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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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A. A Familiar Ecode: An Ecosmome to Geonome Complementary Endowment is Found Everywhere

Song, Tiancheng, et al. Unconventional Superconducting Quantum Criticality in Monolayer WTe2.. arXiv:2303.06540. Into the mid 2020s, fifteen Princeton University and National Institute for Materials Science and Nanoarchitectonics, Japan researchers proceed to find an inherent tendency for optimum critical behavior even in this substantial realm. See also Self-similarity of the third type in ultra relativistic blastwave by Tamar Faran, et al at arXiv:2402.07978 for another instance of deeply ingrained critical behavior.

The superconductor to metal transition in two dimensions (2D) provides a platform for study quantum phase transitions (QPTs) and critical phenomena but many questions remain. Extending Nernst experiments down to millikelvin temperatures, we identify a superconducting quantum critical point (QCP) in spin Hall insulator made of tungsten ditelluride (WTe2). These findings, which have no prior analogue, call for careful examinations of the mechanism of the QCP, including the possibility of a QPT between ordered phases in the monolayer. Our experiments open a new avenue for studying quantum critical matter. (Abstract)

Tadic, Bosilijka. Cyclical Trends of Network Load Fluctuations in Traffic Jams. Dynamics. 2/4, 2022. We cite this entry by the veteran Solvenian complexity theorist (search) as an example into these 2020s of how a mathematical awareness of a separate domain that underlies and structures human social activities can provide natural (genetic-like) informed guidance for better results.

The transport of information packets in complex networks is a prototype system for the study of traffic jamming, a nonlinear dynamic phenomenon that arises with increased use and limited road capacity. An intrinsic framework helps to reveal how the macroscopic build-ups from microscopic forces, depending on the posting rate, navigation rules, and network form. We find that near congestion thresholds, traffic fluctuations show a temporal pattern described by cyclical trends with multifractal features. (Excerpt)

Tang, Xun and Huifang Ye. Xun and Huifang Ye. Metaphorical Language Change Change is Self-Organized Criticality. arXiv:2211.10709. Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan system linguists extend later 2022 perceptions of a ubiquitous SOC so to highlight its innate coherence of two complementary modes. Here linguistic domains are seen as distinguished by this universal scale-free form and facility. As the abstract states, the authors record an historic recognition of how even narrative writings and spoken conversation can equally be seen to avail these archetypal benefits.

One way to resolve the actuation problem of language change is to provide a statistical profile of metaphorical constructions and generative rules. Based the view of language as a complex system and the dynamic view of metaphor, this paper argues that language change qualifies as a self-organized criticality state and the linguistic expressions can be profiled as a fractal correlation. Synchronously, metaphorical usages self-organize into a self-similar, scale-invariance with a power-law distribution. We verify this by statistical analyses of twelve randomly selected Chinese lexicon in a large-scale diachronic corpus. (Abstract)

Tian, Yang, et al. Theoretical Foundations of Studying Criticality in the Brain. Network Neuroscience. 6/4, 2022. For a special Connectivity, Cognition and Consciousness issue, Tsinghua University, Beijing, University of Paris, and Chinese Academy of Science researchers theoretically explain, clarify and advance how the dynamic presence of self-organized phenomena is being found to play a central creative role.

The brain criticality hypothesis is one of the most active topics in neuroscience and biophysics. This work develops a unified framework to reformulate the physics theories of four basic types of brain criticality, ordinary criticality (OC), quasi-criticality (qC), self-organized criticality (SOC), and self-organized quasi-criticality (SOqC), into more accessible and neuroscience-related forms. This framework may help resolve potential controversies in studying the brain criticality hypothesis, especially those arising from the misconceptions about the theoretical foundations of brain criticality. (Author)

Tsakmakidis, Kosmos, et al. Quantum Coherence-driven Self-Organized Criticality and Nonequilibrium Light Localization. Science Advances. May, 2018. UC Berkeley research physicists discern one more actual presence of nature’s optimum dynamic phase ineven at this deepest energetic stage. As a reflection, when I began these studies long ago (e.g., 1987 at the Santa Fe Institute to hear Harold Morowitz) the SO universality of the second quote was a remote hope. Today, in these critical condition 2020s, due to John Beggs and many others, it is vital that our worldwise natural philosopher sapience once again is able at last to perceive and realize what an epochal, numinous discovery has been achieved.

