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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Genesis Vision
Learning Planet
Organic Universe
Earth Life Emerge
Genesis Future
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 46 through 60 of 70 found.

Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Somatic

Cao, Miao, et al. Developmental Connectomics from Infancy through Early Childhood. Trends in Neuroscience. 40/8, 2019. Connectome: a complete set of neural elements (neurons, brain regions, etc.) and their interconnections (synapses, fiber pathways, temporal correlations.) Beijing Normal University and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia cognitive neuroresearchers describe novel computational neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods which are revealing the course followed by cerebral architectures as they mature over the first five years of our lives. See also Mechanisms of Connectome Development by Marcus Kaiser in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (21/9, 2017).

The human brain undergoes rapid growth in both structure and function from infancy through early childhood, which influences cognitive and behavioral development in later life. The new developmental connectomics research field provides new opportunities to study developing brain through the non-invasive mapping of structural and functional connectivity patterns. We investigate connectome formation from 20 postmenstrual weeks to 5 years of age with regard to five fundamental principles of strengthened segregation/integration balance, hierarchical order from primary to higher-order regions, structural and functional maturations, individual variability, and vulnerability to risk factors and developmental disorders. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Baumgarten, Lorenz and Stefan Bornholdt. Critical Excitation-Inhibition Balance in Dense Neural Networks. arXiv:1903.12632. University of Bremen theorists contribute to later 2010s research findings that our (microcosmic) cerebral faculty inherently seeks and performs best at this tamper-down and/or ramp-up emotional and cognitive state. How grand might it then be if nature’s (macroscopic) tendency to reach such an optimum reciprocity could be carried over and availed in social politics whence dual right-conserve and left-create parties would be complementary halves of a whole organic democracy.

The "edge of chaos" phase transition in artificial neural networks is of renewed interest in light of recent evidence for criticality in brain dynamics. A recent study utilizing the excitation-inhibition ratio as the control parameter found a new, nearly degree independent, critical point when neural connectivity is large. However, the new phase transition is accompanied by a high level of activity in the network. Here we study random neural networks with the additional properties of (i) a high clustering coefficient and (ii) neurons that are either excitatory or inhibitory, a prominent property of natural neurons. As a result, we observe an additional critical point for networks with large connectivity which compares well with neuronal brain networks. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Bertolero, Maxwell and Danielle Bassett. On the Nature of Explanations Offered by Network Science: A Perspective from and for Neuroscientists. arXiv:1911.05031. In this paper to appear in a special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania neuroscientists post an illustrated tutorial on the latest research about how our cerebral activities are based on and empowered by myriad, scintillating, multiplex neural nets. What began as patchy rudiments around 2010 has now become a whole-scale theoretical and experimental explanation from nodal neurons to an infinity of relational linkages. Altogether dubbed a connectome, as 2020 nears we human beings are finding ourselves to truly be an exemplary micro-universe. See also Discovering the Computational Relevance of Brain Network Organization by Takuya Ito, et al in Trends in Cognitive Science (online November 2019).

Network neuroscience represents the brain as a collection of regions and inter-regional connections. By this ability, the approach has generated unique explanations of neural function and behavior. Here we complement formal philosophical efforts by providing an applied perspective. In doing so, we rely on philosophical work concerning the role of causality, scale, and mechanisms in scientific explanations. We hope to provide a useful framework in which can be exercised across scales and combined with other fields of neuroscience to gain deeper insights into the brain and behavior. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Wang, Jilin, et al. Non-equilibrium Critical Dynamics of Bursts in θ and δ Rhythms as Fundamental Characteristic of Sleep and Wake Micro-architecture. PLoS Computational Biology. November, 2019. As the 2010s come to a close, in this Public Library of Science journal Boston University and UM Worcester Medical School researchers including Plamen Ivanov describe experiments and theories so as to report that even our daily resting phase is distinguished by independent, universal complex phenomena. Thus nighttime joins daylight wakefulness which, as Systems Neuroscience cites, prefers to be poised between more or less order. A person’s beingness then joins a quantum, universal complementarity which all other phases and site sections lately attest to. Once again microcosmic selves are vital exemplars of a macrocosmic genesis.

Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including short awakenings and arousals, challenge the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation. Here we propose that a complex micro-architecture characterizing the sleep-wake cycle results from an underlying non-equilibrium critical dynamics, bridging collective behaviors across spatio-temporal scales. We demonstrate that intermittent bursts in θ and δ rhythms exhibit a complex temporal organization, with long-range power-law correlations and a robust duality of θ-bursts (active phase) and exponential-like δ-bursts (quiescent phase) durations, which are typical features of non-equilibrium systems self-organizing at criticality. Importantly, such temporal organization relates to anti-correlated coupling between θ- and δ-bursts, and is independent of the dominant physiologic state, a solid indication of a basic principle in sleep dynamics. (Abstract excerpt)

The results demonstrate that critical dynamics underlie cortical activation during sleep and wake, and lay the foundation for a new paradigm, considering sleep micro-architecture as a non-equilibrium process and self-organization among neuronal assemblies to maintain a critical state, in contrast to the homeostasis paradigm of sleep regulation at large time scales. (Author Summary)

Power-law distributions are the statistical hallmark of scale invariance, and are typical features of physical systems at the critical point of a second order phase transition in equilibrium thermodynamics. At criticality systems exhibit high sensitivity to interactions among elements, leading to emergent collective behavior across scales, and thus, power laws. The critical point is located at the border between an ordered and a disordered phase, and can be reached by fine tuning external parameters. In contrast to this scenario, in non-equilibrium systems the dynamics can be spontaneously driven at criticality, where an active phase characterized by bursts/avalanches with power-law distributed sizes and durations coexists with a quiescent phase with exponential-like statistics. (3-4)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Complementary Brain

Schore, Allan. The Development of the Unconscious Mind. New York: Norton, 2019. The UCLA sage psychiatrist (search) continues his appreciations of the role and interplay of the brain hemispheres with their right relational, emphatic, visionary and left particulate, isolate, analytic modes (two minds in one brain) to better understand and mitigate psychological maladies and behaviors. Iain McGilchrist’s 2009 volume is a prime resource and working guide about personal and social mores throughout life. (See Karen Armstrong’s 2019 for a similar avail.) A special emphasis is upon their sequential influence in the earliest years from gestation to infancy, childhood and youth. The right field of view (We) side is primary from birth to the mid twos, when the left me, mine phase cuts in, much to the plight of boys. Deeper, palliative insights are thus gained into these community and independence, cooperate or compete options. (And as would serve our polarized politics, also global strife such as Hong Kong, a best resolve is a beneficial balance of these yin and yang complements.)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Gender

Keresztes, Laszlo, et al. Identifying Super-Feminine, Super-Masculine and Sex-Defining Connections in the Human Braingraph. arXiv:1912.02291. Eotovos University, PIT Bioinformatics Group researchers continue their project to avail the latest flow of neuroimaging results, now available via open access, which further support these title gender distinctions (search Balazs Szalkai for earlier postings). As the quotes say, ever again a woman’s cognitive faculties are found to be generally superior to male capacities.

For more than a decade now, thousands of cerebral connections with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) techniques have been achieved and published. In the present contribution, by applying the 1200 Subjects Release of the Human Connectome Project, we identify just 102 connections out of the total number of 1950 connections in the 83-vertex graphs of 1065 subjects, without any error about the sex of the subject. We were able to identify two graph edges out of these 102, whose weights measured in fiber numbers are high, then the connectome belongs to a female subject, independent of other edges. Similarly, we have identified 3 edges from these 102, whose weights, if two of them are high and one is low, imply that the graph belongs to a male subject. We call the former state super-feminine and the other super-masculine. (Abstract excerpt)

It is known for several years that the female and the male connectomes have different properties as graphs. The work of [28] has proven – on a publicly un-available dataset – that the ratio of inter-hemispheric connections vs. the intra-hemispheric connections differs in males and females. Our group has shown on a publicly available dataset that several deep graph-theoretical properties, which are usually applied in the characterization of the quality of large computer interconnection networks [29], are better in the braingraphs of women than in men. (2)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Cultural Code

