VII. Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens
1. Mind Over Matter: A Quantum, Atomic, Chemical Materiality
Krylov, Anna, et al. Perspective Computational Chemistry Software and its Advancement as Illustrated through Three Grand Challenge Cases for Molecular Science. Journal of Chemical Physics. 149/18, 2018. 15 scientists from California, Iowa, Texas, Virginia, New York, New Jersey, and Germany post another example of how our human co-creation of novel materials is taking on an organic form by way of an informative program at work. I was variously engaged in this field since the 1960s, so can appreciate how revolutionary this added “genotype” dimension is, which we are just beginning to appreciate. See also ElemNet: Deep Learning the Chemistry of Materials from only Elemental Composition by Dipendra Jha, et al herein for a similar entry.
15 scientists from California, Iowa, Texas, Virginia, New York, New Jersey, and Germany post another example of how our human co-creation of novel materials is taking on an organic form by way of an informative program at work. I was variously engaged in this field since the 1960s, so can appreciate how revolutionary this added “genotype” dimension is, which we are just beginning to appreciate. See also ElemNet: Deep Learning the Chemistry of Materials from only Elemental Composition by Dipendra Jha, et al herein for a similar entry.
Kurizki, Gershon, et al. Quantum Technologies with Hybrid Systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112/3866, 2015. As the Abstract notes, a team of Israeli, French, Danish, Greek, and Austrian researchers seek to initiate a new phase of the human intentional continuance and future manifestation of a natural genesis universe. For another instance, see A Universal Quantum Information Processor by Xihua Yang, et al in Nature Scientific Reports (4/6629, 2014).
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. (Abstract)
Kurzweil, Ray. The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. New York: Viking, 2005. The long awaited opus from the polymath inventor and computer wizard offers one man’s interpretation of life’s evolution about to be taken over from its human phase by a logarithmically accelerating technology. Kurzweil does perceive a six-stage cosmic evolution of physics and chemistry, biology, brains, technology, its merger with human intelligence and onto “the universe wakes up” as patterns of matter and energy become saturated with information. In this expanse, a knowing sentience emerges to collective self-cognizance, at which point it begins to “reverse engineer” and create anew the material nature, body, mind and society from which it arose. By this vista, life is seen to evolve toward greater complexity, elegance, knowledge, beauty, creativity, and “subtle attributes such as love.” Such a course then moves inexorably toward traditional conceptions of Divinity. At once a grand synthesis of emergent, progressive intellect, but heavy on robotics and artificial nanotechnologies and in need of a leavening empathy. Rather than machines rule, it is informed, humanist mind that takes over matter to intentionally begin a much better personal creation.
It was the fate of bacteria to evolve into a technology-creating species. And it’s our destiny now to evolve into the vast intelligence of the Singularity. (298) We can build and are already building “machines” that have powers far greater than the sum of their parts by combining the self-organizing design principles of the natural world with the accelerating powers of our human-initiated technology. It will be a formidable combination. (483)
Langner, Alexander, et al. Ordering and Stabilization of Metal-Organic Coordinations Chains by Hierarchical Assembly. Angewandte Chemie. 47/8835, 2008. From the Max Planck Institute, an example of the discernment of a self-ordering materiality which embodies these universal features in every instance, along with our ability to carry their genesis forward. Three of the six authors have since moved on to the Universities of Hong Kong, Indiana, and Hyderabad.
Self-organization of organic molecules into supramolecular networks is an efficient strategy fro nanometer-scale patterning of surfaces. (8835)
Las Heras, Urtzi, et al. Genetic Algorithms for Digital Quantum Simulations. Physical Review Letters. 116/230504, 2016. University of the Basque Country researchers in coauthor Enrique Solano’s Quantum Technologies for Information Science QUTIS group (Google) join these phases and methods for improved programmic performance. We then note that genomic and “quantomic” realms, within the one, same, iterative natural genesis, appear to have such affinities. See also Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies in Nature Scientific Reports (Solano 6/20956, 2016).
We propose genetic algorithms, which are robust optimization techniques inspired by natural selection, to enhance the versatility of digital quantum simulations. In this sense, we show that genetic algorithms can be employed to increase the fidelity and optimize the resource requirements of digital quantum simulation protocols while adapting naturally to the experimental constraints. Furthermore, this method allows us to reduce not only digital errors but also experimental errors in quantum gates. Indeed, by adding ancillary qubits, we design a modular gate made out of imperfect gates, whose fidelity is larger than the fidelity of any of the constituent gates. (PRL Abstract)
Lazarides, Nikos and George Tsironis. Superconducting Metamaterials. arXiv:1712.01323. For one more example, University of Crete physicists employ quantum qubits, superradiance, induced coherence, and more to form “novel multistable, self-organized, dynamic states” as a new beneficial phase of material creativity. One might go on to note that some two millennia after the dawn of western civilization in this Greek archipelago, presently beset with economic straits, our human intellect as it may now draw upon a worldwide science, might commence again a new, beneficial creation.