Self-organized criticality emerges in dynamical complex systems driven out of equilibrium and characterizes a wide range of classical phenomena in physics, geology, and biology. We report on a quantum coherence–controlled self-organized critical transition observed in the light localization behavior of a coherence-driven nanophotonic configuration. Our system is composed of a gain-enhanced plasmonic heterostructure controlled by a coherent drive, in which photons close to the stopped-light regime interact in the presence of the active nonlinearities. In this system we observe quantum coherence–controlled self-organized criticality in the emergence of light localization arising from the synchronization of the photons. (Excerpt)

The self-organization of many nonequilibrium complex systems toward an “ordered” state is a profound concept in basic science, ranging from biochemistry to physics.. Examples include the group movement of flocks of birds (, motions of human crowds, neutrino oscillations in the early universe, and the formation of shapes (morphogenesis) in biological organisms. An intriguing trait of this nonequilibrium, driven-dissipative systems is that their self-organization can lead them to a phase transition and to critical behavior — a phenomenon known as self-organized criticality. (1)

Vidielia, Blai, et al. Engineering Self-Organized Criticality in Living Cells. Nature Communications. 12/4415, 2021. Seven Barcelona system scientists including Ricard Sole identify and explain how cellular processes do, in fact, avail this optimum condition for their active viability. This novel appreciation is then carried forth as a way to better conceive new, beneficial biologic formations. And once again this leading edge paper goes on to note that this fittest resolve is likewise being found everywhere else so to prove a natural, one bigender code, universality.

Complex dynamical fluctuations, from intracellular noise, brain dynamics or computer traffic typically display bursting dynamics situated at a critical state between order and disorder. Living close to the critical point has adaptive advantages to an extent that it has been conjectured that life’s evolution could select for these critical states. In regard we consider the case of living cells to see if they reside in at a self-organized criticality (SOC) state. To do so we present an engineered gene network which actually displays SOC behavior, namely the proteolytic degradation of E. coli cells by means of a negative feedback loop that reduces congestion. Our critical motif is built from a two-gene circuit, where SOC can be successfully implemented. (Abstract excerpt)

Critical states are known to be part of the cognitive equipment of multicellular organisms from simple, non-neural placozoans to neural systems and animal collectives. The SOC motif might be an efficient way of generating phenotypic diversity in a microbial population and can be relevant to expand the space of synthetic biology computational designs into collective intelligence. Finally, given the analogies between our system and critical traffic in parallel computer networks, an extension of our approach could involve a 3D spatially explicit system and the development of statistical physics models of critical intracellular activity. (8)

Villani, Marco, et al. Evolving Always-Critical Networks. Life. 10/3, 2020. In this year of binocular clarity, systems physicists MV and Roberto Serra, University of Modena, and Salvatore Magri and Andrea Roli, University of Bologna, along with colleagues can well describe an optimum condition of self-organized criticality that active systems seek and prefer to reside at. As this section reports, some two decades of global research have now settled upon this vital iconic “criticality principle” from brains to genomes to quantum phases. The occasion at last achieves a resolve and proof that a reciprocal mutuality between apart/together, conserve/create, and so on is nature’s best beneficial balance (except politics which blindly pit one complement vs. the other). See also Dynamical Criticality: Overview and Open Questions by this team (Andrea Roli, et al) in the Journal of Systems Science and Complexity (31/647, 2018).

Living beings share several common features at the molecular level, but there are as yet few large-scale “operating rules” for all organisms. An interesting candidate is the “criticality” principle, which claims that biological evolution favors those regimes that are intermediaries between ordered and disordered states, “at the edge of chaos”. The reasons why this should be the case are discussed such as gene regulatory networks (GRN) which do in fact reside at the critical boundaries. In order to explore an “always-critical” state, we resort to simulated evolution via genetic algorithms which show that new individuals do indeed develop critical GRNs. (Abstract excerpt)

Therefore, critical states are in between ordered and disordered ones. The criticality principle states that these states are at an advantage with respect either to chaotic states, since they are more stable and controllable, or to ordered states, since they can better change in response to different conditions, without being stuck in the same state. If this is indeed the case, evolution should have modified the parameters in such a way that living beings are found near critical states—a statement that is, in principle, amenable to experimental verification. (2)

Let us revisit now the CP that has been introduced and discussed in Section 1, which claims that some dynamical states are advantaged with respect to other states, and that evolution drives living beings towards these “critical” states, which are neither fully ordered nor fully disordered. (13)

Systems that exhibit complex behaviours are often found in a dynamical condition which is poised between order and disorder. This observation is the essence of the criticality hypothesis, which states that such an active balance can attain the highest level of computational capabilities and an optimal trade-off between robustness and flexibility. Recent results in cellular and evolutionary biology, neuroscience and computer science have heightened interest in a preferred criticality state as a candidate general law in adaptive complex systems. (Roli, et al Abstract)

Voit, Maximilian and Hildegard Meyer-Ortmans. Emerging Criticality at Bifurcation Points in Heteroclinic Dynamics. Physical Review Research. 2/043097, 2020. Jacobs University, Bremen physicists enter one more finely perceived instance of nature’s deep propensity to seek, arrive and poise at this optimum condition, which lately seems to be in evidence at each and every occasion.

