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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 16 through 30 of 110 found.


Planetary Prodigy: A Global Sapiensphere Learns by Her/His Own Self

A Learning Planet > Mindkind Knowledge > News

Frontiers in Computational Methods for Active Matter. www.cecam.org/workshop1797. This is a workshop organized by the European Center for Atomic and Molecular Calculations CECAM and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology held in Lausanne in mid February, 2020. Typical presentations are Collective Behavior and Self-Organization of Active Granular Particles and Active Matter Driven by Growth, with a book of abstract available from this site. We cite this event for itself and to record the annual series run by these agencies. Altogether they convey the multiversal scientific considerations going forth locally and worldwide. Some other workshop titles are Atomistic Simulations in Prebiotic Chemistry, Active Matter and Artificial Intelligence, Network analysis to elucidate natural system dynamics, Deep Learning in Materials Science, and Software Development in Quantum Dynamics.

In view of the broad range of active matter systems, various numerical approaches have been developed to model such systems. Some of the major challenges arising in modeling active systems are: (i) Active matter is a multiscale material similar to other complex fluids such as milk or blood, (ii) Active fluids are intrinsically out of equilibrium due to energy consumption on microscopic scale, (iii) The interactions between active particles can be highly nonlinear and are often of multibody character (e.g. hydrodynamic interactions or interactions due to chemical stimuli), (iv) Active particles are mostly not simple geometrical objects, such as hard spheres, but rather of complex shape due to propulsion and other functional units. The goal of this workshop is to bring together the experts in modeling soft condensed matter and biological systems to tie recent advances in computational techniques and the most recent ideas and concepts of active matter theory. (Summary)

An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Bartelmann, Matthias, et al. Cosmic Structure Formation with Kinetic Field Theory. Annalen der Physik. 531/11, 2019. A ten person team from the University of Heildeberg and ETH Zurich offer further ways that this KFT mathematical conception, initiated by the lead author and colleagues in the earlier 2010s, can be seen well reflect and explain the variegated shape and course of celestial topologies. Search the arXiv eprint site by Bartelmann and the KFT term for much more.

Kinetic field theory (KFT) is a statistical theory for an ensemble of classical point particles in or out of equilibrium. We here review its application to cosmological structure formation by adapting it to an expanding spatial background and the homogeneous and isotropic, correlated initial conditions for nonlinear cosmic formations. Three approaches are developed which rest either on expanding an interaction operator, averaging the interaction term, or resumming perturbation terms. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Coley, Alan and George Ellis. Theoretical Cosmology. al and Quantum Gravity. 37/1, 2020. Dalhousie University and University of Cape Town physicists inaugurate the 2020s decade with a 50 page survey the past, present and future of salient mathematical, computational, spatial form, temporal course, philosophical aspects. Staying within our own universe, black holes, gravitational waves, singularities, dark energy, nonlinearities, string inflation and more are considered. But again it would seem that there must be some innate, eternal cosmic purpose for valiant participatory human beings whom altogether are capable of observing, quantifying, recording such depths and reaches.

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Erhard, Manuel, et al. Advances in High Dimensional Quantum Entanglement. 1911.10006. University of Vienna Center for Quantum Science polyphysicists ME, Mario Krenn and Anton Zeilinger (search) provide another avocation that physical studies are in the midst of a second, 21st century reinvention of what constitutes this fundamental realm. In addition to radical reconceptions akin to other natural and social stages, as if opening a new frontier these foundational abilities will lead to all sorts of novel utilizations. The article’s 217 references are a good resource going forward.

Since its discovery in the last century, quantum entanglement has challenged some of our most cherished classical views, such as locality and reality. Today, the second quantum revolution is in full swing and promises to revolutionize areas such as computation, communication, and imaging. Here, we review conceptual and experimental advances in complex entangled systems involving many multilevel quantum particles. We also show how academic curiosity and fundamental research has led to new technological applications such as a quantum internet or teleportation of all information stored in a quantum system. (Abstract excerpt)

If the system size in terms of number and dimensionality grows to extensive numbers, exotic phenomena arise. Examples are superconductivity, super-fluids or Bose-Einstein condensates. These systems still pose significant theoretical as well as experimental challenges. A deeper understanding of these extremely large and highly correlated quantum systems might very well reveal new physics. (3)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Loll, Renata. Quantum Gravity from Causal Dynamical Triangulations: A Review. arXiv:1905.08669. The Radboud University and Perimeter Institute theorist continues her collegial studies of a fantastic cosmos which we peoples evolve and emerge and awaken from with our phenomenal abilities to explore and learn. A natural philoSophia might then be that we are the very microcosmic selves who are made and meant to so quantify, realize, affirm and take forward a procreative genesis universe.