Metamaterials , i.e. artificial media designed to achieve properties not available in natural materials, have been the focus of intense research during the last two decades. Many properties have been discovered and multiple designs have been devised that lead to multiple conceptual and practical applications. Superconducting MMs have the advantage of ultra low losses, a highly desirable feature. The additional use of the Josephson effect and SQUID configurations produce further specificity and functionality. SQUID-based MMs are both theoretically investigated but also fabricated and analyzed experimentally in many labs and exciting new phenomena have been found both in the classical and quantum realms. (Abstract excerpts)
Leal, Wilmer and Guillermo Restrepo. Formal Structure of Periodic Systems of Elements. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Online April 3, 2019. Some century and a half after Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) initially noticed how atomic elements could be arrayed into a repetitive manner, MPI Mathematics in the Sciences informatic theorists are able to discern a “similarity order” which spreads across the full table as a node and link pattern. The visual layout then seems to suggest a natural design and dynamics which we peoples, as intended, are just now discovering. See also Machine Learning Material Properties from the Periodic Table using Convolutional Neural Networks (Xiaolong Zheng, et al 2018 herein) for another version of late 2010s insights.
For more than 150 years, the structure of the periodic system of the chemical elements has intensively motivated research in different areas of chemistry and physics. However, there is still no unified picture of what a periodic system is. Herein, based on the relations of order and similarity, we report a formal mathematical structure for the periodic system, which corresponds to an ordered hypergraph. It is shown that the current periodic system of chemical elements is an instance of the general structure. The definition is used to devise a tailored periodic system of polarizability of single covalent bonds, where order relationships are quantified within subsets of similar bonds and among these classes. The generalized periodic system allows envisioning periodic systems in other disciplines of science and humanities. (Abstract)
Lehn, Jean-Marie. Toward Complex Matter: Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Organization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 99/4763, 2002. A computer-based revolution is now able to recognize and employ an initial “informed dynamics” and subsequent selection at work in chemical and biological reactions which augurs for the “designed” creation of new materials.
As the winds of time blows into the sails of space, the unfolding of the universe nurtures the evolution of matter under the pressure of information. From divided to condensed and on to organized, living and thinking matter, the path is toward an increase in complexity through self-organization. (4763)
Liardet, Pierre, et al, eds. Artificial Evolution. Berlin: Springer, 2004. In many areas from botany to robotics, scientists are increasingly employing genetics algorithms, artificial life, cellular automata, population dynamics and so on, which could be seen as an intentional continuation and enhancement of life’s natural florescence.
Lloyd, Seth. Computation from Geometry. Science. 292/1669, 2001. From an MIT physicist, a succinct introduction to future computers based on quantum phenomena.
Any system in which quantum bits can be taken on a nontrivial walk through potential space is a good candidate for holonomic quantum logic.
Lookman, Turab, et al, eds. Information Science for Materials Discovery and Design. Berlin: Springer, 2015. A volume that gathers several 2010s endeavors such as the Material Genome Initiative, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering, (Google each) and others, under this algorithmic theme. An opening chapter is A Perspective on Materials Informatics, with other entries on Bayesian Optimization, Data Visualization, Hidden Structures in Complex Physical Systems (search Nussinov), Combinatorial Materials Science and so on. In a phenomenal Natural Genesis, these robust, sophisticated efforts can attest to a potential passage of cosmic self-creation to a our human radically intentional, evolitionary phase.
This book deals with an information-driven approach to plan materials discovery and design, iterative learning. The authors present contrasting but complementary approaches, such as those based on high throughput calculations, combinatorial experiments or data driven discovery, together with machine-learning methods. Similarly, statistical methods successfully applied in other fields, such as biosciences, are presented. The content spans from materials science to information science to reflect the cross-disciplinary nature of the field. A perspective is presented that offers a paradigm (codesign loop for materials design) to involve iteratively learning from experiments and calculations to develop materials with optimum properties. Such a loop requires the elements of incorporating domain materials knowledge, a database of descriptors (the genes), a surrogate or statistical model developed to predict a given property with uncertainties, performing adaptive experimental design to guide the next experiment or calculation and aspects of high throughput calculations as well as experiments. (Blurb excerpt)
Lu, Ziaobo, et al. Superconductors, Orbital Magnets, and Correlated States in Magic Angle Bilayer Graphene. arXiv:1903.06513. Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, UT Austin, National Institute for Material Science, Japan, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing condensed matter physicists tap into nature’s seemingly endless array of material properties for human benefit and creative avail. Companion entries are With a Simple Twist, “Magic” Material is Now the Big Thing in Physics by David Freedman in Quanta Magazine, (April 30, 2019), and Unconventional Supercondictivity in Magic-Angle Graphene Superlattices in Nature (556/43, 2018).
Superconductivity often occurs close to broken-symmetry parent states and is especially common in doped magnetic insulators. When twisted close to a magic relative orientation angle near 1 degree, bilayer graphene has flat moire superlattice minibands that have emerged as a rich and highly tunable source of strong correlation physics, notably the appearance of superconductivity close to interaction-induced insulating states. Here we report on the fabrication of bilayer graphene devices with exceptionally uniform twist angles. Our study shows that symmetry-broken states, interaction driven insulators, and superconducting domes are common across the entire moire flat bands, including near charge neutrality. (Abstract excerpt)