Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 46 through 60 of 80 found.
Animate Cosmos > exoearths
Planet Formation Theory in the Era of ALMA and Kepler: From Pebbles to Exoplanets.
This entry with some 450 references can stand as an extensive report to date about our Earthwise collegial retrospect of how this home and other orbital objects came to form. It will be presented at the Protostars and Planets VII meeting in Kyoto next April 2023 (twice proponed) and be a chapter in a University of Arizona Press volume with that title.
Our understanding of planet formation has been rapidly evolving in recent years. The classical model from the 1990s was based on our own Solar System, is being constantly revised. Here we summarize many new findings derived from the exoplanet population and circumstellar disks observations such as the growth of planetary cores by accretion of planetesimals, pebbles, and gas, along with massive planetary cores and more occasions. In addition, there is growing evidence that the first planetary cores start forming early, during the circumstellar disk buildup process. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > exoearths
Weiss, Lauren, et al.
Architectures of Compact Multi-planet Systems.
Seven astro-authorities contribute to this presentation to be made at the 2023 Protostars and Planets VII conference in Kyoto, Japan (see below). Some other coauthors are Fred C. Adams, Erik Petigura, and Konstantin Batygin. After a two year –demic hiatus, hopefully our EarthWise scientific endeavors to explore, quantify, describe and learn from this stellar spacescape.can proceed apace. For an earlier view see Peas in a Pod: Planets in a Kepler Multi-planet System are Similar in Size and Regularly Spaced by Lauren Weis, et al at 1706.06204.
One of the most important developments in exoplanet science in the past decade is the discovery of multi-planet systems with sub-Neptune-sized planets. This chapter explores their architectures, which often display a high degree of uniformity of similar sizes, regular orbital spacing, low eccentricities, and small inclinations. We begin with a critical review and find that these peas-in-a-pod planetary systems may be a common outcome of planet formation processes. Stars form along with circumstellar disks with a tendency to produce these planetary systems. In summary, interesting observational and theoretical challenges remain in order to understand how these surprisingly organized planetary systems arise from the relative disorder of their formation processes. (Abstract excerpt)
Taking a step back, we can think of the striking uniformity found in compact multi-planet systems as an example of self organization. In general, any self-organizing system has a primary driving force that acts to create structure and some “counter-force” that acts as a stabilizing influence. In the present context, the peas-in-a-pod architecture typical of compact multis contains close planet masses and regular orbital spacing. With the peas-in-a-pod pattern becoming well-established, the future work needs to identify the driving forces and counter-forces that lead to such interesting planetary systems. (18)
Protostars & Planets VII, twice postponed, this meeting will take place in Kyoto on April 10th – 15th of 2023. This conference series has provided an important opportunity for scientists working on the formation of stars and planets. We would like to have a series of review talks summarizing the development in our field in recent years. The Protostars & Planets Series by the University of Arizona Press will then publish a chapter volume of papers.
Araujo, Nuno, et al..
Steering Self-Organization through Confinement.
This entry is a composite synopsis of a June 2021, Leiden University Lorentz Center workshop on the title topic, which can serve as an overview of the 21st century scientific revolution to date. Some 29 attendees from Europe and the USA included Liesbeth Janssen, Simon Garnier, and Audrey Dussutour. A novel agenda went on to consider how certain system boundaries can have a formative effect on this dynamic development process. As the quotes allude, from our late vantage, the broad field of complexity studies over 50 years (which this site seeks to report) can be seen as a singular, WorldWise revolutionary endeavor which is just coming a convergent, self-similar synthesis from uniVerse to wumanVerse.
In regard, at this consummate moment, the outlines of a general scenario that is much akin to life’s developmental genotype and phenotype basis can become quite evident. Physical models, for example, cite implicate/explicate and informative bit/it versions. Altogether the whole ecosmic genesis appears to be suffused by an independent, universally present, mathematic code-script which serves to engender and self-organize at each and every scale and beingness. As a consequence, astro biochemicals, evolutionary organisms, entities in groups, communicative mores, societal processes and all else arise, complexity, and quicken in an oriented fashion wherever they can. As life’s emergence thus goes forth, these myriad phenotypes come to exemplify the familial source in their complementary bigender, whole occasion. So into this fraught 2022 year, an epochal, once and future true universality can at last be affirmed.
