active agents and materials. This Roadmap provides an overview of the state of the art, and discusses future research directions on natural and artificial active agents, and their collective behavior. (Gerhard Gompper, Roland Winkler, 3)

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Chemistry

Unsleber, Jan and Markus Reiher. The Exploration of Chemical Reaction Networks. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. Volume 71, 2020. ETH Zurich computational chemists survey many ways that the AI deep learning revolution promises to speed up and expand our human studies of nature’s prior materiality, along with beginnings of a new intentional creative phase.

Modern computational chemistry has reached a stage at which broad exploration into chemical reaction space with novel resolution of relevant molecular structures has become possible. Algorithmic advances have shown that such screenings can be automated and routinely carried out. It is the purpose of this overview to categorize the problems that should be targeted and to identify the components and challenges of automated exploration machines so that the existing approaches and future developments can be based on well-defined conceptual principles. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Information > Quant Info

Bessmertny, Igor, et al. Applying the Bell’s Test to Chinese Texts. Entropy. 22/3, 2020. Hangzho Dianzi University, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, and Beijing Institute of Technology computer scientists propose a parallel between Chinese ideograms and quantum phenomena, suggestive of another way to perceive an innately literate universal reality.

Search engines are able to find documents containing patterns of alphabetic languages such as English. However, Chinese script is highly dependent on context. The problem of Chinese processing is the missing blanks between words, so it is necessary to segment the text to words. As the existing segmentation algorithms are imperfect, we have considered an approach to build the context from all possible n-grams surrounding words. This paper proposes a quantum-inspired method to rank Chinese text documents which uses Bell’s test to measure the entanglement of two words within the context. The contexts of words are built using the hyperspace analogue to language (HAL) algorithm. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Information > Quant Info

Signorelli, Camilo and Xerxes Arsiwalla. Moral Dilemmas for Artificial Intelligence: An Application of Compositional Quantum Cognition. arXiv:1911.10154. As signs of a general intelligence become evident across nature’s universe to human developmental course, Oxford University, Cognitive Neuroimaging Lab researchers then scope out ways to better understand and appreciate so as to gain and maintain an ethical guidance.

Traditionally, the way one evaluates the performance of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system is via a comparison to human performance in specific tasks. However, these tests leave out important features of human intelligence: the capability to transfer knowledge and make complex decisions based on emotional and rational reasoning. These decisions are influenced by current inferences as well as prior experiences, making the decision process subjective and apparently biased. In this context, a definition of compositional intelligence is necessary to incorporate these features in future AI work. Here, a viable description will be suggested from recent developments in quantum cognition, natural language and compositional meaning of sentences. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Beck, Christian, et al. Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics, Superstatistics and Beyond: Theory and Applications in Astrophysical and Complex Systems. European Physical Journal Special Topics. 229/707, 2020. Six co-editors with posts in the UK, Italy, Spain, Austria, the USA, Turkey, and Brazil including Constantine Tsallis, founder of this broadly thermodynamic school, introduce a special issue with this title. Typical papers are Solutions to Network Diffusion Equation with Power-nonlinearity, and Dynamical Nonextensivity,

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Nigmatullin, Ramil and Mikhail Prokopenko. Thermodynamic Efficiency of Interactions in Self-Organizing Systems. arXiv:1912.08948. As the century enters its third decade, we cite this posting by University of Sydney complexity scientists as an example of how it has become assumed and affirmed that a natural cosmic genesis does proceed to internally organize itself into quickening complexities from cosmic phenomena to our own intelligent phase.

The emergence of global order in complex systems with locally interacting components is most striking at criticality, where small changes in control parameters result in a global re-organization. We introduce a measure of thermodynamic interaction efficiency in self-organizing systems to quantify the change in order per unit work carried out or extracted. Our analysis formalizes an intuitive understanding of thermodynamic efficiency across diverse self-organizing dynamics in physical, biological and social domains. (Excerpt)

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