We give a topical, comprehensive overview and assessment of recent results in Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT), a modern formulation of lattice and quantum gravity nonperturbatively from a scaling limit of the lattice-regularized theory. In this manifestly diffeomorphism-invariant approach one has computational access to a Planckian spacetime regime, which is explored with the help of invariant quantum observables. During the last few years, there have been numerous new and important developments and insights concerning the theory's phase structure, the roles of time, causality, diffeomorphisms and global topology, and renormalization group methods. We will focus on these new results, primarily in four spacetime dimensions, and their geometric and physical implications. (Abstract edit)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Poulin, Vivian, et al. Early Dark Energy can Resolve the Hubble Tension. arXiv:1811.04083. We cite this entry by Johns Hopkins University astrophysicists including Marc Kamionkowski as an example of the incredible abilities of worldwide research teams with instant shared contact to seemingly quantify any depth and reach of any universal phenomena. In perspective, we peoples seem to be carrying out an intended task, as yet unawares, of cosmic self-realization and individuation. See also Cosmological Constraints from the Hubble Diagram of Quasars at High Redshifts by G. Risaliti and E. Lusso in Nature Astronomy (3/272, 2019) and Have Dark Forces Been Messing with the Cosmos? by Dennis Overbye in the N. Y. Times (February 25, 2019).

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Sabchez, Norma. New Quantum Phase of the Universe before Inflation and its Cosmological and Dark Energy Implications. International Journal of Modern Physics A. 34/27, 2020. A Sorbonne University, CNRS Observatory of Paris, astrophysicist posts a mathematical treatise with sections such as Classical-Quantum Duality through the Planck Scale and Total de Sitter Universe and its Dual Symmetry. These theories as displayed in a Fig. 1 become The Universe Completed by Quantum Physics in Terms of Gravity History (second quote). So by a natural philoSophia view, human women and men seem to be innately capable, whoever and wherever possible, of achieving cosmic quantifications across any depth and reach. By a further stretch, all spatial and temporal creation seems trying pass to and through our sapient acumen. See also New Quantum Structure of the Space Time by NS in Gravitation and Cosmology (25/2, 2019) and Predictive Physics of Inflation and Grand Unification at arXiv:2001.04795.

The physical history of the Universe is completed by including the quantum planckian and trans-planckian phase before Inflation in the Standard Model of the Universe in agreement with observations. A new quantum precursor phase appears beyond the Planck scale. We extend de Sitter universe to the quantum domain: classical-quantum de Sitter duality. As a result, the classical and quantum dual de Sitter temperatures and entropies are naturally included, and the de Sitter regimes characterized in a precise and unifying way. Relevant cosmological phenomena then allow us to describe Quantum spectra and their CMB observables, including the classical Inflation spectra. A unifying picture for the Universe epochs and their quantum precursors emerges with the cosmological constant as the vacuum energy, entropy and temperature. (Abridged Abstract)

The Whole History. An Unifying Picture: We see that going back in time along the Universe evolution from the present era to the early stages where the Universe becames more and more quantum, the classical temperature TΛ decreases, as it must be, the quantum temperature TQ becomes higher and the values of the Classical and Quantum temperatures TΛ and TQ become closer of each other, the difference disappearing at the Planck scale, which is the crossing scale between the classical/semiclassical and quantum gravity regimes or eras. (40)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Aerts, Conny. Probing the Interior Physics of Stars through Asteroseimology. arXiv:1912.12300. Asteroseismology, the interpretation of the characteristics of oscillation modes in terms of the physical properties of the stellar interior, brought entirely new insights in how stars rotate and how they build up their chemistry throughout their evolution. The KU Leuven, Belgium astrophysicist and Radboud University, Netherlands Institute of Astronomy director posts a 70 page popular review of this new cosmic field

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Andrews, Robin George. A Dance that Stops 2 of Neptune’s Moons from Colliding. New York Times. November 21, 2019. The volcanologist and science writer (see his site) comments on Orbits and Resonances of the Regular Moons of Neptune by Marina Brozovic, et al at JPL, NASA, and SETI Institute including Jack Lissauer in Icarus (338/Art. 113462, 2020). Mathematical forces seem to be at work amongst the 14 moons and counting of this gas giant outer world which serve to direct orbital traffic so they stay in their lanes.

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Hooper, Dan. At the Edge of time: Exploring the Mysteries of Our Universe’s First Seconds. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019. The University of Chicago astrophysicist dutifully retraces cosmic history from quantum gravity (10-43 sec), grand unified (10-35 sec) and inflation eras on to quark-gluon plasma, protons, neutrons, atoms, dark matter phases all the way to today, some 13.8 billion years later. But for this natural philoSophia site, we ought to reflect upon our auspicious Earthwisw ability to be a genesis universe’s way of respectively realizing itself.

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Stanway, Elizabeth. Applications of Stellar Population Synthesis in the Distant Universe. /galaxies. 8/1, 2020. A University of Warwick astrophysicist provides another example of the 21st century reach and depth of scientific explorations still in thier initial development via Earth and space sensory instrumentation, along with computational methods. By a natural philoSophia going forward, our collaborative humankinder, as able to instantly post, communicate, iterate and advance, seems poised to carry out a self-quantitative description of the whole animate ecosmos.