Cosmic Code > nonlinear > networks
Self-organisation is the spontaneous emergence of spatio-temporal structures and patterns from the interaction of smaller individual units. Examples are found across many scales from physics, materials science and robotics to biology, geophysics and astronomy. Recent research has found that self-organisation is mediated and controlled by local boundaries which then steer the emergence or suppression of collective phenomena. Here we consider a common framework for future research and scientific challenges across disciplines. We hope this endeavor will advance deeper appreciations of natural self-organisation for novel material, biological and societal benefits. (Abstract excerpt)
From molecular aggregates to groups of animals and human crowds, from microswimmers to granular materials and robotic swarms, systems that self-organise can be found across a wide diversity of length and time scales. The dynamic concept arose in the later 20th century and defines the spontaneous emergence of large-scale collective structures and patterns from the interaction of many individual units, such as molecules, colloidal particles, cells, animals, robots, pedestrians or even astronomical objects. These units can be heterogeneous in size, shape, composition and function. (3-4)
We can thus define confinement in self-organisation as anything which causes units to localise to a region of space at a given time. The variety of self-organising systems influenced by confinement spans s wide range of length scales from active filaments driven by microscopic molecular motors enclosed within living cells, to the emergence of macroscopic coherent flow structures confined by Earth’s atmosphere, to the formation of entire galaxies under the pull of the gravitational potentials of black holes. While confinement is not always required for a system to self-organise , it can play a pivotal role as either a catalyst or inhibitor for self-organisation. (5)
In conclusion, steering self-organisation through confinement is a very active and rapidly evolving field of research, which is intrinsically multidisciplinary. To push the field forward, the scientific community working on self-organisation should increasingly take advantage of the cross-fertilisation of ideas that results from sharing hypotheses, theoretical approaches and experimental methods among experts from different fields and disciplines. This perspective article provides a first step in this direction. (11)
Munoz, Victor and Eduardo Flandez.
Complex Network Study of Solar Magnetograms.
We cite this work by University of Chile astrophysics as a new instance of how such generic multiplex theories can find good application even across these stellar realms. (We also note how the 400 category journal MDPI (search) open access site can serve as an open forum for quality work which might have difficulty with an older periodical.)
In this paper, we study solar magnetic activity by means of a complex network approach based on the space and time evolution of sunspots. Their image recognition is provided by algorithmic studies during the complete 23rd solar cycle. Both directed and undirected networks were built, with degree distributions, clustering coefficient, average shortest path, centrality measures. Thus, we show that complex network analysis can yield useful information on temporal solar activities and universal features at any solar cycle stage. (Excerpt)
Cosmic Code > nonlinear > networks
Reggiani, Aura, et al, eds.
Handbook on Entropy, Complexity and Spatial Dynamics.
Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar,
University of Bologna editors George Mason University, Washington have arranged four major Entropy, Space and Complexity, Complexity of Urban Evolution, Complexity and Resilence of Economic systems and Spatial Dynamics of Complex interactions sections chapters by Barkley Rosser, Michael Batty, Denise Pumain, Alan Wilson, Olivier Borin and many others. We especially note Ginestra Bianconi’s chapter Information Theory of Spatial Network Ensembles (arXiv:2206.05614).
This ground-breaking Handbook presents a state-of-the-art exploration of entropy, complexity and spatial dynamics from fundamental theoretical, empirical and methodological perspectives. It considers how foundational theories can contribute to new advances, including novel modeling and empirical insights at different sectoral, spatial and temporal scales. (E. Elgar)
Cosmic Code > nonlinear > networks
Yang, Chun-Lin and Steve Suh.
A General Framework for Dynamic Complex Networks.
Journal of Vibration Testing and System Dynamics.
Texas A & M University bioengineers (search Suh)conceive further ways to describe and quantify life’s deep proclivity for such node/link multiples anatomies and physiologies.
A novel approach by which to define natural networks is presented which 1) contains a Kuramoto model to define constituent dynamics, 2) explores information entropy to describe global ensemble behaviors, 3) defines the variation of the state of elements using energy, and 4) introduces two time-dependent parameters. Whether a dynamic complex network is evolving toward synchronization or collapsing can be found by tracking ensemble entropy in time.
Cosmic Code > nonlinear > Rosetta Cosmos
Souza, Barbara, et al.
Text Characterization Based on Recurrence Networks.
University of Sao Paulo and Indiana University systems linguists including Diego Amancio and Luciano da Costa, and in accord with his current work in 2022 Syntheses, find further ways that even written documents can be seen to deeply exhibit nature’s universal animate topologies over many general and specific aspects.
