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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 61 through 75 of 80 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Sentience

Crespi, Brnard. Pattern Unifies Autism. Frontiers in Psychiatry. Fenruary, 2021. The Simon Fraser University, Canada clinical biopsychologist (search) has sketched a mental spectrum from this malady that can only view dots without connections (unable to relate to anyone) all the way to schizophrenia whence only patterns exist, often not there. Human awareness, or lack thereof, is thus due to varying degrees of “perception, recognition, maintenance, generation, seeking, and processing,” As a way to appreciate, it occurred that one might apply this range to public propensities from anarchy to individualism, egalitarian, authoritarian and totalitarian conditions. The USA is grievously beset by divides and disunity, unable to connect dots. Russia is now in ruins because its leader is obsessed with and acting upon senseless scenarios. In regard, historian Thomas Piketty(search) lately recommends a Participatory Socialism so that peoples might converge on a middle reciprocal balance.

Autism is a highly heterogeneous condition, genetically and phenotypically. These diverse causes and influences have impeded its definition, recognition, assessment, and treatment. Current autism criteria involve restricted interests, repetitive behavior (RRBs) and social deficits. I suggest that this suite of autistic traits, and more can be grouped under the single rubric of “pattern,” a term that involves consistent brain and cognitive functions. RRBs result from decreased and imbalanced pattern-related perceptions, and consequent social deficits from aberrant connections and imagery.

Earth Life > Sentience > Brain Anatomy

Callier, Vivianne. Brain-Signal Proteins Evolved before Animals Did. Quanta. June 3, 2022. Neuropeptide Signaling by Yanez-Guerra, Luis, et al in Molecular Biology and Evolution (39/4, 2022) which indicate that an ancestral choanoflagellate microbe made proteins that were later repurposed by the nervous systems of the first animals. (See also A Newfound Source of Cellular Order in the Chemistry of Life by VC herein on January 7, 2021.) So once more a gestation-like continuity can be quantified and traced all the way nack to life’s earliest cognizant advent.

Our human brains can seem like a crowning achievement of evolution, but their roots run deep. The modern brain arose from many millions of years of incremental advances in complexity which has been traced through the branch of the animal family tree that includes creatures with central nervous systems, the bilaterians. However it is now becoming clear that basic neural elements existed much earlier. This has been made evident by researchers at the University of Exeter who found that the chemical precursors of important neurotransmitters, or signaling molecules appear in the major animal groups that preceded central nervous systems. (V. Callier)

Earth Life > Sentience > Brain Anatomy

Watanabe, Shigeru, et al, eds. Evolution of the Brain, Cognition, and Emotion in Vertebrates. International: Springer, 2017. Senior editors SW (Japan), Michel Hofman, (Netherlands) and Toru Shimizu (Florida) provide a wide-ranging survey to date as our own nascent worldwide sapiensphere proceeds to reconstruct and quantify the long course of cerebral and cognitive emergence that gave rise to this global faculty. See for example The Origins of the Bird Brain (Toru Shimizu, et al) The Evolution of Mammalian Brains (Jon Kaas), The Evolution of Cognitive Brains in Non-mammals (Andrew Iwaniuk) On the Matter of Mind (Michel Hofman) and Integration Hypothesis: A Parallel Model of Language Development (Shigeru Miyagawa).

This book presents a new view on the evolution of the brain, cognition, and emotion. Some 50 years ago, Harry Jerison published Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence which scoped out studies on these topics. Herein we offer a collection of work to date by way of many new insights and understandings. In regard, it focuses on three prime aspects: an integrated approach called evolutionary developmental biology or Evo/Devo; much new information about the brains of diverse animal groups; and behavioral studies which demonstrate that cognition and emotion can be found found in many non-primate and even non-mammalian species.

Earth Life > Sentience > Animal Intelligence

Bialek, William. On the Dimensionality of Behavior. PNAS. 119/18, 2022. The veteran Princeton systems physicist (search) posts his contribution to an April 2020 virtual Physics of Behavior Workshop. From the quotes one might get a sense of some imminent synthesis between life and laws, if we might ever be able to fully allow and perceive this animate revolution.

