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Displaying entries 16 through 30 of 120 found.
Animate Cosmos > Information > Quant Info
Bessmertny, Igor, et al.
Applying the Bellís Test to Chinese Texts.
Hangzho Dianzi University, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, and Beijing Institute of Technology computer scientists propose a parallel between Chinese ideograms and quantum phenomena, suggestive of another way to perceive an innately literate universal reality.
Search engines are able to find documents containing patterns of alphabetic languages such as English. However, Chinese script is highly dependent on context. The problem of Chinese processing is the missing blanks between words, so it is necessary to segment the text to words. As the existing segmentation algorithms are imperfect, we have considered an approach to build the context from all possible n-grams surrounding words. This paper proposes a quantum-inspired method to rank Chinese text documents which uses Bellís test to measure the entanglement of two words within the context. The contexts of words are built using the hyperspace analogue to language (HAL) algorithm. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Information > Quant Info
Signorelli, Camilo and Xerxes Arsiwalla.
Moral Dilemmas for Artificial Intelligence: An Application of Compositional Quantum Cognition.
As signs of a general intelligence become evident across natureís universe to human developmental course, Oxford University, Cognitive Neuroimaging Lab researchers then scope out ways to better understand and appreciate so as to gain and maintain an ethical guidance.
Traditionally, the way one evaluates the performance of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system is via a comparison to human performance in specific tasks. However, these tests leave out important features of human intelligence: the capability to transfer knowledge and make complex decisions based on emotional and rational reasoning. These decisions are influenced by current inferences as well as prior experiences, making the decision process subjective and apparently biased. In this context, a definition of compositional intelligence is necessary to incorporate these features in future AI work. Here, a viable description will be suggested from recent developments in quantum cognition, natural language and compositional meaning of sentences. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics
Beck, Christian, et al.
Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics, Superstatistics and Beyond: Theory and Applications in Astrophysical and Complex Systems.
European Physical Journal Special Topics.
Six co-editors with posts in the UK, Italy, Spain, Austria, the USA, Turkey, and Brazil including Constantine Tsallis, founder of this broadly thermodynamic school, introduce a special issue with this title. Typical papers are Solutions to Network Diffusion Equation with Power-nonlinearity, and Dynamical Nonextensivity,
Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm
Shah, Ruhi and Jonathan Gorard.
Quantum Cellular Automata, Black Hole Thermodynamics and the Laws of Quantum Complexity.
We cite this paper by University of Waterloo, Canada and Cambridge University theorists to illustrate the degree to mathematical sophistication that is now being readily applied to all manner of quantum and cosmic phenomena by our instant, collective human cerebral acumen.
This paper introduces a new formalism for quantum cellular automata (QCAs), based on evolving tensor products of qubits using local unitary operators. It then validates several conjectures stemming from a formal analogy between quantum computational complexity theory and classical thermodynamics that have arisen in the context of black hole physics. Finally, a rigorous explanation for this empirical relationship is provided by drawing an explicit connection with the mean ergodic theorem, and the ergodicity of k-local quantum systems. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat
Wagner, Nathaniel, et al.
Open Prebiotic Environments Drive Emergent Phenomena and Complex Behavior.
Ben-Gurion University, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, and Williams College, MA researchers including Gonen Ashkenasy advance understandings of how intrinsic network topologies played a prime generative role to faciliatate the comings together of biomolecules on their way to evolution and us.
We have been studying simple prebiotic catalytic replicating networks as prototypes for modeling replication, complexification and Systems Chemistry. While living systems are always open and function far from equilibrium, these prebiotic networks may be open or closed, dynamic or static, divergent or convergent to a steady state. In this paper we review the properties of simple replicating networks, and show, via four working models, how even though closed systems exhibit a wide range of emergent phenomena, many of the more interesting phenomena leading to complexification and emergence indeed require open systems. (Abstract)
Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat
Xavier, Joana, et al.
Autocatalytic Chemical Networks at the Origin of Metabolism.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
Early evolution theorists posted in Germany, Austria, the USA, New Zealand and Portugal including Stuart Kauffman continue to highlight the intrinsic significance of natureís self-activation propensity to get life going. A graphic image of a global oxygen-independent prokaryotic metabolism displays many instances where biochemical catalysts are in effect. Might we at some point gain a wider appreciation of a autocatalytic ecosmos which organizes itself at each scale? Are we peoples now the intended selves as cosmic catalysts to begin its future genesis phase by our own initiative the next step by our own initiative?
Modern cells embody metabolic networks containing thousands of elements and form autocatalytic sets of molecules that produce copies of themselves. How these self-sustaining networks arose at life's origin is an open question. Here we identify reflexively autocatalytic food-generated networks (RAFs) as self-sustaining networks that collectively catalyse all their reaction. Our studies suggest that RAFs identify attributes of biochemical origins conserved in metabolic networks. RAFs are consistent with an autotrophic origin of metabolism and indicate that autocatalytic chemical networks preceded proteins and RNA in evolution. RAFs uncover intermediate stages in the emergence of metabolic networks, narrowing the gaps between early Earth chemistry and life. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Fractal
Einasto, Jaan, et al.
