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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 31 through 45 of 70 found.


Ecosmos: A Revolutionary Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet Incubator Lifescape

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Roberts, Bryan. Reversing the Arrow of Time. arXiv.2212.03489. The author of this online 266 page volume is Director of the Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Sciences at the London School of Economics. We note for its merits and as an example of how a single human being seems readily capable of viewing an entire cosmological theoretic scenario.

The arrow of time refers to the curious asymmetry that distinguishes the future from the past. Here I contend there is a link between the symmetries of 'time’s course in physical theories, which has wide-ranging implications. This relation clarifies how we can learn about the symmetries of our world, what is real, and how to overcome pervasive illusions. (Editor)

Ecosmomics: An Independent, UniVersal, Source Code-Script of Generative Complex Network Systems

Cosmic Code

Artime, Oriol and Manilo De Domenico. From the Origin of Life to Pandemics: Emergent Phenomena in Complex Systems.. Royal Society Proceedings A. May, 2022. After an historic and topical survey, as the Abstract notes, the University of Padua biophilosophers consider spontaneous appearances from quantum/classical physical realms to life’s evolutionary development and onto social occasions. In each case mathematical principles, criticality phases and complex, dynamic network are seen to have a central role. Some entries are Emergence and Algorithmic Information by P. Abrahao and H. Zenil, Emergence of Functional Information from Multivariate Correlations by C. Adami and C. Nitash, and Emergent Entanglement and Self-Similarity in Quantum Spin Chains by B. Sokolov, et al. Into the 2020s, a strongly evidential presence of consistent universality can be glimpsed from universe to us peoples.

When a large number of similar entities interact among each other and with their environment at a lower phase, unexpected outcomes at higher spatio-temporal scales might spontaneously arise. This nontrivial phenomenon, known as emergence, characterizes a broad range of distinct complex systems -- from physical to biological and social ones -- and is often related to collective behavior. It is ubiquitous from oscillators that synchronize to animate birds flocking or fish schooling. Despite the ample phenomenological evidence of their existence, theoretical questions about emergence remain still unanswered. We offer a general overview and sketch current and future challenges. Our review also introduces this Theme Issue "Emergent phenomena in complex physical and socio-technical systems: from cells to societies", which covers the state of our understandings from life’s origins to the expansive propagation of infectious diseases. (Abstract excerpt)

Cosmic Code

Goldbeter, Albert. Dissipative Structures in Biological Systems: Bistability, Oscillations, Spatial Patterns and Waves. Philosophical Transactions A. 276/20170376, 2018. As a senior European authority, the Université Libre de Bruxelles theoretical biologist writes a strong endorsement to date of the advancing complexity revolution. In this case it is linked with the thermodynamic contributions of his Nobel chemist colleague Ilya Prigogine. (As noted, I had lunch in a small group with IP in 1987 at a conference).

This review article will discuss the conceptual relevance of dissipative structure for understanding the dynamical bases of non-equilibrium self-organization in biological systems, and to see where it has been applied in the five decades since it was initially proposed by Ilya Prigogine. Dissipative structures can be classified into four types: (i) multistability, in the form of bistability and tristability; (ii) temporal dissipative structures in the form of sustained oscillations; (iii) spatial dissipative structures known as Turing patterns; and (iv) spatio-temporal structures in the form of propagating waves. Rhythms occur with widely different periods at all levels of biological organization, from neural, cardiac and metabolic oscillations to circadian clocks and the cell cycle. (Excerpt)

Cosmic Code

Kulkarni, Suman, et al. Information Content of Note Transitions in the Music of J. S. Bach.. arXiv:2301.00783. University of Pennsylvania and CCNY interdisciplinary theorists including Danielle Bassett open with an appreciation of our human social love of tuneful melodic compositions, as they now become amenable to 21st mathematical sciences of network forms, linguistics, and so on. It is noted that these findings hold to the same scale and metre as everywhere else in nature. See also Fractal Patterns in Music by John McDonough and Andrzej Herczyhski at arXiv:2221.12497, and The Song of the Cell by Siddhartha Mukherjee (Scribner, 2022).

Music has a complex structure that expresses emotion and conveys information, which people process through an imperfect cognitive gestalt version of reality. To address and analyze this wide issue, we study J. S. Bach's music by way of network science and information theory. Bach's work is highly structured over wide range of fugues and choral pieces that we view as a network of note transitions to quantify the information in each piece and how they can be grouped together. Our findings shed new light network properties of Bach's music and gain insight into features that make networks of information effective for communication. (Excerpt)

Cosmic Code

McDonough, John and Andrzej Herczyhski. Fractal Patterns in Music. arXiv:2212.12497. grace and move our human scores, an actual music and songs of the spheres. The opus chosen are Handel’s The Harmonious Blacksmith, Haydn’s Piano Sonata No. 53, The Planets: Uranus by Holst, onto Sonata in A Major by Scarlatti and others. By one more melodious composition our 21st century and 2020s complexity sciences continue to perceive and listen to a common veracity and universal reprise. See also Kulkarni, Suman, et al. Information Content of Note Transitions in the Music of J. S. Bach by Suman Kulkarni, et al at 2301.00783.

