(logo) Natural Genesis (logo text)
A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
Table of Contents
Introduction
Genesis Vision
Learning Planet
Organic Universe
Earth Life Emerge
Genesis Future
Glossary
Recent Additions
Search
Submit

Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 76 through 90 of 94 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Conscious Knowledge

Zanardi, Paolo, et al. Towards Quantum Integrated Information Theory. arXiv:1806.01421. As this IIT model gains veracity and broad acceptance, we note this certain entry because these USC physicists pursue its application to and synthesis with quantum phenomena as it lately becomes reconceived (see Quantum Organics) as a complex network system akin to all other “classical” phases.

Integrated Information Theory (IIT) has emerged as one of the leading research lines in computational neuroscience to provide a mechanistic and mathematically well-defined description of the neural correlates of consciousness. Integrated Information (Φ) quantifies how much the integrated cause/effect structure of the global neural network fails to be accounted for by any partitioned version of it. The holistic IIT approach is in principle applicable to any information-processing dynamical network regardless of its interpretation in the context of consciousness. In this paper we take the first steps towards a formulation of a general and consistent version of IIT for interacting networks of quantum systems. (Abstract)

The main goal of classical Integrated Information Theory (IIT) is to provide a mathematical and conceptual framework to study the neural correlates of consciousness. In this paper we took the first steps towards a possible quantum version of IIT. Our approach is a quantum information-theoretic one, in which neural networks are being replaced by networks of qudits, probability distributions by non-commutative density matrices, and markov processes by completely positive maps. The irreducible cause/effect structure of the global network is encoded by a so-called conceptual structure operator. We have studied quantum effects in small qubit networks and provided examples, analytical and numerical, of families of low integration networks. (11)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Hall, Gavin and William Bialek. The Statistical Mechanics of Twitter. arXiv:1812.07029. As a global science proceeds on its electronic own, cross-informative networks are forming between widely separate fields. Here is an exemplary paper by Princeton University theorists which reports a connection in kind between webwide social chatter and physical dynamics. It is noted that this public verbose media tends to critical attractor modes. Once more across a broad stretch from uniVerse to usVerse, a common, recurrent, biterate conservation and discourse goes on. See also Searching for Collective Behavior in a Small Brain by W. Bialek and colleagues (1810.07623).

We build models for the distribution of social states in Twitter communities which can be defined by the participation vs. silence of individuals in conversations that surround key words. We approximate the joint distribution of these binary variables using the maximum entropy principle, finding the least structured models that match the mean probability of individuals tweeting and their pairwise correlations. These models provide accurate, quantitative descriptions of higher order structure in these social networks. The parameters of these models seem poised close to critical surfaces in the space of possible models, and we observe scaling behavior of the data under coarse-graining. These results suggest that simple models, grounded in statistical physics, may provide a useful point of view on the larger data sets now emerging from complex social systems. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Human Societies

Muthukrishna, Michael, et al. The Cultural Brain Hypothesis: How Culture Drives Brain Expansion, Sociality, and Life History. PLoS Computational Biology. November, 2018. London School of Economics, University of British Columbia, Arizona State University and Harvard University (Joseph Henrich) system anthropologists trace and verify the presence of a tandem interplay between human sociality, cerebral capacity, and a resultant common knowledge resource. Once again, as life and mind evolves and advances an oriented transitional ratcheting seems at work toward a more effective individual and group cognizance and viable survival.

In the last few million years, the hominin brain more than tripled in size. Comparisons across evolutionary lineages suggest that this may be part of a broader trend toward larger, more complex brains in many taxa. Efforts to understand the evolutionary forces driving brain size have focused on climatic, ecological, and social factors. Here, building on research on learning, we analytically and computationally model two closely related hypotheses: The Cultural Brain Hypothesis and the Cumulative Cultural Brain Hypothesis. The Cultural Brain Hypothesis posits that brains have been selected for their ability to store and manage information. The model reveals relationships between brain size, group size, innovation, social learning, mating structures, and the length of the juvenile period. We then derive the Cumulative Cultural Brain Hypothesis for the conditions that favor an autocatalytic take-off characteristic of human evolution. The resultant evolutionary pathway may help explain the rapid expansion of human brains and other aspects of our species’ life history and psychology. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Melgarejo, Miguel and Nelson Obregon. Information Dynamics in Urban Crime. Entropy. 20/11, 2018. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, and Pontifical Xaverian University, Bogota, Columbia scientists provide a novel systems analysis for this endemic scourge, particularly in their home country, and nations in both hemispheres. Our further interest is to recognize that by such studies, as long intimated, there exists a deeper, independent, mathematical fundament to our daily lives, which our chaotic personal and communal days and nights hold to and express. See also Netto, et al below, and Matjaz Perc elsewhere for similar views.

