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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 91 through 105 of 115 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Gender

Goyal, Manu, et al. Persistent Metabolic Youth in the Aging Female Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116/3251, 2019. Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis neuroimage researchers report results about how women retain this neoteny feature of remaining in a younger state longer than male counterparts.

Sex differences influence brain morphology and physiology during both development and aging. Here we apply a machine learning algorithm to a multiparametric brain PET imaging dataset acquired in a cohort of 20- to 82-year-old, cognitively normal adults (n = 205) to define their metabolic brain age. We find that throughout the adult life span the female brain has a persistently lower metabolic brain age—relative to their chronological age—compared with the male brain. The persistence of relatively younger metabolic brain age in females throughout adulthood suggests that development might in part influence sex differences in brain aging. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Benoit, Jerome and Saif Eddin Jabari. On the Perturbation of Self-Organized Urban Street Networks. Applied Network Science. 4/49, 2019. NYU Abu Dhabi engineers proceed to extend and root our large and small neighborhood byways deeply into the principles and processes of statistical and information physics. See also Structure Entropy, Self-Organization, and Power Laws in Urban Street Networks by the authors at arXiv:1902.07663, and How the Geometry of Cities Explains Urban Scaling Laws by Carlos Molinero and Stefan Thurner at 1908.07470.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Lugo, Igor and Martha Alatriste-Contreras. Nonlinearity and Distance of Ancient Routes in the Aztec Empire. PLoS One. July 17, 2019. National Autonomous University of Mexico system scientists cast back some 500 years to reconstruct these mobile activities with 21st century complexity theories. By this vista, an intrinsic mathematical dimension is newly evident even in the topologies of these trodden highways and byways. From our late vantage, might we ask whomever is this sapiensphere persona over the continental mantle which is just now altogether able to discern, learn, and maybe mediate?

This study explores the way in which traveling paths in ancient cultures are characterized by the relationship between nonlinear shapes and path lengths in terms of distances. In particular, we analyze the case of trade routes that connected Aztec settlements around 1521 CE in central Mexico. Based on the complex systems perspective, we used the least cost path approximation to reconstruct a large-scale map of routes reproducing physical connections among ancient places. Thus, the simple pattern of traveling in the Aztec region is fairly unlikely to be straight and short. (Abstract excerpts)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Macrohistory

Crawford, Ian. Introduction to the Special Issue on Expanding Worldviews: Astrobiology, Big History, and the Social and Intellectual Benefits of the Cosmic Perspective. Journal of Big History. 3/3, 2019. This edition gathers papers from BH conferences and beyond as a collaborative Earthkinder stirs to a visionary sapience of our ancient heritage traced all the way to a singular cosmic origin. As a mainly male endeavor, the scenario remains bereft of any phenomenal nature and significance of its organic own which might explain and provide purpose. Among the entries are The Keen Longing for Unified, All-Embracing Knowledge by David Christian, Cosmic Perspectives and the Myths We Need to Survive by Charles Lineweaver (Abstract below), The Biological Overview Effect by CL and Aditya Chopra, Big History in its Cosmic Context by Joseph Voros, and Is the Universe Enough? by Mark Lupisella. See also a Life in the Universe 2019 conference (search Balbi) for more activities and vistas.

Big history can be defined as the attempt to understand the integrated timeline of the cosmos, Earth, life and humanity. The aim of this paper is to describe a dilemma that such a scientific, Darwinian big history must face: the inevitable incompatibility between an objective scientific search for truth and an evolutionary compulsion for brains to harbor useful fictions — the myths we need to survive. Science supports both sides of this dilemma. New and improved cosmic perspectives can’t just be scientifically accurate. To be of use they must leave room for the myths we humans need to survive. But, what are those myths? I discuss and question whether the following ideas qualify as such myths: a belief in an objective meaning for human life, humanism/speciesism, human free will and stewardship of the Earth. (Lineweaver Abstract)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Macrohistory

Krakauer, David, et al, eds. History, Big History, & Metahistory. Santa Fe: SFI Press, 2018. This inaugural volume for the Santa Fe Institute Press, which publishes SFI proceedings, conferences, meetings and events, is a good example of 21st century endeavors to reconceive all manner of natural and social phenomena by way of the latest complex network sciences. Along with Big History studies, chapters such as Murray Gell-Mann’s Regularities in Human Affairs, A Quantitative Theory for the History of Life & Society by Geoffrey West (see VI. H. 7) and Toward Cliodynamics: An Analytical, Predictive Science of History by Peter Turchin seek an implied presence of an independent mathematical basis, as long intimated, which underlies and constrains humanity’s seemingly chaotic course.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Macrohistory

Sabloff, Jeremy, et al, eds. The Emergence of Premodern States: New Perspectives on the Development of Complex Societies. Santa Fe: SFI Press, 2018. Santa Fe Institute anthropologists collect conference papers about endeavors to detect and quantify the presence and exemplary effect of nature’s innate self-organizing dynamics even in such primate to hominid to homo sapiens groupings. For example see Cultural Genotypes and Social Complexity by Scott Ortman, Systematic Comparative Approaches to the Archaeological Record by Laura Fortunato, and Toward a Theory of Recurrent Social Formations by Peter Peregrine.

Earth Life > Phenomenon > major

Rinkevich, Baruch. The Apex Set-up for the Major Transitions in Individuality. Evolutionary Biology. Online June, 2019. A senior Israeli marine biologist and educator agrees that life’s emergent development is well represented by this nested, sequential scale. Its repetition of mutual units within bounded wholes from unicellularity to organisms, colonies, and superorganic groupings is now affirmed as nature’s formative method, (as also present in neural architecture.) Into the 2010s, each regnant stage can be seen to relatively constitute a (semi)autonomous personal entity. As a contribution novel clarifications, instances, and expansions are suggested so to gain better sight of life’s ascendant zenith.