There is a growing effort in the “physics of behavior” that aims at complete quantitative characterization of animal movements under more complex, naturalistic conditions. One reaction to the volumes of high-dimensional data is the search for low-dimensional structure. Here I try to define more clearly what we mean by the dimensionality of behavior, where observable behavior may consist of either continuous trajectories or sequences of discrete states. (Abstract excerpt)

The explosion of quantitative data on animal behavior is exciting because these essentially macroscopic behaviors — rather than microscopic mechanisms — are what first strike us as being interesting about living systems. Behaviors have been selected by evolution for their utility, and as we observe them it is difficult not to think of them as purposeful or intelligent. Understanding the phenomena of life means explaining how these behaviors arise, ultimately from interactions among molecules that obey the same laws of physics as in inanimate (and unintelligent) matter. (5)

Our Earthuman Ascent: A Major Evolutionary Transition in Individuality

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Somatic

Crespi, Bernard. Pattern Unifies Autism. Frontiers in Psychiatry. February, 2021. The Simon Fraser University, Canada clinical biopsychologist has previously sketched (search) a mental spectrum from this malady that only views dots without connections (unable to relate to anyone) all the way to schizophrenia whence only patterns exist, often misread or not there. Here is it contended that our relative aware sentience can be equated with varying degrees of “perception, recognition, maintenance, generation, seeking, and processing” of certain images, or a lack thereof.

As another way to appreciate, it occurred that one might apply this range to public proclivities from anarchy to individualism, fair egalitarian, authoritarian and totalitarian conditions. The USA is grievously beset by divides and disunity, unable to connect anything. Russia is now in ruins because its leader is obsessed with and acting upon erroneous, senseless scenarios. In regard, historian Thomas Piketty (search) lately recommends a “Participatory Socialism” so that peoples might converge on a viable. middle-way, reciprocal balance. But we again ask, however might these sane findings ever reach, inform and save a world for children.

Autism is a highly heterogeneous condition, genetically and phenotypically. These diverse causes and influences have impeded its definition, recognition, assessment, and treatment. Current autism criteria involve restricted interests, repetitive behavior (RRBs) and social deficits. I suggest that this suite of autistic traits, and more can be grouped under the single rubric of “pattern,” a term that involves consistent brain and cognitive functions. RRBs result from decreased and imbalanced pattern-related perceptions, and consequent social deficits from aberrant connections and imagery. (excerpt)

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Liang, Junhao and Changsong Zhou. Criticality Enhances the Multilevel Reliability of Stimulus Responses in Cortical Neural Networks. PLOS Computational Biology.. January, 2022. We cite this entry by Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore, Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems researchers for one more notice of nature’s prime preference to seek and reside at an optimum balance between two opposite but reciprocal states. Our especial is a tendency toward Chimera-like active or static modes.

The complexity of dynamical brain activity ranges from neuronal spiking and neural avalanches to oscillatory potentials of local circuits across many states. Such multilevel variables are functionally and behaviorally relevant. To better clarify, we study the stimulus–response of neural circuits. Our model assumes excitation–inhibition (E–I) interactions and synaptic couplings with a critical sub-region. We further analyze the nonlinear dynamical principles using a novel and a broadly applicable mean-field theory. (Summary excerpt)

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Wilkerson, Galen, et al. Spontaneous Emergence of Computation in Network Cascades. arXiv:2204.11956.. Senior complexity scholars GW and Henrik Jensen, Imperial College London and Sotiris Moschoyiannia, University of Surrey, UK post a theoretical exercise as they join a growing endeavor to model an apparent procreative genesis with an innate propensity to form and process an informational essence. A retrospect survey of 44 references from A. Turing, J. A. Wheeler and S. Wolfram to this worldwise phase quite evinces how the past decades have been a long encounter with a radical reality which seems to be trying to quantify and express itself. That is to say, so to achieve its own internal, quantified self-description and observant recognition.