This review discusses both our current state of understanding of galaxies in the distant Universe, and how that understanding is informed by the stellar population synthesis models we use. Key examples and uncertainties are highlighted, and a holistic approach, in which all possible diagnostic indicators of a stellar population are considered, is advocated. (2)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Vazza, Franco. How Complex is the Cosmic Web?. arXiv:1911.11029. We cite this by a University of Bologna astrophysicist as another example of innovative, sophisticated methods by which to simulate and describe the entire spatial and temporal reach of the celestial universe which our collective sapience has found itself. How fantastic is it that in a few decades our phenomenal species seems innately capable of, seemingly made for, such observances. We also note that some forty years after Erich Jantsch’s 1980 work The Self-Organizing Universe (search), it is now been proven that this dynamic creativity is how nature works.

The growth of large-scale cosmic structure is a beautiful exemplification of how complexity can emerge in our Universe, starting from simple initial conditions and physical laws. Using cosmological numerical simulations, I applied tools from Information Theory to quantify the amount of complexity in the simulated cosmic volume, as a function of epoch and environment. The most complex environment in the simulated cosmic web is found to be the periphery of large-scale structures (e.g. galaxy clusters and filaments), where it is greater than more rarefied regions. (Abstract)

The Universe that astrophysicists routinely analyze gives a spectacular example of such emergence from simple initial conditions: somehow the Universe could self-organize on an enormous range of scales without any external intervention, transitioning from the smoothest and simplest possible initial condition (a nearly scale-invariant background of matter fluctuations) to a majestic hierarchy of clustered sources. (1)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > cosmos

Vogelsberger, Mark, et al. Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Formation. Nature Reviews Physics. 2/1, 2020. As a window upon what a worldwise sapiensphere is now achieving, MIT, University of Bologna, University of Florida and Leibniz Institute, Potsdam astrophysicists post a state of the universe survey with Cosmological Model, Initial Conditions, Dark Matter, Halo Mass Function, Gravitational Dynamics, Baryonic Physics headings and topics. Colorful graphic displays show off galactic webworks and topologies from black holes to radiation fields and stellar nurseries. A century or so after Lemaitre, Shapley, Hubble and others glimpsed myriad galaxies, a global persona now proceeds with all manner of their past, present, and future description. Whomever are we phenomenal peoples altogether to be actually doing this? See also The Expansion of the Universe is Faster than Expected by Nobel laureate Adam Riess in this issue.

Over the last decades, cosmological simulations of galaxy formation have been instrumental for advancing our understanding of their structures in the Universe. These simulations follow the non-linear evolution of galaxies modeling a variety of physical processes over a wide range of scales. This better understanding of the physics that shape galaxies, along with numerical methods, and computing power can now reveal many observed properties along with dark matter, dark energy, and ordinary matter in an expanding space-time. This review presents an overview of the methodology of cosmological simulations of galaxy formation and their different applications. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS

Berkelbach, Timothy and Michael Thoss. Special Topic on Dynamics of Open Quantum Systems. Journal of Chemical Physics. 152/020401, 2020. A summary introduction to 55 papers published last year in this journal, as cited in the references, involved with the broad technical study and avail of nature’s deepest realm. One might imagine the opening of a newly accessible frontier whence micro and macro realms become one and the same, so as to (re)join universe and human.

Open quantum systems that exchange energy or particles with their environment occur in a wide variety of fields including chemical physics, condensed matter physics, quantum information, optics, and thermodynamics. Examples in chemical physics range from molecules in solution and at surfaces to molecular junctions, where single molecules are coupled to electrodes at different chemical potentials or temperatures. The coupling to the environment gives rise to dynamical processes such as fluctuations, dephasing, relaxation, thermalization, nonequilibrium excitation, and transport. The understanding of these processes is a major goal in the field of condensed-phase chemical dynamics. (1)

Animate Cosmos > Quantum Cosmology > quantum CS

jaeger, Gregg, et al. Second Quantum Revolution: Foundational Questions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 375/20160397, 2016. GJ, Boston University, Andrei Khrennikov, Linnaeus University, Sweden and Paolo Perinotti, University of Pavia, Italy introduce a special issue to survey this 21st century and 2010s conceptual frontier. Some papers are Quantum-like Dynamics Applied to Cognition, Contexuality in Canonical Systems, and Quantum Potentiality Revisited. See also The Second Quantum Revolution: Challenges of Molecular Chemistry by Matteo Atzori and Roberta Sessoli in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (141/29, 2019) for another use of this phrase.

Recent theoretical and experimental successes in quantum physics are considered by many to be forging a second quantum revolution. These successes clearly indicate that important quantum technological improvements are on the way. However, many important foundational issues in quantum theory have not yet been clearly resolved, e.g. the quantum measurement problem, the justification of the application of the quantum formalism for macroscopic systems, the possibility of going beyond quantum theory, quantum non-locality, the relativistic treatment of entanglement and an indisputable understanding of the probabilistic structure of Bell's argument.

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