On Fractal Properties of the Cosmic Web.
When scientific research began to shift to a worldwide collaboration in the early 2000s, this section could only document sparse inklings of reliable geometric patterns as they suffuse the celestial raiment. Here and now, Tartu Observatory, Estonia astrophysicists quantify in much mathematical detail their presence at every self-similar instance and scale. See also Evolution of Superclusters in the Cosmic Web by this group at 1901.09378. Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei would be gratified. Our natural philoSophia view may finally be encountering and verifying the vital, recursive structurations that are there on their intrinsic own.
Animate Cosmos > Fractal
Maeder, Andre and Vesselio Gueorguiev.
Scale-Invariant Dynamics of Galaxies, MOND, Dark Matter and Dwarf Spheriodals.
Geneva Observatory and Institute for Advanced Physical Studies, Sofia astrophysicists report further evidence for natureís pervasive celestial self-similarity. In regard, when we first posted this section in the early 2000s, a detection of any fractal forms in space was spurious and patchy. At this new 2020 decade dawns, their presence in every feature across the spatial raiment and its temporal course are now well proven. By a natural philoSophia, might we contemplate where do these ordained, non-random mathematical regularities come from. Might we wonder and as whatever reality put them there in the first place.
The Scale-Invariant Vacuum (SIV) theory is based on (Herman) Weyl's Integrable Geometry, endowed with a gauge scalar field. The main difference between MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) and the SIV theory is that the first considers a global invariance of space and time, where the scale factor λ is constant, while the second considers λ as a function of time. The SIV theory shows an excellent agreement with observations and with MOND for baryonic gravities. These results support the view that there is no need for dark matter and that the RAR (Radial Acceleration Relation) and dynamical galaxies can be interpreted by a modification of gravitation. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology
A Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy is a term in astronomy applied to small, low-luminosity galaxies with very little dust and an older stellar population. They are found in the Local Group as companions to the Milky Way and to the Andromeda Galaxy. (Wikipedia)
Gusten, Rolf, et al.
Astrophysical Detection of the Helium Hydride Ion HeH+.
MPI Radioastronomy and University of Cologne scientists report their novel findings of what is considered to be the earliest molecular form of cosmic nucleosynthesis. A popular article all about is First Molecule in the Universe by Ryan Fortenberry in Scientific American for February 2020.
During the dawn of chemistry, when the temperature of the young Universe had fallen below some 4,000 Kelvin, the ions of the light elements produced in Big Bang nucleosynthesis recombined in reverse order of their ionization potential. With their higher ionization potentials, the helium ions He2+ and He+ were the first to combine with free electrons, forming the first neutral atoms; the recombination of hydrogen followed. In this metal-free and low-density environment, neutral helium atoms formed the Universeís first molecular bond in the helium hydride ion HeH+ through radiative association with protons.
Animate Cosmos > exoearths
Adams, Fred, et al.
Energy Optimization in Extrasolar Planetary Systems.
The growing flow of research findings about a planet forming ecosmos now allows University of Michigan, CalTech and Yale University astrophysicists to observe and develop a sense of the role and importance of an energetic factor.
Motivated by the trends found in the observed sample of extrasolar planets, this paper determines tidal equilibrium states for forming planetary systems which are subject to conservation of angular momentum, constant total mass, and fixed orbital spacing. The present treatment generalizes previous results by including the self-gravity of the planetary bodies. For systems with sufficiently large total mass in planets, the optimized energy state switches over from the case of nearly equal mass planets to a configuration where one planet contains most of the material. These considerations of energy optimization apply over a wide range of mass scales, from binary stars to planetary systems to the collection of moons orbiting the giant planets in our solar system. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > exoearths
Gilbert, Gregory and Daniel Fabrycky.
An Information Theoretic Framework for Classifying Exoplanetary System Architectures.
University of Chicago astronomers contribute to a growing sense that planetary arrays can be seen to exhibit innate mathematic patterns and regularities. By a novel application of nonlinear dynamics it is proposed that a sunny star with its orbital members could make up an active, composite system. Rather than looking at individual globes, the full orrery gains priority as a basic unit. In so doing they pose algorithmic, deterministic and aggregate modes of complexity drawn from disparate areas such as bird flocking, epidemic spreading, and message transmission. As this infinite frontier beckons, it would be a grand resolve of inklings from Kepler to Hubble that visible, audible harmonics and rhythms grace the celestial heavens.