If our aesthetic preferences are affected by fractal geometry of nature, scaling regularities would be expected to appear in all art forms. While a variety of statistical tools have been proposed to analyze time series in sound, no consensus has as yet exists as a good measure of complexity in music. Here we offer a new approach based on the self-similarity of the melodic lines at various temporal scales. Our definition of the fractal dimension is based on a temporal scaling hierarchy and the tonal contours of its musical motifs. These concepts are tested on “musical” Cantor Sets and Koch Curves and then applied to selected masterful compositions spanning five centuries. (Excerpt)

Cosmic Code

Sawicki, Jakub, et al. Perspectives on Adaptive Dynamical Systems. . Twenty four European complexity theorists including Jurgen Kurths, Eckehard Scholl and Nicola Botta identify, gather and survey recent progress with a subject focus on Network Perspectives, Neural Perception, Artificial Learning, and Socio-Economic Systems. With four or so mini-sections each by separate authors they variously discuss structural topologies, synchronization patterns, a musical culture theory, cerebral plasticity, machine learning, epidemics, power grids and more. Some graphics are Active Matter with Embodied Intelligent and a map of Global Warming Thresholds. 540 copious references well support the workshop endeavor.

Twenty four European complexity theorists including Jurgen Kurths, Eckehard Scholl and Nicola Botta identify, gather and survey recent progress with a subject focus on Network Perspectives, Neural Perception, Artificial Learning, and Socio-Economic Systems. With four or so mini-sections each by separate authors they variously discuss structural topologies, synchronization patterns, a musical culture theory, cerebral plasticity, machine learning, epidemics, power grids and more. Some graphics are Active Matter with Embodied Intelligent and a map of Global Warming Thresholds. 540 copious references well support the workshop endeavor.

Cosmic Code

Strogatz, Steven, et al. Fifty Years of “More is Different.”. Nature Reviews Physics. April, 2022. As a response to this anniversary (Science 177/393,1972), the veteran Cornell University systems theorist asks eight complexity thinkers such as Sara Walker, Corina Tarnita, and Oriol Artime for their views going forward. Some responses cite emerging patterns, broken symmetry, information flows, and new singularities. So into the 2020s, Anderson’s complexity prescience has now become a revolutionary florescence undertaken by a vast worldwise faculty.

August 1972 saw the publication of Philip Anderson’s essay ‘More is different’. In it, he crystallized the idea of emergence, arguing that “at each level of complexity entirely new properties appear” — that is, although, for example, chemistry is subject to the laws of physics, we cannot infer the field of chemistry from our knowledge of physics. Fifty years on from this landmark publication, eight scientists describe the most interesting phenomena that emerge in their fields.

Many emergent phenomena are sustained through networks of interactions. Focussing, for instance, on biophysical phenomena, we have biomolecular interactions emerging from the human interactome, or electrochemical neural connectivity patterns emerging from the human connectome. In general, though, these networks do not operate in isolation: they are coupled to each other by means of structural or functional interdependencies, and they are organized in multiple contexts of interactions, also knownas layers. These layers may include links that are spatial, temporal, informational or combinations thereof. (Oriol Artime, Manlio de Domenico)

Cosmic Code

Wolfram, Stephen. The Physicalization of Metamathematics and Its Implications for the Foundations of Mathematics. arXiv:2204.05123. The polymath sage continues his unique quest apace into a fifth decade so to express what he senses as living nature’s deepest common, intrinsic programmic, source-code which must be there. The pointless accident fixation, which yet rules, is not even wrong. Search Wolfram’s widely spread writings and endeavors for many more insights, as our time runs short to do so and save ourselves.

Both metamathematics and physics are posited to emerge from samplings by observers of the unique ruliad structure that corresponds to the entangled limit of all possible computations. The possibility of higher-level mathematics accessible to humans is posited to be the analog for mathematical observers of the perception of physical space for physical observers. General physicalized laws of mathematics are discussed, associated with concepts such as metamathematical motion, inevitable dualities, proof topology and metamathematical singularities. A discussion is included of historical and philosophical connections, as well as the future of mathematics. (Abstract excerpt)

But what our Physics Project suggests is that underneath everything we physically experience there is a single very general abstract structure that we call the “ruliad” and that our physical laws arise in an inexorable way from this structure. We can think of the ruliad as the entangled representation of all possible computation. (1)

Cosmic Code > nonlinear > networks

Allard, Antoine, et al. Geometric Description of Clustering in Directed Networks. arXiv:2302.09055. We cite this paper AA, Laval University, Canada, along with Angeles Serrano and Marian Boguna, University of Barcelona as an example of system scientists who are distilling common, intrinsic features that underlie, inform for the whole overt reality from universe to us peoples.

