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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 61 through 75 of 110 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Common Code

Boldini, Alain, et al. Application of Symbolic Recurrence to Experimental Data from Firearm Prevalence to Fish Swimming. Chaos. 29/113128, 2019. NYU and Technical University of Cartagena, Spain bioengineers finesse mathematical techniques in search of better ways to parse and compare complex interactive phenomena across wide scales and instances. And coincidently we log in on the December 14 date of the 2012 Newton school shooting, which is mentioned in the paper. However then might a breadth and depth of credible, sufficient, phenomenal proof be achieved so we peoples could realize and implement an independent, universal naturome code? See also Symbolic Recurrence Plots to Analyze Dynamical Systems by Victoria Caballero-Pintado, et al in Chaos (28/063112, 2018).

Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis are powerful tools to study the behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems. Previous usages, however, have led to arbitrary definitions of recurrence. Here we describe a symbolic recurrence to overcome this issue, and to better book-keep recurrent portions of the phase space and real time series. We illustrate by examining a wide range of experimental datasets from firearm prevalence and media coverage to the sexual interaction of swimming fish. These results demonstrate the potential of symbolic recurrence in real-world applications across research fields. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Geological

Bonetti, Sara, et al. Channelization Cascade in Landscape Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/1375, 2020. ETH Zurich, Princeton and Polytechnic Institute of Torino systems geologists including Amilcare Porporato achieve another current proof that it is possible to verify the manifest, exemplary presence of a self-organizing, self-similar mathematics even across mountainous arête terrains.

We show that increasingly complex ridge and valley networks are produced by nonlinear partial differential equations as a minimalist landscape evolution model to describe the interplay between soil creep, runoff erosion, and tectonic uplift. We identify critical conditions for the transition from a smooth to a channelized topography and highlight striking similarities with fluid dynamic turbulence. The results shed light on the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed landscape self-organization. The formation of regular prefractal networks reveals a tendency to evolve toward optimal configurations typical of nonequilibrium complex systems. (Significance)

Sara Bonetti I am an ecohydrologist at ETH Zurich with a strong interest in the quantitative description of ecosystem functioning. My past and current research focuses on the analysis and modeling of i) vadose zone processes, ii) plant hydraulics, iii) landscape topography and evolution under natural and disturbed conditions, iv) vegetation pattern formation, and v) soil-plant atmosphere interactions.

Dr. (Amilcare) Porporato's research at Princeton University focuses on the quantitative description of the complex dynamics of the terrestrial water cycle. He uses both theoretical and experimental approaches to describe dynamical components of these physical and biological interactions. Because of an inherent interdisciplinarity, his research methods draw from fluid mechanics, soil physics, plant physiology, statistical physics, nonlinear dynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, and complex system science.

Earth Life > Nest > Geological

Ma, Hongbo, et al. Universal Relation with Regime Transition for Sediment Transport in Fine-Grained Rivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/171, 2020. A thirteen member team of geoscientists from across China and the USA, with a global cast of names, uncover and quantify a common mathematical basis which underlie and guide such sediment flows and depositions across the world’s waterways. We also cite as more current proof that a natural genesis is graced by an independent generative source code across land, sea, air and space.

Fine-grained sediment transport systems (grain size under 2,000 μm) are ubiquitous over time and space on Earth and extraplanetary surfaces, and include rivers, deltaic coastal settings, and submarine, subglacial systems. Forecasting the evolution of Earth’s surface requires a predictive algorithm for sediment transport. Herein we provide a universal relation for sediment transport in fine-grained rivers. Surprisingly, it is shown that sediment flux differs by up to 2 orders of magnitude as grain size changes only slightly near the boundary between very fine sand and fine sand. The universal applicability of the sediment transport formulation enables quantitative understanding of the sedimentology and morphology of fine-grained rivers. (Significance)

Earth Life > Nest > Geological

Terui, Akira, et al. Metapopulation Stability in Branching River Networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115/E5963, 2018. University of Minnesota and Hokkaido University system environmentalists provide a sophisticated analysis of the pervasive presence of self-similar network topologies even in these ever variable fluid flow geoscape regimes.