Many complex systems reveal intricate characteristics taking place at several scales of time and space. In particular, texts are distinguished by a hierarchical structure that can be studied by multi-scale concepts and methods. Effective approaches can emphasize words with more informational content. Here we advance this work with a focus on mesoscopic representations of networks. We extend this domain to textual narratives wherein recurrent relationships among parts of speech (subject, verb and direct object) form connections among sequential pieces (e.g., paragraphs). (Abstract excerpt)
Cosmic Code > nonlinear > 2015 universal
Ge, Xiaofei, et al.
Self-Organized Critical Dynamics of RNA Virus Evolution.
We cite this entry by Tsinghua University, Beijing and University of Paris researchers amongst a rush of nonlinear COVID studies which show how its etiologies can be deeply modeled complex network science. Once again, even in highly stressed, variegated disease pandemic, these mathematic dynamics seek and reside at a default condition poised between more or less relative order. A payoff would be that the past two intense years of such findings could result in methods to identify, prevent and control future epidemics
Studies of RNA virus (e.g., SARS-CoV-2) evolution are vital for understanding molecular evolution and medicine development but so far remain insufficient. Here, we characterize the RNA virus evolution as a physical system with absorbing states and avalanche behaviors. This approach maps biological data (e.g., phylogenetic tree and infection) to a general stochastic process which enables researchers to verify a self-organized criticality underlying RNA virus evolution. We find that SARS-CoV-2 exhibits scale-invariant avalanches as mean-field theory predicts. The lineages that emerge from such critical evolution coincidentally also match the Delta variant. (Abstract excerpt)
Cosmic Code > Genetic Info > DNA word
From Matter to Form: The Evolution of the Genetic Code as Semio-poiesis.
A senior Russian linguist (search) considers how a better perception of nature’s deeply pervasive, self-similar, genomic procreativity can be attained by a turn to and inclusion of an informative biosemiotic essence.
We address issues of description of the origin and evolution of the genetic code from a semiotics standpoint. Developing the concept of code-poiesis introduced by (Marcello) Barbieri, a new idea of semio-poiesis is proposed. Such a recursive auto-referential processing of semiotic system could become a form of organization of the bio-world when notions of meaning are introduced into it. The description of the genetic code as a semiotic system (grammar and vocabulary) allows us to apply an internal reconstruction on the basis of heterogeneity so to explicate forms of coding and textualization. (Abstract excerpt)
Earth Life > Nest > Life Origin
The dual nature – biochemical and informational – of the genetic code and genome presupposes that one should be based on the principle of complementarity for its description (cf. Pattee 2007). As in the case of the waveparticle duality of physical entities, only when taken together will biochemical and informational descriptions represent a comprehensive state of affairs. The duality of genetic information will be represented through the double theoretical description. (18)
In philosophy, poiesis (from Ancient Greek) is the activity in which something is brought into being that did not exist before. It is a combined word for the making or formation some compound result. The term autopoiesis refers to a system capable of producing and maintaining itself.
Suren Zolyan: National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; and Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia,
Malaterre, Christophe, et al.
The Origin of Life: What is the Question?
Astroscholars in Montreal and Paris including Philip Nghe post a somewhat procedural review as a way to identify and integrate several schools of studies from early biochemistry to synthetic biology aspects.
Earth Life > Nest > Life Origin
Robinson, William, et al.
Environmental Conditions Drive Self-Organization of Reaction Pathways in a Prebiotic Reaction Network.
As this research field proceeds, Radboud University biochemists led by Wilhelm Huck can find and quantify novel ways that innate dynamical agencies can be seen to can generate life’s advancing, stirring intricacies. In respect, once again a robust process of a fertile mileu which organizing itself seems to be in effect. (And as peoples may now act as “ecosmic catalysts,” ought we all get a move on to “organize ourselves.”) See a note Complex Networks at Life’s Origin by Quentin Dherbassy and Kamila Muchowska in the same issue for a review.
The evolution of life from a prebiotic environment required a process of chemical evolution towards more molecular complexity. However, it is unclear how functional chemical systems evolved using only the interaction between inherent chemical reactivity and the abiotic milieu. Here we demonstrate how complex systems of chemical reactions exhibit well-defined self-organization in response to varying environmental conditions. This self-organization allows the compositional complexity of the reaction products to be controlled as a function of feedstock and catalyst availability. This certain emergence of organized systems of chemical reactions offers a potential mechanism bridge the gap between prebiotic chemicals and the origin of life. (WR Abstract)
Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic
Explaining the controlled emergence and growth of molecular complexity at life’s origins is one of prebiotic chemistry’s grand challenges. Now, it has been shown that we can observe how the self-organization of a complex carbohydrate network can be modulated by its environment. (QD & KM)
Di Talia, Stefano and Massimo Vergassola.
