
VII. Our Earthuman Ascent: A Major Evolutionary Transition in Twndividuality3. Planetary Physiosphere: Anatomics, Economics, Urbanomics Bettencourt, Luis, et al. Urban Scaling and Its Deviations: Revealing the Structure of Wealth, Innovation and Crime across Cities. PLoS One. 5/11, 2010. With coauthors Jose Lobo, Santa Fe Institute, Deborah Strumsky, University of North Carolina, and Geoffrey West, LANL, an extensive quantification is achieved of a nested invariance from neighborhoods to metropolis. Several prime parameters as noted that appear to hold independently of city or nation are described with a validity not possible earlier. But philosophical reflection is in order as one more example of an implicate, mathematical source that manifestly structures and guides our personal and communal lives, that we are just becoming aware of, and can intentionally avail for a more humane abide. In this paper, we have proposed a systematic procedure for solving the longstanding problem of constructing meaningful, sciencebased metrics for ranking and assessing local features of cities. By using nonlinear urban scaling laws as a baseline, our procedure accounts for the underlying principles and socioeconomic dynamics that give rise to cities to distinguish general effects of urbanism from local dynamics and, consequently, leads to a much simpler and direct perspective into the local factors that make or break specific places. (6) The general regularity of urban scaling laws and of the statistics of their deviations point to the possibility of a general theory of cities that can account for the essence of these interactions and predict a small set of fundamental scaling regularities common to all urban systems. (6) Bramoulle, Yann, et al, eds. The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Networks. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. Whence this conceptual advance is found to explain human social commerce, where connects individual (nodal) behavior through informed interrelations. As this nonlinear revolution is becomes similarly applied from cosmic clusters to human business, it is worth noting that while particulate objects or entities are readily visible, equally real linkages are not apparent, and missed until now. See also, for example Revealing the Hidden Structure of Dynamic Ecological Networks, search Mathias. The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Networks represents the frontier of research into how and why networks they form, how they influence behavior, how they help govern outcomes in an interactive world, and how they shape collective decision making, opinion formation, and diffusion dynamics. Theoretical work in network formation, games played on networks, repeated games, and the interaction between linking and behavior is synthesized. A number of chapters are devoted to studying social process mediated by networks (such as) opinion formation, diffusion of information and disease, and learning. Another section discusses communities, with applications including social trust, favor exchange, and social collateral; the importance of communities for migration patterns; and the role that networks and communities play in the labor market. (Publisher excerpts) Bronk, Richard. The Romantic Economist. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. As is well known, there is something deeply amiss about our finances and markets. In this unique work the author combines an academic base at the London School of Economics with years as a fund manager for the Bank of England to critique a vested mechanical system that is quite breaking down. A scholarly historical vista can reveal an alternative Romantic way, with commerce conceived as rightly organic in kind. As a result, these two modes, reading much as right feminine and left masculine brain attributes, might join in salutary synthesis if further conceived as dynamically selforganized complex adaptive systems. Bury, Thomas. A Statistical Physics Perspective on Criticality in Financial Markets. Journal of Statistical Mechanics. Online November, 2013. Apropos, the paper by a Universite Libre de Bruxelles econophysicist starts off as almost every contribution of this kind by noting in the opening paragraph how certain dynamic phenomena to be discussed is the same as being found everywhere else across nature and society. This contrast is significant here because of its scope from physical realms to global complexities. While researchers rarely go the next step, all these findings beg an independent, universal activity of a programmatic source that impels and manifests, as if a genetic code, at each and every phase and instance. For another interdisciplinary view see “Ecosystems Perspective on Financial Networks” by Eduardo Viegas, et al in Complexity (19/1, 2013). Stock markets are complex systems exhibiting collective phenomena and particular features such as synchronization, fluctuations distributed as powerlaws, nonrandom structures and similarity to neural networks. Such specific properties suggest that markets operate at a very special point. Financial markets are believed to be critical by analogy to physical systems but few statistically founded evidence have been given. Through a databased methodology and comparison to simulations inspired by statistical physics of complex systems, we show that the Dow Jones and indices sets are not rigorously critical. However, financial systems are closer to the criticality in the crash neighborhood. (Abstracts) Bustos, Sebastian, et al. The Dynamics of Nestedness Predicts the Evolution of Industrial Ecosystems. PLoS One. 7/11, 2012. We note this work because Bustos with Charles Gomez, Ricardo Hausmann and Cesar Hidalgo, Harvard, MIT, and Stanford management scientists, make especial notice of this propensity for repetitive wholes within wholes, as everywhere else, even in such a commercialtechnical extent. In economic systems, the mix of products that countries make or export has been shown to be a strong leading indicator of economic growth. Hence, methods to characterize and predict the structure of the network connecting countries to the products that they export are relevant for understanding the dynamics of economic