Information production in both space and time has been highlighted as a way to record the footprint of complexity in natural and socio-technical systems. However, its relation to urban crime has barely been studied. This work uses multifractal analysis to characterize the spatial information scaling in urban crime reports and nonlinear processing tools to study temporal behavior. Our results suggest that information scaling in urban crime exhibits dynamics that evolve in low-dimensional chaotic attractors, which can be observed in several spatio-temporal scales. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Netto, Vincius, et al. Cities, from Information to Interaction. Entropy. 20/11, 2018. By way of the latest complexity sciences, seven urban and ecosystem theorists from Brazil, Germany, and Switzerland scope out via a tandem synthesis of relative knowledge and social pattern and process. See also Melgarejo and Obregon above for another version whence a full contribution of scientific reason might so palliate and advise.

From physics to the social sciences, information is now seen as a fundamental component of reality. However, a form of information seems underestimated, that which is encoded in the very environment we live in. This paper addresses three related problems if we are to understand the role of environmental information: (1) the physical problem: how can we preserve information in the built environment? (2) The semantic problem: how do we make this information meaningful? and (3) the pragmatic problem: how do we use it in our daily lives? We introduce a three-layered model of information in cities, namely environmental information in physical space, in semantic space, and the information enacted by interacting agents. Our results suggest that ordered spatial structures and diverse land use patterns encode information, and that aspects of physical and semantic information coordinate interaction systems. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > major

Andersson, Claes and Petter Tornberg. Toward a Macroevolutionary Theory of Human Evolution: The Social Protocell. Biological Theory. Online December, 2018. Within a context of the major transitions in individuality scale, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden systems scholars achieve an overdue perception whereof societal groupings can take on a guise akin to life’s original protocells. As early hominins form symbiotic bands, they achieve adaptive internal reciprocities as cellular wholes within Wholes. A tacit principle is an emergent recurrence of the same pattern and process. In each case, a bounded unit leads which then fosters cooperation, knowledge gain and selfhood in community. By way of this nested procession, life’s rise accrues “new channels of inheritance” and an oriented direction. In regard, this website has been citing a “social protocell” for some time, especially in Ecovillages. See also Group-Level Social Knowledge by Elizabeth Hobson, et al at arXiv:1810.07215 and The Cultural Brain Hypothesis by Michael Muthukrishna et al in PLoS Computational Biology (Nov. 2018) for other takes.

Despite remarkable empirical and methodological advances, our theoretical understanding of the evolutionary processes that made us human remains fragmented and contentious. Here, we make the radical proposition that the cultural communities within which Homo emerged may be understood as a novel exotic form of organism. The argument begins from a deep congruence between robust features of Pan community life cycles and protocell models of the origins of life. We argue that if a cultural tradition, meeting certain requirements, arises in the context of such a “social protocell,” the outcome will be an evolutionary transition in individuality. By so doing, traditions and hominins coalesce into a macroscopic bio-socio-technical system, with an organismal organization that is culturally inherited. We refer to this hypothetical evolutionary individual as a “sociont.” We go on to hypothesize that the fate of the hominin would be mutualistic coadaptation into a part-whole relation with the sociont. (Abstract excerpt)

We also thereby move in the direction of unifying human evolution with the larger issue of major evolutionary transitions in natural history (MET). The dramatic evolutionary, ecological and environmental impact of the advent of Home sapiens hereby falls more squarely into the larger natural historical pattern of evolutionary disruptions resulting from bouts of innovation on this fundamental level. (2)

Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > Old Earth

Davenport, Coral and Kendra Pierre-Louis. U.S. Climate Report Warns of Damaged Environment and Shrinking Economy. New York Times. November 24, 2018. A front page headline about a penultimate document entitled the Fourth National Climate Assessment which details brute evidence from hurricanes in Florida and fires in California to every erratic weather event in between that an epic unmitigated peril is occurring in our midst. This is Volume II, after a 2107 Climate Science Special Report, as a mandated culmination of the Global Change Research Act of 1990. The 1500 page report, which can be accessed from this article, stresses that much more damage will be done to any economy by the longer it is denied and ignored. This large document appears concurrently with another noted in the November 2018 Nature Climate Change article by Camila Mora, et al herein.