Waves in Embryonic Developement.
Annual Review of Biophysics.
We note work by Duke University Medical Center and Sorbonne University, Paris cell biologists to record this notice of active relational forces, along with all else, which are also vitally present in life’s gestation phase.
Embryonic development hinges on effective coordination of molecular events across space and time. Waves have recently emerged as constituting an ubiquitous mechanism that ensures rapid spreading of regulatory signals across embryos for the emergence of body plan structures. Here we review a recent quantitative work on signaling waves, along with an integral theory. We start with reaction–diffusion systems and move to excitable dynamics and then coupled oscillators. Our goal is to inspire experimental work that will elucidate waves in development and beyond. (Excerpt)
Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic
Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
A TREE editor introduces a latest review of nature’s avail of reciprocal unions at each and everywhere it can. Topical items are Mycorrhizal Traits, Lichen Symbioses, Host Influence of Symbiont Evolution, and more.
The term ‘symbiosis’ comes from Greek and means ‘living together.’ The articles in this special issue cover a range of topics about symbiotic relationships which are key to understanding life on Earth. The interacting partners modify each other’s behavior and physiology, which, in turn, alters their ecological dynamics. The ecology and evolution of life’s pervasive communions is key to understanding our planetary biodiversity.
Earth Life > Nest > Multicellular
Molecular Biology of the Cell.
Two decades into the 21st century, a European Institute of Chemistry and Biology, Bordeaux researcher can post a strong, quantified endorsement of nature’s pervasive propensity to spontaneously organize her/his biochemical, physiological, developmental, metabolic processes across every class and phylum, Here is another instance into the 2020s of a robust proof of an intrinsic ecosmic genesis alongside a olden mechanical fixation that prohibits any such phenomenal qualities.
While the organization of inanimate systems such as gases or liquids is mainly thermodynamically, biological systems exhibit an organization that is far from a well-mixed equilibrium. The variable modes displayed by cells are evident in life’s dynamic processes including development, movement, and division. These anisotropies operate at different phases from the meso- to the nano-scale that can be seen to reflect a self-organization characteristic of living systems. Here, some examples of self-organization underlying cellular variabilities are reviewed. Given the technical challenges of doing this, some successful approaches to study their self-organization will also be considered. (Excerpt)
Earth Life > Nest > Societies
Self-organization appears to be an intrinsic property of GTPase-driven pathways. Energy dissipation in these systems enables the emergence of a highly dynamic state in which multiple system components become organized in space and time. These properties appear to endow cells with a timely responsiveness to rapid perturbations. It may be too early to perceive and predict general principles of self-organization, but the use of diverse experimental models and approaches is providing insight into Schrödinger’s wonder at the “organism’s astonishing gift of concentrating a ‘stream of order’ on itself”. (147)
Cavagna, Andrea, et al.
Natural Swarms in 3.99 Dimensions.
Eight physicists from Italy and Argentina including Irene Giardina provide a further quantitative basis for the universal presence of optimum member-group integral behaviors which can be rooted in statistical physics. A definitive explanation can they be derived from Renormalization Group theories about relations between nested active scales. As the authors note, their advance is the first time that such a specific connection has been made.
The dynamical critical exponent z of natural swarms is calculated using the renormalization group. To order \epsilon = 4-d, a novel fixed point emerges, where both off-equilibrium activity and mode-coupling inertial interactions are relevant. In three dimensions the critical exponent at the new fixed point is z=1.3, in fair agreement with experiments. (Abstract)
Collective behaviour is found in a wide variety of biological systems from clusters of bacteria and colonies of cells, up to insects, bird flocks, and vertebrate groups. A unifying ingredient, which can be based in statistical physics, is the presence of strong, consistent correlations. Studies of avian flight, fish schools, mammal herds, swarms, microbes and proteins have found that the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic scales. Another key hallmark of statistical physics is dynamic scaling, which has been verified in many of these occasions. the case of natural swarms of insects. (1)
Within statistical physics, strong correlations and scaling laws are the two stepping stones leading to the Renormalization Group (RG): when we coarse-grain short-wavelength fluctuations, the parameters of different models flow towards one common fixed point ruling their large-scale behaviour. RG fixed points therefore organize the macroscopic behavior of strongly correlated systems into few universality classes. Biology is vastly more complex than physics, but the widespread presence of strong correlations and the validity of scaling laws cannot be considered a coincidence. They rather call for an exploration of the correlation-scaling-RG path also in collective biological systems. (1)