Intraspecific population diversity is an essential component of metapopulation stability and persistence in nature. However, current theories developed in simplified landscapes may be inadequate to predict emergent properties of branching ecosystems, a prime feature of habitat geometry. Here, we analyze a long-term dataset to show that a scale-invariant characteristic of fractal river networks, branching complexity stabilizes watershed metapopulations. In riverine systems, each branch (tributary) exhibits distinctive ecological dynamics, and confluences serve as “merging” points of those branches. We theoretically revealed that the stabilizing effect of branching complexity is due to probabilistic processes in natural conditions, where within-branch synchrony exceeds among-branch synchrony. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Life Origin

Camprubi, Eloi, et al. The Emergence of Life. Space Science Reviews. 215/56, 2019. Eight researchers posted in the Netherlands, France, and the USA including Frances Westall and Michael Russell provide a comprehensive illustrated survey to date of both Earthly and astronomic environs such as watery moons, along with candidate RNA, geologic surface, first prokaryote and other aspects as they may have served to foster our late sentience and present reconstructive vista.

The aim of this article is to provide an overview of possible scenarios for the emergence of life, to critically assess them and to analyze whether similar processes could have been conducive to independent origins of life on the several icy moons of the Solar System. Instead of proposing an unequivocal cradle of life on Earth, we describe the different requirements that seem to be needed for the transition between non-life to life from geological, biological, and chemical perspectives in an integrative manner. Based on the conclusions extracted, we address whether the conditions for abiogenesis are/were met in any of the oceanic moons. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Life Origin

Szostak, Jack. The Narrow Road to the Deep Past: In Search of the Chemistry of the Origin of Life. Angewandte Chemie International. 56/37, 2017. The Nobel chemist (2009) at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Boston writes a popular update on his own work and on the long project to recover and quantify how living, evolving systems came to be. A salient aspect is the appearance of membrane-bounded protocell vesicles, which then play a role in forming vital RNA polymerase replicators. Once life got going, other catalytic biochemicals could complexify toward enzymes, metabolisms all the way to we curious curators.

The sequence of events that gave rise to the first life on our planet took place in the Earth's deep past, seemingly beyond our reach. Understanding the processes that led to the chemical building blocks of biology and how these molecules self‐assembled into cells that could grow, divide and evolve, nurtured by a rich and complex environment, seems insurmountably difficult. And yet, to my own surprise, simple experiments have revealed robust processes that could have driven the growth and division of primitive cell membranes. Even our efforts to combine replicating compartments and genetic materials into a full protocell model have moved forward in unexpected ways. Fortunately, many challenges remain, so the future in this field is brighter than ever! (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Microbial

Schleper, Christa and Filipa Sousa. Meet the Relatives of Our Cellular Ancestor. Nature. 577/519, 2020. University of Vienna, Archaea Biology and Ecogenomics Group bioscientists cite a paper, Isolation of an Archaeon at the Prokaryote-Eukaryote Interface by Hiroyuki Imachi, et al in the same issue, as a significant quantification of how rudimentary microbal cells seem to have internal propensity (drive) to become nucleated cells on their long course to multicellularity.

Microorganisms related to lineages of the Asgard archaea group are thought to have evolved into complex eukaryotic cells. Now the first Asgard archaeal species to be grown in the laboratory reveals its metabolism and cell biology.

Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic

Singharoy, Abhishek, et al. Atoms to Phenotypes: Molecular Design Principles of Cellular Energy Metabolism. Cell. 179/1098, 2019. At the culmination of the global 2010s, nineteen Arizona State University, Center for Applied Structural Discovery, molecular biologists present an illustrated report which proceeds to root life’s vesicular development phases deeply into a fertile physical substrate. In this expansive view, the scientific studies of cellular organisms which began decades, and centuries ago can now by way of detailed experiment, graphic display, and computational verity connect with a vital conducive ecosmos. From our late vantage, universe and human are rejoined as one and the same. As the quotes say, a further aspect is an advent and passage of a self-creative natural genesis to our collaborative, respectful, informed mitigation and continuance. A commentary herein is Dynamic Modeling of a 100 Million Atom Organelle at the Source of Life by Jean-David Rochaix (179/1012).

At the culmination of the global 2010s, nineteen Arizona State University, Center for Applied Structural Discovery, molecular biologists present an illustrated report which proceeds to root life’s vesicular development phases deeply into a fertile physical substrate. In this expansive view, the scientific studies of cellular organisms which began decades, and centuries ago can now by way of detailed experiment, graphic display, and computational verity connect with a vital conducive ecosmos. From our late vantage, universe and human are rejoined as one and the same. As the quotes say, a further aspect is an advent and passage of a self-creative natural genesis to our collaborative, respectful, informed mitigation and continuance. A commentary herein is Dynamic Modeling of a 100 Million Atom Organelle at the Source of Life by Jean-David Rochaix (179/1012).

Earth Life > Nest > Symbiotic

Sorensen, Megan, et al. Comparison of Independent Evolutionary Origins Reveals both Convergence and Divergence in the Metabolic Mechanisms of Symbiosis. Current Biology. 30/2, 2020. University of Sheffield, Exeter, and York biologists describe sophisticated experiments to elucidate the primary role played by nature’s tendency for all manner of cellular entities to join together in mutual benefit. Although difficult to recover because not readily evident, their procreative influence in life’s episodic emergence grows in importance. But in the article or references the life work of Lynn Margulis (1938-2011) as an advocate this vital feature, against much opposition, is not mentioned. A decade later one might imagine a second worldwide phase which at last confirms a universal symbiotic synthesis. See also a commentary Evolution: Convergent Pathways to Symbiosis by Levi Morran in the same issue.

Through the merger of previously independent lineages, symbiosis promotes the acquisition of new traits and exploitation of ecological niches, driving evolutionary innovation and vital ecosystem functions. In order to study this convergent process, independent we compared the metabolic mechanisms of two independent origins of Paramecium bursaria-Chlorella photosymbiosis using a reciprocal metabolomic pulse-chase method. This showed convergent patterns of nutrient exchange and utilization for host-derived nitrogen in the Chlorella genotypes and symbiont-derived carbon in the P. bursaria genotypes. Altogether our data suggests that the multiple origins of P. bursaria-Chlorella symbiosis use a convergent nutrient exchange. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Multicellular

Larson, Ben, et al. Biophysical Principles of Choanoflagellate Self-Organization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117/1303, 2020. UC Berkeley and Harvard biologists including Nicole King describe how these cellular cousins are likewise moved by and exemplify these common formative agencies, as they proceed toward multicellular developments. Once again a natural genesis uses the same independent source system at each instance.

Comparisons among animals and their closest living relatives, the choanoflagellates, have begun to shed light on the origin of animal multicellularity and development. Here, we complement previous genetic perspectives on this process by focusing on the biophysical principles underlying choanoflagellate colony morphology and morphogenesis. Our study reveals the crucial role of the extracellular matrix in shaping the colonies and leads to a phase diagram that delineates the range of morphologies as a function of the biophysical mechanisms at play. (Significance)

The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals. Choanoflagellates are collared flagellates having a funnel shaped collar of interconnected microvilli at the base of a flagellum.

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Jolles, Jolle, et al. The Role of Individual Heterogeneity in Collective Animal Behavior. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Online December, 2019. Jolle J, MPI Animal Behavior, Andrew King, Swansea University, UK, and Shuan Killen, University of Glasgow scope out ways that an array of diverse member behaviors can actually foster their overall group cohesion and viability.