Diessel, Holger. The Grammar Network: How Linguistic Structure is Shaped by Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019. As this site reports, we seem to be in the midst of an historic scientific shift from finding discrete, nodal parts to identifying the many animate netflex relations in between. Here a Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, linguist shows that even our vernacular communications can be seen to exemplify these connective topologies. After recounting their general properties, how they are in effect for sign conveyance, cognitive decisions, social discourse, and more is illustrated. A “taxonomic” view, akin to systematic classes, is then applied to linguistic associations, symbolic relations, and schema constructions. A reference is also made to self-organized complex systems as they are used to parse this conversation (Bybee, Beckner, et al herein). The work goes on to explain that changing modes of societal usage play a key formative role. As I log in along with The Grammar of the (Atomic) Elements (Ghosh), it is becoming evident that the natural ecosmos does seem to be a literal narrative.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Cultural Code

Martin, Andrea and Giosue Baggio. Modelling Meaning Composition from Formalism to Mechanism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 375/20190298, 2019. MPI Psycholinguistics and Norwegian University of Science and Technology scholars introduce a special issue with this title in search of a more thoroughly parsed explanation. Among the authoritative contributors are Peter Hagoort, Laura Gwilliams, Marco Baroni, Liina Pylkkanen, Alona Fyshe and Petra Hendricks.

Human thought and language have expressive power because meaningful parts can be assembled into more complex semantic structures. This quality underlies our ability to compose meanings into novel configurations, and sets us apart from other species and current computing devices. Furthermore, composing parts into complex structures does not threaten the existence of constituent parts as independent units: parts and wholes exist simultaneously yet independently from one another. This independence is evident in human behaviour, but it seems at odds with the brain's sensitivity to statistical patterns. Everyday language is productive and expressively accurate because it goes beyond statistical regularities. Philosophy and linguistics explain this by realizing that language and thought are “compositional” in kind. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Perc, Matjaz. The Social Physics Collective. Nature Scientific Reports. 9/16459, 2019. The University of Maribor, Slovenia, polyscholar (search) introduces a special collection of papers within this journal to contain ways that our behaviors and activities across a wide domain such as epidemics, crime, warfare, financial markets and more.

More than two centuries ago Henri de Saint-Simon envisaged physical laws to describe human societies. Driven by advances in statistical physics, network science, data analysis, and information technology, this vision is becoming a reality. Many of the grandest challenges of our time are of a societal nature, and methods of physics are increasingly playing a central role in improving our understanding of these challenges, and helping us to find innovative solutions. The Social Physics Collection at Scientific Reports is dedicated to this research.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Spaget, Michael, et al. Toward a Unified Understanding of Casualty Distributions in Human Conflict. arXiv:1911.01994. As many entries across the social and cultural sections lately record an exemplary presence of dynamic networks, scales and forms, here London, Radboud, Michigan State and George Washington University (Neil Johnson) report that even the chaotic carnage of small and large warfare can be seen to exhibit systemic regularities. Such broad, consistent evidence would then necessarily imply a common, independent mathematical source. In 2019 as internecine conflicts spread and intensify like wildfires, might our nascent sapiensphere be at last able to realize and avail such a natural organizational code-program in time?

We are able to resolve various disparate claims and results that stand in the way of a unified description and understanding of human conflict. First, we reconcile the numerically different exponent values for fatalities across entire wars and within single wars. We go on to explain how a true theory of human conflict is able to provide a quantitative explanation of how most observed casualty distributions follow power-laws and why they deviate from them. Combined, our findings strengthen the notion that a unified framework can be used to understand and quantitatively describe human conflict. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Tsarev, Dmitriy, et al. Phase Transitions, Collective Emotions and Decisions-Making Problem in Heterogeneous Social Systems. Nature Scientific Reports. 9/18039, 2019. We cite this entry by ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Information Tech, Optics, Engineering) and Linnaeus University, Sweden (Andrei Khrennikov) researchers as an example of novel perceptions of and evidence for physical and quantum phenomena in all manner of psychological and societal realms. As a result, this communal phase can take upon a guise as active biological/sociological matter. As Auguste Comte (1798-1857) once glimpsed, by way of our late worldwide abilities, personal and planetary human abide can indeed be joined with and exemplify an independent, conducive, fertile milieu.