Future > Old Earth

Mora, Camilo, et al.. Broad Threat to Humanity from Cumulative Climate Hazards Intensified by Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Nature Climate Change. November, 2018. A 23 person team mainly from the University of Hawaii with others in Sweden, the UK, Japan and the USA summarize an immense study of historic deleterious impacts upon some 100 food, water, health, economy, infrastructure, security concerns. See also “Like a Terror Movie:” How Climate Change Will Cause More Simultaneous Disasters about this study by John Schwartz in the New York Times for November 19.

The ongoing emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is triggering changes in many climate hazards that can impact humanity. We found traceable evidence for 467 pathways by which human health, water, food, economy, infrastructure and security have been recently impacted by climate hazards such as warming, heatwaves, precipitation, drought, floods, fires, storms, sea-level rise and changes in natural land cover and ocean chemistry. By 2100, the world’s population will be exposed concurrently to the equivalent of the largest magnitude in one of these hazards if emissions are aggressively reduced, or three if they are not, with some tropical coastal areas facing up to six simultaneous hazards. These findings highlight the fact that GHG emissions pose a broad threat to humanity by intensifying multiple hazards to which humanity is vulnerable.

Future > Old Earth > Climate

Fan, Jingfang, et al. Climate Network Percolation Reveals the Expansion and Weakening of the Tropical Component under Global Warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115/E12128, 2018. Senior scientists from Israel and Germany including Shlomo Havlin and Hans Schellnhuber provide a good example of how complex systems theory helps explain and predict regional and planetary weather. Here it is shown that presence of connected clusters in dynamic network structures from epidemics to magnetism can similarly characterize climatic phenomena, See also Percolation Framework to Describe El Nino Conditions by this group in Chaos (27/035807, 2017).

Senior scientists from Israel and Germany including Shlomo Havlin and Hans Schellnhuber provide a good example of how complex systems theory helps explain and predict regional and planetary weather. Here it is shown that presence of connected clusters in dynamic network structures from epidemics to magnetism can similarly characterize climatic phenomena, See also Percolation Framework to Describe El Nino Conditions by this group in Chaos (27/035807, 2017)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Jha, Dipendra, et al. ElemNet: Deep Learning the Chemistry of Materials from only Elemental Composition. Nature Scientific Reports. 8/17593, 2018. We add this entry by Northwestern University and University of Chicago researchers as an example going forward of how materials science from physical compounds to complex biochemicals are being treated as due to a mathematical program (aka genotype). In regard, they are also becoming amenable to analysis and design by cerebral, multi-layer network processes.

The field of computational molecular sciences (CMSs) has made innumerable contributions to the understanding of the molecular phenomena that underlie and control chemical processes, which is manifested in a large number of community software projects and codes. The CMS community is now poised to take the next transformative steps of better training in modern software design and engineering methods and tools, increasing interoperability through more systematic adoption of agreed upon standards and accepted best-practices, overcoming unnecessary redundancy in software effort. This in turn will have future impact on the software that will be created to address grand challenge science that we illustrate here: the formulation of diverse catalysts, descriptions of long-range charge and excitation transfer, and development of structural ensembles for intrinsically disordered proteins. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Krylov, Anna, et al. Perspective Computational Chemistry Software and its Advancement as Illustrated through Three Grand Challenge Cases for Molecular Science. Journal of Chemical Physics. 149/18, 2018. 15 scientists from California, Iowa, Texas, Virginia, New York, New Jersey, and Germany post another example of how our human co-creation of novel materials is taking on an organic form by way of an informative program at work. I was variously engaged in this field since the 1960s, so can appreciate how revolutionary this added “genotype” dimension is, which we are just beginning to appreciate. See also ElemNet: Deep Learning the Chemistry of Materials from only Elemental Composition by Dipendra Jha, et al herein for a similar entry.

15 scientists from California, Iowa, Texas, Virginia, New York, New Jersey, and Germany post another example of how our human co-creation of novel materials is taking on an organic form by way of an informative program at work. I was variously engaged in this field since the 1960s, so can appreciate how revolutionary this added “genotype” dimension is, which we are just beginning to appreciate. See also ElemNet: Deep Learning the Chemistry of Materials from only Elemental Composition by Dipendra Jha, et al herein for a similar entry.