We propose descriptive measures to characterize the arrangements of planetary masses, periods, and mutual inclinations within exoplanetary systems. They are based in complexity theory so to discern global, system-level trends of each architecture. Our approach considers all planets in a system simultaneously, facilitating both intra-system and inter-system analysis. We find that Kepler's high-multiplicity systems can be explained if most systems belong to a single intrinsic population. We confirm prior findings that planets within a system tend to be roughly the same size and coplanar. We apply this classification scheme to (1) quantify the similarity between systems, (2) resolve observational biases from physical trends, and (3) identify which systems to search for additional planets and where to look for these planets. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > exoearths
We look forward to putting the Solar System in a wider context - not only with regard to its planets system but also in relation to its giant moon systems. Our method provides a statistical target for planet formation models, no longer requiring the tuning of models to match just one system, e.g., the Solar System, TRAPPIST-1, or some other peculiar system of interest. Just as Galileo used the Jovian satellite system as a conceptual model for the Copernican Solar System, by looking at a much larger sample of exoplanetary systems, we can begin to see the system-level trends and whether such an identification has strong foundations. (17)
Raymond, Sean and Alessandro Morbidelli.
Planet Formation: Key Mechanisms and Global Models.
As global capabilities to explore and quantify a increasing array of eclectic orbital worlds and to reconstruct how they came to form, veteran astrophysicists (search) at the University of Bordeaux and the Cote díAzur Observatory, Nice post a 103 page, 372 reference copious paper upon the latest findings. It opens with a graphic about Earth and Jupiter which cites dust coagulation, pebble accretion, planetismals, giant impacts, moon making and more and goes on about the masses and orbits of super-Earths, cosmo-chemical growth factors, asteroid compositions, and every other aspect. An impression grows of how wildly stochastic the long, dramatic course of solar systems actually is, which then highlights our own Earth whence a collaborative species is able to achieve its consciously perceived description.
In order to make sense of the origin of the planets we must first understand the origin of their building blocks. The first part presents a detailed description of six key mechanisms of planet formation: 1) The structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, 2) The formation of planetesimals, 3) Accretion of protoplanets, 4) Orbital migration of growing planets, 5) Gas accretion and giant planet migration, and 6) Resonance trapping during planet migration. The second part of this review shows how global models are built out of planet formation processes by explaining different populations of known planetary systems, including close-in small/low-mass planets (i.e., super-Earths), giant exoplanets, and the Solar System's planets. We discuss the different sources of water on rocky exoplanets, and use cosmochemical measurements to quantify the origin of Earth's water. (Abstract excerpt)
Animate Cosmos > exoearths
Vedantham, H. K., et al.
Coherent Radio Emission from a Quiescent Red Dwarf Indicative of Star-Planet Interaction.
We cite this entry by fourteen astronomers from the Netherlands, France, the USA, Scotland, Germany, and Ireland to record how a sunny star and its orbital worlds altogether compose a dynamic system as if, to take license, as a solar incubator.
Plamen Ch. Ivanov website.
We cite this home page of the Bulgarian-American, Boston University research professor as an example of the creative, worldwide frontiers of nonlinear, self-organizing complex network theories. From this site, the Keck Laboratory for Network Physiology which Ivanov directs, can be accessed with its rich array of projects, people, and publications. A recent contribution is the discovery of non-equilibrium critical dynamics in bursts of cortical dynamics in sleep/wake cycles (search for 2019 paper). His collegial research across a wide range from condensed matter to cardiac, neural, somatic onto societies well attests to natureís universally recurrent manifestation of the same mathematical dynamics everywhere.
My research group has introduced several innovative approaches to analyze physiologic data by adapting concepts from modern statistical physics, nonlinear dynamics, and applied mathematics. These methods have been successfully applied to cardiac, respiratory, locomotion, and brain systems, along with sleep-stage transitions and circadian rhythms. Those data-driven approaches enabled us to discover basic laws of physiologic regulation of individual systems whose results were published in leading journals such as Nature, PNAS and Physical Review Letters. Our overall research objective is to develop a new interdisciplinary field, Network Physiology, integrating efforts across statistical and computational physics, biomedical engineering, human physiology, and medicine.
Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire, et al.
Quantitative Immunology for Physicists.
Veteran complexity theorists G A-B, National Cancer Institute, USA, with Thierry Mora Aleksandra Walczak, CNRS Sorbonne University, Paris post a 70 page tutorial which reviews the latest perceptions of this important biological process. It then shows how much the immune system has become understood as another vital manifestation of natureís universal complexities. Some sections are Ligand-Receptor Interaction, Antigen Diiscrimination, Cel to Cell Communication, and Populations Dynamics of Pathogens and Hosts.
The adaptive immune system is a dynamical, self-organized multiscale system that protects vertebrates from both pathogens and internal irregularities, such as tumours. For these reason it fascinates physicists, yet the multitude of different cells, molecules and sub-systems is often also petrifying. Despite this complexity, as experiments on different scales of the adaptive immune system become more quantitative, many physicists have made both theoretical and experimental contributions that help predict the behaviour of ensembles of cells and molecules that participate in an immune response. Here we review some recent contributions with an emphasis on quantitative questions and methodologies. We also provide a more general methods section that presents some of the wide array of theoretical tools used in the field. (Abstract)