This paper considers collective decision-making as a second order phase-transition which occurs in heterogeneous information-oriented communities with information exchange between individuals. We examine a quantum-like model of two-level cognitive systems interacting with a socially contextual information field. We introduce a new approach for valence and arousal variables, used in cognitive sciences for the description of collective emotion states. The model predicts a super-radiant phase transition leading to coherent polarization in the societal unit. We show that a critical (social) temperature is determined by the population imbalance (valence), detuning, field coupling strength parameter and social viability. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

D’Acci, Luce, ed. The Mathematics of Urban Morphology. Springer: Birkhauser, 2019. The editor is a Polytechnic University of Torino urban planner. This is a latest volume about ongoing projects to study, design and create human abidements from close locales to a megacities based on organic metabolic, morphogenetic, diverse/unity, energetic, and sustainable features. Its main sections are Fractals, Cellular Automata, Complexity, Other Quantifications and Humanistic and Multidisciplinary Aspects. Chapters include A Fractal Approach to Explore Australian Urban Form and Neighborhood Scales, Foundations of Cellular Automata and Complexity Theory, Space Syntax: A Network Configuration, and Taking Cities as a Coherent Whole. Herein the emphasis is on nested networks, self-organized liveliness, pattern and process language, self-similarities, and more. See also, for example, The Handbook of Urban Morphology (Wiley, 2018) and Urban Morphology (Springer 2016) and Theories and Models of Urbanization edited by Denise Pumain (Springer 2020).

This edited volume provides a resource for urban morphology, the study of urban forms and structures, offering a vital mathematical perspective. The first part covers fractals and how self-similar structures sort themselves through competition. This is followed by cellular automata, and how they generate fractal forms. The third part focuses on networks such as street topologies, while the fourth presents complexity in relation to urban structures. A variety of quantitative models are cited as study examples.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Pumain, Denise and Juste Raimbault. Perspectives on Urban Theories. arXiv:1911.02854. Systems geographers Denise, a senior Parisian polyscholar (bio below) and Juste, now at University College London, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, post a chapter to appear in Theories and Models of Urbanization (Springer, 2020) in its Lecture Notes in Morphogenesis series. By a broad view, after 21st century studies which found that city settlements innately take upon and hold to active nonlinear, complex, nested network, fractal scale, animate features, a new phase of their integrative notice and adaptation is now underway. Similar projects are forming in Japan and China, check this eprint site. See also, for example Urban Scaling Laws by Diego Rybski, et al in Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science (46/9, 2019).

At the end of the five years of work in our GeoDiverCity program, we brought together a diversity of authors from different disciplines. Each person was invited to present an important question about the theories and models of urbanization. They are representative of a variety of currents in urban research. Rather than repeat here the contents of all chapters, we propose two ways to synthesize the scientific contributions of this book. In a first part we replace them in relation to a few principles that were experimented in our program, and in a second part we situate them with respect to a broader view of international literature on these topics. (Abstract)

Denise Pumain trained in geography at Ecole Normale Supérieure; she was a Lecturer and Professor from 1970 at the University of Paris-Sorbonne, Director of the European Research Group Spatial Simulation for Social Sciences, 2006–2013, Principal Investigator of ERC GeoDiverCity (Google), 2011–2016, and other such projects. Her scientific interest is to develop an evolutionary theory of urban societies by transferring concepts and models from self-organizing complex systems.

Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Lenton, Timothy, et al. Climate Tipping Points are Too Risky to Bet Against. Nature. 575/592, 2019. Seven senior climate scientists including Will Steffen and Hans Schellnhuber seek to inform and warn that near and far world weather, as a hyper-complex, quite over-stressed dynamical system, is capable of a sudden, abrupt change of (attractor) state. But then Hollywood has long picked up on this peril with biosphere busters such as The Day After Tomorrow, Geostorm, Category Seven, Twister, and more.

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Palmer, Tim and Bjorn Stevens. The Scientific Challenge of Understanding and Estimating Climate Change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116/24390, 2019. Senior Oxford University and MPI Meteorology theorists are concerned that present local and global quantifications remain quite inadequate to this imperative project of gaining deeper accuracies and understandings, which can then aid prediction and mitigation.

Given the slow unfolding of what may become catastrophic changes to Earth’s climate, many are understandably distraught by failures of public policy to rise to the magnitude of the challenge. Few in the science community would think to question the scientific response to the unfolding changes. However, is the science community continuing to do its part to the best of its ability? In the domains where we can have the greatest influence, is the scientific community articulating a vision commensurate with the challenges posed by climate change? We think not. (Abstract)

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