development. Here we study the presence and absence of industries in international and domestic economies and show that these networks are significantly nested. This makes the appearance and disappearance of individual industries in each location predictable. We show that the model can reproduce the high level of nestedness observed in these networks only when we assume a high level of heterogeneity in the distribution of capabilities available in countries and required by products. In the context of the neutral model, this implies that the high level of nestedness observed in these economic networks emerges as a combination of both the complementarity of inputs and heterogeneity in the number of capabilities available in countries and required by products. (Abstract) Carbone, Anna, et al. Atlas of Urban Scaling Laws. Journal of Physics: Complexity. June, 2022. Four Polytechnical University of Torino physicists provide a substantial proof to date that nature’s nested selfsimilar patternings which are now found to grace every other instance likewise play a formative role even for large metropolitan cities. One might note that a current ability to use sophisticated aerial images could be seen as a present whole Earthropocene learning process so as to quantify, vivify, and make better. Accurate estimates of an urban fractal dimension are obtained by way of a detrended moving average algorithm on highresolution multispectral satellite images from the WorldView2 (WV2) database covering the major European cities. Highly sensitive and repeatable satellite records yield robust local estimates of the urban scaling exponents. Our work discusses how to discriminate among different scaling theories on the way to a more formal adoption of the complex system science methods to urban landscape analysis and planning. (Abstract excerpt) Chen, TingTing, et al. New Approaches in AgentBased Modeling of Complex Financial Systems. Frontiers of Physics. 12/6, 2017. We cite this entry in an online Springer journal by Zhejiang University, China systems theorists as an example among many of how economic markets similarly appear to exemplify and be driven by the same universal mathematics as everywhere else. The issue is a SoftMatter Physics and Complex Systems collection. Agentbased modeling is a powerful simulation technique to understand the collective behavior and microscopic interaction in complex financial systems. Recently, the concept for determining the key parameters of agentbased models from empirical data instead of setting them artificially was suggested. We first review several agentbased models and the new approaches to determine the key model parameters from historical market data. Based on the agents’ behaviors with heterogeneous personal preferences and interactions, these models are successful in explaining the microscopic origination of the temporal and spatial correlations of financial markets. We then present a novel paradigm combining bigdata analysis with agentbased modeling. Specifically, from internet query and stock market data, we extract the information driving forces and develop an agentbased model to simulate the dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. (Abstract) Chen, Uanguang and Bin Jiang. Hierarchal Scaling in Systems of Natural Cities. arXiv:1608.05770. We cite this posting to enter a series of papers by the Peking University and University of Gavle, Sweden systems geographers, with colleagues, which quantify how nature’s universal complex patterns and dynamics are quite manifest in human settlements from hamlets to a metropolis. See also Modeling Fractal Dimension Curve of Urban Growth in Developing Countries (1608.02053), A Topological Representation for Taking Cities as a Coherent Whole (1607.07169), A Complex Network Perspective on (Christopher) Alexander’s Wholeness (1602.08939), and A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography (1509.08419). Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. These scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper is devoted to revealing the scaling patterns in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the hierarchy with cascade structure. The cities of America, Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to make empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the size and area of the natural cities. The sizenumber and areanumber scaling exponents are close to 1, and the allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results suggest that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws and hierarchical conservation law. Zipf's law proved to be one of the indications of the hierarchical scaling, and the primate law of citysize distribution represents a local pattern and can be merged into the hierarchical structure based on big datasets. (Abstract) Chen, Yanguang and Yixing Zhou. MultiFractal Measures of CitySize Distributions Based on the ThreeParameter Zipf Model. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. 22/4, 2004. Another contribution from the Peking University Department of Geography on the formation and viability of human settlements. Fractal city systems is a pioneering study of the development and use of fractal geometry for understanding and planning the physical form and spatial network of cities. (793) Fractal hierarchies of cities conform to the law of the unity of opposites on the relationships between micro and macrostate, disorder and order, randomness and determination, simplicity and complexity, and so forth. (802) Chen, Yanguang and Yixing Zhou. Reinterpreting Central Place Networks Using Ideas from Fractals and Selforganized Criticality. Environment and Planning B. 33/3, 2006. Cities configure as and can be best understood in terms of dynamic complex systems. Chen, Yanguang and Yixing Zhou. The RankSize Rule and Fractal Hierarchies of Cities. Environment and Planning B. 30/6, 2003. On a mathematical basis for selfsimilar, recursive urban systems. Clark, Robert. Global Life Systems. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000. A detailed essay on the pathway by which human population, food, and disease have become a singular biospheric phenomenon.
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