Cosmic Code > nonlinear > networks

Khanra, P., et al. Endowing Networks with Desired Symmetries and Modular Behavior. arXiv:2302.10548. Ten system scientists in the USA, India, Spain, and Italy including Stefano Boccaletti post a latest example of on-going theoretical distillations of an actual independent, universal, genetic domain with these additional life-friendly, anatomy/physiological attributes.

Symmetries in a network regulate its organization into functional clustered states. Given a generic ensemble of nodes and a desirable cluster (or group of clusters), we exploit the direct connection between the elements of the eigenvector centrality and the graph symmetries to generate a network equipped with the desired cluster(s), with such a synthetical structure being furthermore perfectly reflected in the modular organization of the network's functioning. Our results solve a relevant problem of reverse engineering, and are of generic application in all cases where a desired parallel functioning needs to be blueprinted.

Synchronization of networked units is a behavior observed far and wide in natural and man made systems: from brain dynamics and neuronal firing, to epidemics, or power grids, or financial networks [1–10]. It may either correspond to the setting of a state in which all units follow the same trajectory [11–13], or to the emergence of structured states where the ensemble splits into different subsets each one evolving in unison. This latter case is known as cluster synchronization (CS) [14–30], and is the subject of many studies in both single-layer [20, 21] and multilayer networks [31, 32]. Swarms of animals, or synchrony (within sub units) in power grids, or brain dynamics are indeed relevant examples of CS (1)

Cosmic Code > Genetic Info > DNA word

Waseem, Muhammad, et al.. Language-independence of DisCoCirc’s Text Circuits: English and Urdu. arXiv:2208.10281. An Oxford University Computational Intelligence team, including Bob Coecke continue to finesse reasons why genomic and linguistic descriptive phases can be found to have a common character which arises from a communicative reality.

DisCoCirc is a newly proposed framework for representing the grammar and semantics of texts using compositional, generative circuits. While it advances the Categorical Distributional Compositional (DisCoCat) framework, it achieves radical new features toward eliminating grammatical differences between languages. In this paper we suggest that this is indeed the case for restricted fragments of English and Urdu. There is a simple translation from English grammar to Urdu grammar, and vice versa. We then show that differences in grammatical structure between English and Urdu - primarily relating to the ordering of words and phrases - vanish when passing to DisCoCirc circuits. (Abstract)

Life's Corporeal Evolution Encodes and Organizes Itself: An EarthWinian Genesis Synthesis

Quickening Evolution

Scott, Adam, et al. Phase Transitions in Evolutionary Dynamics. Chaos. December, 2022. We cite this paper by University of Missouri bio/neuro scientists AS, Dawn King, Stephen Ordway and Sonya Bahar to show how scientific frontiers are now advancing into an interdisciplinary expanse so to join living and physical systems by way of native complexity features.

Sharp changes in state, such as transitions from survival to extinction, are hallmarks of evolutionary dynamics in biological systems. In regard they can be studied by way of statistical physics and nonlinear complex systems. We discuss examples such directed percolation transitions in cellular automata and agent-based models of evolutionary activities. We also view phase transitions from chemistry to biochemistry at the origin of life and conclude with a review of multilevel selection and the major evolutionary transitions. (Excerpt)

Quickening Evolution > major

Andersson, Claes and Tamas Czaran. The Transition from Animal to Human Culture Culture – Simulating the Social Protocell Hypothesis. Royal Society Philosophical Transactions B. February, 2023. In this special issue, a Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden and an ELKH Centre for Ecological Research, Budapest system anthropologists continue to articulate this vital perception (search CA) of life’s latest cellular occasion, after compartmental origins, as the formation of nominal 100 strong, diverse communities as a ubuntu-like me member and We group creative union coherence.