Computation by neuronal networks and by avalanche supporting networks are of interest to the fields of physics, computer science as well as machine learning. Here we show that computations of complex Boolean functions arise spontaneously in threshold networks as a function of connectivity and inhibition via logic automata (motifs) in the form of computational cascades. We also show that the optimal fraction of inhibition observed supports results in neuroscience, relating to optimal information processing. (Excerpt)

A somewhat surprising initial result in this investigation is that complex functions on inputs emerge spontaneously and seemingly inevitably as threshold networks are connected at random. (2)

The relationship between physical systems and information has been of increasing and compelling interest in the domains of physics, neuroscience, computer science, quantum computing, and other fields such as computation in social networks, or biology to the point where some consider information to be a fundamental phenomenon in the universe. Often, physical systems operating on information take place on, or can be modeled by, network activity, since information is transmitted and processed by interactions between physical entities. (2)

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Zimmern, Vincent. Why Brain Criticality is Clinically Revelant. Frontiers in Neural Circuits. August, 2020. A UT Southwestern Medical Center child neurologist provides an actual survey of the palliative implications of this by now accepted, phenomenal condition whence our brains seek and become poised at this optimum dynamic state.

The past 25 years have seen increased number of publications related to criticality in neuroscience. But recent writings on this topic make brief mention of clinical applications to such disorders as epilepsy, neurodegenerative disease, neonatal hypoxia, along with sleep issues and developmental-behavioral pediatrics. In this scoping review, studies of brain criticality involving human data of all ages are evaluated for their clinical relevance. In regard, the prime concepts behind criticality (e.g., phase transitions, long-range temporal correlation, self-organized criticality, power laws, branching processes) will precede their neurological occasion. (Excerpt)

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Conscious Knowledge

Blum, Lenore and Manual. A Theory of Consciousness from a Theoretical Computer Science Perspective. PNAS. 119/21, 2022. This esteemed octogenarian wife and husband team are Career Professors at Carnegie Mellon University. In this paper they press onward with their project to integrate novel computational advances with growing neuroscience realizations that cerebral geometries and cognitive procedures can actually serve the vital presence of knowing awareness.

This paper views consciousness from the perspective of theoretical computer science (TCS), a branch of mathematics concerned with the underlying principles of computation and complexity. We propose a formal TCS model, namely the Conscious Turing Machine (CTM) from Alan Turing's iconic model of computation, along with the global workspace theory (GWT) from the cognitive neuroscientist Bernard Baars and furthered by Stanislas Dehaene, Jean-Pierre Changeux, George Mashour, and others. Explanations derived from the model draw confirmation from consistencies at a high level, well above the level of neurons, with the cognitive neuroscience literature. (Abstract excerpt)

wumanomics > Integral Persons > Conscious Knowledge

Hafemann, Annika, et al. Intrinsic Timescales of Spiking Activity in Humans during Wakefullness and Sleep. arXiv:2205.10308. An eight person team at the MPI Dynamics and Self-Organization, and Universities of Bonn, Georg-August, and Gottingen including Viola Priesemann proceed to accord and bolster this information integrity hypothesis with an array of finely-finessed neurological measurements.

Information processing in the brain requires an integration of information over time. This ability can be achieved if signals are kept for a required period. While short timescales are beneficial for fast responses to stimuli, longer stays aid information storage and integration. We found extended and diverse durations ranging from tens to hundreds of milliseconds. Notably, timescales differed between sleep stages and were longest during slow wave sleep. This supports the view that these moments are a central mechanism that tune networks to the requirements of different tasks and cognitive states (Abstract)

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology

Carbone, Anna, et al. Atlas of Urban Scaling Laws. Journal of Physics: Complexity. June, 2022. Four Polytechnical University of Torino physicists provide a substantial proof to date that nature’s nested self-similar patternings which are now found to grace every other instance likewise play a formative role even for large metropolitan cities. One might note that a current ability to use sophisticated aerial images could be seen as a present whole Earthropocene learning process so as to quantify, vivify, and make better.