Heteroclinic dynamics is a suitable framework to describe transient dynamics that is characteristic for ecological as well as neural systems, in particular for cognitive processes. We consider different heteroclinic networks and zoom into the dynamics that emerges right at different bifurcation points. We identify features of criticality such as a proliferation of the dynamical repertoire and slowing down of the dynamics at the very bifurcations and in their immediate vicinity. It qualifies these bifurcation points as candidates for working points in systems which store and transfer information. (Abstract)

Wang, Zi-Han, et al. Power-law Distribution and Scale Invariant Structure from the First CHIME/FRB Fast Radio Burst Catalog. arXiv:2212.05229. As the abstract notes, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Yangzhou University and Frontier Research Center for Gravitational Waves, Shanghai Jiao Tong University physicists describe a strong. pervasive presence across levels and realms of hyper-active celestial phenomena of a tendency to arrive at a self-organized critical state. See also Scale Invariance in X-ray Flares of Gamma-ray Bursts at 2212.08813 for another SOC instance effect.

We study the statistical property of fast radio bursts (FRBs) based on a selected sample of 190 one-off FRBs in the first CHIME/FRB catalog. Three power law models are used in the analysis, and we find the cumulative distribution functions of energy can be well fitted by power law models. The q values in the Tsallis q-Gaussian distribution are constant with small fluctuations for different temporal scale intervals, indicating a scale-invariant structure of the bursts. The earthquakes and soft gamma repeaters show similar properties, which are consistent with the predictions of self-organized criticality systems. (Abstract)

Wei, Jun-Jie. Scale Invariance in X-ray Flares of Gamma-ray Bursts.. arXiv:2212.08813.. In advanced studies of these wide-spread celestial phenomena, a Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of China astronomer once again winds up with a notice and explanation of their intrinsic SOC character.

X-ray flares are produced by the reactivation of the central energy source with a dissipation mechanism as the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this work, we study for the first time the differential size and return distributions of X-ray flares with known redshifts. We find that the duration, energy, and waiting time can be well fitted by a power-law function. The q-Gaussian distributions keep steady for temporal interval scales, imply a scale-invariant structure of GRB X-ray flares. These statistical features can be well explained within the physical framework of a self-organizing criticality system. (Excerpt)

West, Bruce, et al. Relating Size and Functionality in Human Social Networks through Complexity. PNAS. 117/31, 2022. We cite this entry by University of North Texas systems theorists along with Robin Dunbar, Oxford University in a major journal to show how much the pervasive presence of optimum critically organized phenomena everywhere is being perceived as a prime generative feature. In this instance, its dynamic self-organization is seen to structure and arrange our public affairs in accord with Dunbar’s popular scale (search) from a nominal five to as high as 150 members.

(Robin) Dunbar hypothesized, on the basis of empirical evidence, that a typical individual can have a stable relation with at most 150 other people. We establish that this results from the internal dynamics of a complex network. We study network models having phase transitions with criticality generates intermittent events, with time interval scales between successive events being independent. The scaling index depends on network size and direct calculations show a maximum for networks of 150 size and for information exchange efficiency. (Significance)

Extensive empirical evidence suggests that there is a maximal number of people with whom an individual can maintain social relationships. We argue that this arises as a consequence of a natural phase transition in the dynamic self-organization among individuals within a social system. We present the calculated size dependence of the scaling properties of complex social network models to argue that this collective behavior is an enhanced form of collective intelligence. (Abstract)

In keeping with the criticality hypothesis, it is reasonable to associate functionality and size with the emergence of complexity. This step is achieved by critical dynamics and events. Complexity is manifest in the collective behavior of nonlinear dynamic networks by way of the concept of collective intelligence (18356).

Zamponi, Nahuel, et al. Scale Free Density and Fluctuations in the Dynamics of Large Microbial Ecosystems. arXiv:2206.12384. Four senior researchers with postings in the USA, Argentina, Poland, and Italy including Dante Chialvo discuss how these critically poised features, just as everywhere else from the ISM to the Internet it seems, serve suffuse and enhance bacterial assemblies. Once again a vital, dynamic poise between stability and flexibility, aka “nature’s sweet spot” as coined by Chialvo, seems best.

Microorganisms self-organize in extensive communities exhibiting complex fluctuations. But the ways that these systems can achieve variability along with a basic robustness is not well explained. Here we analyze three aspects of microbiota and plankton: density changes, the correlation structure and an avalanching fluidity. Our results find scale-free densities, anomalous variance' stages, abundance relations and stationary scale-free waves in effect. These behaviors, which typically occur in critically poised systems, suggest this active state is a way to explain both the robust and irregular phases and processes of copious microbial colonies.

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