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Prescott, Tony, et al, eds. Living Machines: A Handbook of Research in Biomimetics and Biohybrid Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. With a Preface by Terence Sejnowski, the 600+ page volume achieves a conceptual and practical entry to this evolitionary transition (aka Genesis 2.0) via our palliative and beneficial furtherance of nature’s dynamic biologic creativity. A first section reviews how Life self-organizes, reproduces, metabolizes, uses energy, evolves and develops, by way of active organic materials. Attributes such as vision, touch, chemosensation, and strength, along with movement, learning, control, decision making, voice and pattern recognition and more are discussed throughout. Some entries are Self-Organization by Stuart Wilson, Growth by Barbara Mazzolini, A General Theory of Evolution by Terence Deacon, Capabilities by Paul Verschure, Consciousness by Anil Seth, and Ethics by Hannah Maslen and Julian Savulescu.

harness the principles discovered in nature and embody them in new artifacts, and biohybrid systems, which couple biological entities with synthetic ones. Living Machines surveys this flourishing area of research such as self-organization and co-operativity, biologically-inspired active materials, self-assembly and self-repair, learning, memory, control architectures and self-regulation, locomotion in air, on land or in water, perception, cognition, control, and communication. In all of these areas, the potential of biomimetics is shown through the construction of a wide range of devices and animal-like robots. Biohybrid systems is relatively new but is likely to shape the future of humanity.

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Yang, Kevin, et al. Machine Learning in Protein Enginering. arXiv:1811.10775. Caltech biochemists including Frances Arnold, who co-received the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this breakthrough work, explain in tutorial fashion the agile utility and procreative promise of this novel computational method.

Machine learning-guided protein engineering is a new paradigm that enables the optimization of complex protein functions. Machine-learning methods use data to predict protein function without requiring a detailed model of the underlying physics or biological pathways. They accelerate protein engineering by learning from information contained in all measured variants and using it to select variants that are likely to be improved. In this review, we introduce the steps required to collect protein data, train machine-learning models, and use trained models to guide engineering. (Abstract)

Protein engineering seeks to design or discover proteins whose properties, useful for technological, scientific, or medical applications, have not been needed or optimized in nature. We can envision the mapping of protein sequence to a desired function or functions as a “fitness landscape” over the high-dimensional space of possible protein sequences. The fitness represents a protein’s performance: expression level, catalytic activity, or other properties of interest to the protein engineer. The landscape determines the range of properties available to different sequences as well as the ease with which they can be optimized. Protein engineering seeks to identify sequences corresponding to high fitnesses on these landscapes. (1)

Inspired by natural evolution, directed evolution climbs a fitness landscape by accumulating beneficial mutations in an iterative protocol of mutation and selection, as illustrated in Figure 1a. The first step is sequence diversification using techniques such as random mutagenesis, site-saturation mutagenesis, or recombination to generate a library of modified sequences starting from the parent sequence(s). The second step is screening or selection to identify variants with improved properties for the next round of diversification. The steps are repeated until fitness goals are achieved. (2)

Future > New Earth > democracy

Wiesner, Karoline, et al. Stability of Democracies: A Complex Systems Perspective. European Journal of Physics. 40/1, 2019. Ten systems scholars from the UK, Austria, USA, Ireland, and South Africa including Didier Sornette call attention to the current erosion of free, equitable, participatory societies. In regard, they scope out how new appreciations of innate, viable self-organizations might provide a natural source of effective guidance. But a further achievement of their integral comprehension by peoples and societies needs to occur.

The idea that democracy is under threat, after being largely dormant for at least 40 years, is looming increasingly large in public discourse. Complex systems theory offers a range of powerful new tools to analyse the stability of social institutions in general, and democracy in particular. What makes a democracy stable? And which processes potentially lead to instability of a democratic system? This paper offers a complex systems perspective on this question, informed by areas of the mathematical, natural, and social sciences. We explain the meaning of the term 'stability' in different disciplines and discuss how laws, rules, and regulations, but also norms, conventions, and expectations are decisive for the stability of a social institution such as democracy. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Viable Gaia

Saravia, Leonardo, et al. Power Laws and Critical Fragmentation in Global Forests. Nature Scientific Reports. 8/17766, 2018. We cite this entry by Argentine and American researchers for its sophisticated quantification (97 references) of how ecosystem dynamics reach tipping points between stable viability or a disorganized, perilous condition. Another implication would be the active presence of an independent mathematical, geometric formative source in effect, which is a crucial realization we have not yet collectively made.

The replacement of forest areas with human-dominated landscapes usually leads to fragmentation, altering the structure and function of the forest. Here we studied the dynamics of forest patch sizes at a global level, examining signals of a critical transition from an unfragmented to a fragmented state, using the MODIS vegetation continuous field. We defined wide regions of connected forest across continents and big islands, and combined five criteria, including the distribution of patch sizes and the fluctuations of the largest patch over the last sixteen years, to evaluate the closeness of each region to a fragmentation threshold. Regions with the highest deforestation rates – South America, Southeast Asia, Africa – all met these criteria and may thus be near a critical threshold. (Abstract)

Previous   1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7  Next