Accurate estimates of an urban fractal dimension are obtained by way of a detrended moving average algorithm on high-resolution multi-spectral satellite images from the WorldView2 (WV2) database covering the major European cities. Highly sensitive and repeatable satellite records yield robust local estimates of the urban scaling exponents. Our work discusses how to discriminate among different scaling theories on the way to a more formal adoption of the complex system science methods to urban landscape analysis and planning. (Abstract excerpt)

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology

Domingues, Guilherme, et al. City Motifs as Revealed by Similarity between Hierarchical Features. arXiv:2204.09104. University of Sao Paulo system theorists contribute a comprehensive report to date of common, nested, network topologies across every scale and occasion. The same pattern and process repeats in kind everywhere as it arises from an independent, informative, genotype-like source. Once again in this year (see Nuno Araujo, et al), a robust realization of nature’s ecosmic universalities is achieved.

See also from this group The Universality in Urban Commuting Across and Within Cities by Lei Dong, et al at 2204.12865, A Similarity Approach to Cities and Features by L. Da Costa, Luciano and Eric Tokuda at 2202.08301 and search names on this preprint site.

Several natural and theoretical networks can be broken down into smaller portions, or subgraphs corresponding to neighborhoods. The more frequent of these neighborhoods can be understood as evident motifs, they can serve to provide a better understanding of their overall structures. (Excerpt)

wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology

Portugali, Juval, ed. Handbook on Cities and Complexity. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2022. The Tel Aviv University systems geographer (search) edits an integral volume to date about how these revolutionary nonlinear network advances can result in deeper perceptions of small and large human habitations. It’s Elgar Online website has Portugali’s opening chapters in full along with chapter abstracts such as City Systems and Complexity by Michael Batty, Synergistic Cities by JP and Hermann Haken, Coevolution as the Secret of Urban Complexity (Denise Pumain, search) and Major Transitions in the Story of Urban Complexity by Stephen Marshall and Nick Green. The collection goes on to an essay by Christopher Alexander, how language gets involved and Design Planning.

Written by some of the founders of complexity theory and complexity theories of cities (CTC), this Handbook expertly guides the reader through over forty years of intertwined developments: the emergence of general theories of complex self-organized systems and the consequent emergence of CTC. (Publisher)

Earth Earn: Our Open Participatory Earthropocene to Ecosmocene Futurity

Ecosmo Sapiens > Old World > anthropocene

Shoshitaishvili, Boris. Is Our Planet Doubly Alive: Gaia, Globalization and Anthropocene Planetary Superorganisms. Anthropocene Review. April, 2022. A UC Berkeley philosophical linguist (search) continues to consider if some manner of worldwide speciesphere entity might be actually coming into its manifest formation. In this case, dual aspects of a Gaian biosphere and a human noosphere are broadly conceived. See also Economics for the Future: Beyond the Superorganism by Nate Hagens in Ecological Economics (169, 2020).

The theory of the superorganism—that there exist composite forms of life above the multicellular organism—has been part of scientific speculation since the late 1800s. The planetary version of a superorganic entity has developed in two different forms, the ecological form of Gaia theory and the sociological form of a worldwide humankind. In this article, I summarize the parallel histories of these biological and civilizational versions, consider the relationships of the two coexisting planetary superorganisms, and reflect on how this theory recasts the global environmental challenges of the Anthropocene. (Abstract)

Ecosmo Sapiens > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Slattery, Oliver and Yong-Su Kim. Teleportation beyond Network Neighbors. Mature. 605/624, 2022. NIST, Maryland and Korea Institute of Science quantum researchers review a Qubit Teleportation Between Non-Neighboring Nodes in a Quantum Network paper by S. Hermans, et al in this issue (605/624) about a breakthrough which could facilitate a practical, efficient Quantum Internet (see Abstract below). See also a New York Times science report (May25) “Quantum Internet” Inches Closer With Advance in Data Teleportation.

Future quantum internet applications will need an ability to share information across the network. Quantum teleportation methods promises a reliable transfer between distant nodes. But moving beyond directly connected nodes been hindered by the pre-shared remote entanglement, joint qubit readout and coherence times. Here we realize quantum teleportation between remote, non-neighbouring nodes enabled by key innovations in the qubit readout procedure, active memory qubit protection and a reduction of remote entanglement. Our work provides a prime building block for future quantum networks and teleportation-based multi-node protocols and applications. (Hermans excerpt)

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