Social grouping is omnipresent in the animal kingdom. Considerable research has focused on understanding how animal groups form and function, including how collective behaviour emerges via self-organising mechanisms and how phenotypic variation drives the behaviour and functioning of animal groups. Here we present a common framework to quantify heterogeneity in the literature so as to explain and predict its role in collective behaviour across species, contexts, and traits. We show that member diversity provides a key intermediary factor with regard to group structure, functioning, response to environmental change, and evolution. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Tokita, Christopher and Corina Tarnita. Social Influence and Interaction Bias can Drive Emergent Behavioural Specialization and Modular Social Networks Across Systems. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. January, 2020. Princeton University evolutionary ecologists identify how complex adaptive system features such as diverse group modules, and appropriation of tasks are present and evident for many animal species. See also Fitness Benefits and Emergent Division of Labour at the Onset of Group Living by Y. Ulrich, et al (C. Tarnita) in Nature (560/635, 2018).

In social systems ranging from ant colonies to human society, consistent differences in behavior are common. Individuals can specialize in tasks they perform (division of labour DOL), their political poles, or various personalities they exhibit. Behavioural specialization often co-occurs with modular and assortative social networks as entities tend to associate with similar others. We then wonder whether the same mechanism could drive co-emergent social network structures. Here we extend a model of self-organized DOL to account for influence and interaction bias among various social dynamics. Our findings suggest that DOL and political polarization—two social phenomena not typically considered together—may actually share a common core. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Nest > Societies

Whitehead, Hal, et al. The Reach of Gene-Culture Coevolution in Animals. Nature Communications. 10/2405, 2019. A premier team of bioecologists - HW, Kevin Laland, Luke Rendell, Rose Thorogood and Andrew Whiten – describe the creative interplay between genetic source codes and the common presence of behavioral groupings across aquatic, avian and mammalian species. See also Animal Learning as a Source of Developmental Bias by K. Laland, et al in Evolution & Development (e12311, 2019).

Culture (behaviour based on socially transmitted information) is present in diverse animal species, yet how it interacts with genetic evolution remains largely unexplored. Here, we review the evidence for gene–culture coevolution in animals, especially birds, cetaceans and primates. We describe how culture can relax or intensify selection under different circumstances, create new selection pressures by changing ecology or behaviour, and favour adaptations, including in other species. Finally, we illustrate how, through culturally mediated migration and assortative mating, culture can shape population genetic structure and diversity. This evidence suggests that animal culture plays an important coevolutionary role, in nature. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Nest > Homo Sapiens

Paabo, Svante. The Human Condition: A Molecular Approach. Cell. 157/216, 2014. As our Paleogenomics section cites, the MPI Evolutionary Anthropology geneticist and original sequencer of Neanderthal genomes describes how past lineages of homo sapiens are being wholly revised and sketched anew by such advanced genetic sequemce techniques.

Research into when and where modern humans originated and how they differ from, and interacted with, other now-extinct forms of human has so far been the realm of archaeologists and paleoanthropologists. However, over the past decade, molecular geneticists have begun to study genomes of extinct humans. Here, I discuss where we stand today with respect to understanding how modern humans came to differ from Neandertals and other human forms that existed until about 30,000 years ago.

Earth Life > Sentience > Brain Anatomy

Burger, Joseph, et al. Toward a Metabolic Theory of Life History. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116/26653, 2019. Evolutionary ecologists posted in North Carolina, Missouri and New Mexico (James Brown) can now proceed to visualize and discern broadly applicable patterns and processes across the vast species diorama that past decades have put together.

The life histories of animals reflect the allocation of metabolic energy to traits that determine fitness and the pace of living. Here, we extend metabolic theories to address how demography and mass–energy balance constrain biomass for survival, growth, and reproduction over a life cycle of one generation. Evolution has generated enormous diversity of body sizes, morphologies, physiologies, ecologies, and life histories across the millions of animal, plant, and microbe species, yet simple rules specified by general equations highlight the underlying unity of life. (Abstract excerpt)

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