The origin of human cumulative culture is ofter seen as the appearance, some 2.0–2.5 my ago, of a capacity to copy the know-how about socially learned traditions. While plausible, this story faces a ‘startup problem.’ In contrast, the social protocell hypothesis explains that relative lore may have originated earlier as non-cumulative traditions via an emergent group-level channel of cultural inheritance. Hominin cultural lifestyles would have gained in complexity and sophistication as they become units of selection (socionts) via an evolutionary transition in individuality, similar to the origin of early cells. (Excerpt)

A. Institutions and cultural lifestyles can come to undergo cumulative evolution even if their socially learned components do not. The reason is that inheritance of institutional know-how, via the social protocell dynamics, can be faithful even if know-how is not inherited in the first place via social learning. B. Institutions that improve and expand the set of coincidental ‘meta-evolutionary’ functions (heredity) that the social protocell provides may also themselves evolve in this way. This paves the way for a cultural ETI where an incipient group-level unit of selection gains more and more evolutionary individuality the more evolutionary individuality it has gained. (9)

Quickening Evolution > major

Carmel, Yohay. Human Societal Development: Is It an Evolutionary Transition in Individuality? Royal Society Philosophical Transactions B. February, 2023. The Technion, Haifa environmentalist and co-conceiver of this novel collection discusses how a wide-range of prehistoric and anthropological examples can indeed be seen as part of life’s on-going homo sapient planetary phase, as it may just now collectively recognize itself. The four aspects noted below are regulation control, individual benefits, conflict resolve, and climate awareness. Another tacit theme is a reciprocity between members and groups.

An evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI) occurs when a previously independent organism becomes a lower level unit within a higher hierarchical level (cells in an organism, ants in a colony). Using archaeological accounts from the last 12 000 years, I propose that human society has increasingly functioned this way. I evaluate societal development with regard to size, unity and specialization complexity in biological systems in the light of ETIs. My conclusion is this: human society is undergoing an evolutionary transition in individuality, driven much by socio-cultural-technological processes. I propose four predictions derived from the hypothesis that may be used to test it.

Quickening Evolution > major

Carmel, Yohay, et al. Human Socio-Cultural Evolution in Light of Evolutionary Transitions: Introduction to the Theme Issue. Royal Society Philosophical Transactions B. February, 2023. YC and Ayelet Shavit, Technion, Haifa, Ehud Lamm, Tel Aviv University, and Eors Szathmary, Institute of Evolution, Budapest, a co-originator in 1995 with John Maynard Smith of the major evolutionary transitions model, have seen fit to request, gather and post a diverse array of some 15 entries, (most noted below) that can now attest to and well verify the actual occurrence of a further Earthuman sapient personsphere phase. Akin to the 2020s Teleology Turn section, it has lately become quite deeply evident that an emergent person-planet beingness has achieved vivifying, intelligent envelope.

Four main sections: Human Transition in Individuality in the Context of Evolutionary Transitions; Cultural Evolution; Historical and Pre-historical Perspectives on Human Evolutionary Transition; and Realizations of the Notion of a Human Transition in Individuality cover past convergences, present indications and future implications in quantified detail. Here is a partial list of papers with some reviews herein noted.

Griesemer, James and Ayelet Shavit. Scaffolding Indivbiduality: Coordination, Cooperation, Collaboration and Community.
Dor, Daniel. Communication for Collaborative Computation.
Denton, Kaleda, et al. Conditions that Favour Cumulative Cultural Evolution.
Bar-On, Katl Kish and Ehud Lamm. The Interplay of Social Identity and Morm Psychology in the Evolution of Human Groups.

Lamm, Ehud, et al. Human Major Transitions from the Perspective of Distributed Adaptations.(see review)
Szilagyi, Andras, et al. Evolutionary Ecology of Language Origins through Confrontational Scavenging.
Krall, Lisi. The Economic Superorganism in the Complexity of Evolution. Royal Society.
Rainey, Paul. Major Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality Between Humans and AI.

Davison, Dinah and Richard Michod. Steps to Individuality in Biology and Culture. (review)
Andersson, Claes and Tamas Czaran. The Transition from Animal to Human Culture Culture – Simulating the Social Protocell Hypothesis. (see review)
Townsend, Cathryn, et al. Human Cooperation and Evolutionary Transitions.
Carmel, Yohay. Human Societal Development: Is It an Evolutionary Transition in Individuality? (see review)

Modern human societies are intricately complex due to a division of labour, multiple hierarchies, communication networks, transport systems and everything else. Various scholars have proposed that a new spherical stage or phase which subsumes individuals may well be underway. Recent discussions of a global continuance of life’s nested, emergent scale evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI) involve many novel, relevant indications and features which are just indicating such an occasion. For the first time, this unique collection begins to consider and flesh out its beneficial reality. Four relevant aspects are engaged: (i) The general theory of ETIs. (ii) The unique aspects of cultural evolution. (iii) The evolutionary history and pre-history of humans. (iv) Specific routes of a possible human ETI. The 15 essays bring contributions from biology, anthropology, cultural evolution, systems theory, psychology, economy, linguistics and philosophy of science. (Abstract excerpt)

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