Morphological and functional hierarchies occurring in contemporary biological entities are amalgamated via a small number of progressive key-steps termed as Major Transition in Evolution (MTE) that encompass steps of Major Transition in Individuality (MTI). Literature views MTE/MTI in nature as a sequential increase in complexity, and has contributed insights into the emergence of genuine MTI candidates that actually build higher order individuals from simpler entities. By considering a novel MTI trajectory termed the ‘MTI continuum’, I found no literature consensus for this continuum’s apex. Next, I consider the properties of biological entities termed as ‘superorganism’ (eusocial insects, humans), also considered as highly-developed MTIs. Then I assign the emergence of three new MTI diachronic-classes, the colonial-organisms, chimerism and multi-chimerism, suggesting that they represent highly complex MTIs. These novel MTIs yet still generate genuine and distinct libertarian entities. (Abstract excerpt)

Chimera means an organism or tissue that contains at least two different sets of genetic DNA, often originating from the fusion of as many different zygotes (fertilized eggs). (WikiPedia) (We here note that the same term is used for complex dynamic systems poised at a critical state, such a neural activity.)

Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > Old Earth > anthropocene

Lewis, Simon and Mark Maslin. The Human Planet: How We Created the Anthropocene. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018. University College London environmentalists track this accelerant Earthsphere phase as industrial technologies take over, unawares, at once to construct better habitats, which now trash land, sea and air. Our interest is a closing section A New Way of Life? for it alludes at this global apocalyptic or transfiguration moment, that only a whole scale, intentional, agreed reconception of our human abide in balanced harmony with natural ecologies can save and foster us.

Future > Old Earth > anthropocene

Zalasiewicz, Jan, et al, eds. The Anthropocene as a Geological Time Unit: A Guide to the Scientific Evidence and Current Debate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019. Into the 21st century, this concept of a late historic era due to the populous industrial, technological, citified, resource-consuming, energy-burning human species has gained common use. The collection gathers many Earth system studies by which to certify a true evolutionary stage beyond the Holocene (12,000 years ago to circa 1950). Among its seven sections are History and Development as a Stratigraphic Concept, Biostratigraphic Signatures, The Technosphere and its Physical Record, and Climate Change, with authoritative entries by Will Steffen, Colin Waters, Naomi Oreskes, Mark Williams, Jacques Grinevald, and many more. We note The Technosphere and its Relation to the Anthropocene by Peter Haff which argues that a common, willful intention will be vital to mitigate and sustain.

The anthroposphere encompasses the total human presence throughout the Earth system including our culture, technology, built environment, and associated activities. The anthroposphere complements the term anthropocene – the age within which the anthroposphere developed. Some mark this age as beginning with the advent of agriculture, others with the industrial revolution. A growing movement within the geological community is considering establishing the anthropocene as a new geologic era, possibly starting around 1950. In physical terms, the anthroposphere is comprised of the cities, villages, energy and transportation networks, farms, mines, and ports. It also encompasses books, software, blueprints, and communication systems - the mark of civilization. (Aspen Global Change Institute)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

De Pablo, Juan, et al. New Frontiers for the Materials Genome Initiative. Npj Computational Materials. 5/41, 2019. In this new Nature journal, in partnership with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, twenty five researchers from universities and institutes across the USA preview of this worldwide endeavor which augurs to begin a new atomic and bio-chemical creation. A synthesis of deep neural net learning, algorithmic computations, and the latest stereochemical imaging has led to a steady flow of beneficial nanomaterials. But of most interest for a natural genesis is its metaphoric citation as an essential genetic project. Might coinage like atomics, atom-informatics, matteromics and more be rightly availed? See also Genetic Algorithms for Computational Materials Discovery Accelerated by Machine Learning by Paul Jennings, et al in this same issue (5/46), Materials Informatics by Krishna Rajan (a coauthor) in Annual Review of Materials Research (45/153, 2015), and Machine Learning in Materials Informatics by Rampi Ramprasad, et al in this journal (2017).

The Materials Genome Initiative (www.mgi.gov) advanced a new paradigm for accelerated materials discovery, design and development, by way of complementary efforts in theory, computation, and experiment. In May 2017, the National Science Foundation sponsored the workshop “Advancing and Accelerating Materials Innovation Through the Synergistic Interaction among Computation, Experiment, and Theory: Opening New Frontiers” to review accomplishments that emerged from investments in science and infrastructure. We cite key findings from the workshop and novel perspectives to guide future materials research and its translation into societal advantage. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Faber, Felix, et al. Alchemical and Structural Distribution Based Representation for Universal Quantum Machine Learning. Journal of Chemical Physics. 148/241717, 2019. University of Basel chemists describe ways that cerebral and computational methods used to make atomic and biocompound formulations can gain rootings in an ab initio quantum realm. Allusionsto a 21st century alchemy are prompted as collective human intelligence and ingenuity, drawing upon newly active natural phenomena, can begin to convert and create a novel materiality. See also Physical Machine Learning Outperforms “Human Learning” in Quantum Chemistry at arXiv:1908.00971, and Recent Advances and Applications of Machine Learning in Solid-state Materials Science by Jonathan Schmidt, et al in npj Computational Materials (5/83, 2019).

We introduce a representation of any atom in any chemical environment for the automatized generation of universal kernel ridge regression-based quantum machine learning (QML) models of electronic properties. The representation is based on Gaussian distribution functions, scaled by power laws and accounting for structural as well as elemental degrees of freedom. The elemental components help us to lower the QML model’s learning curve, and, through interpolation across the periodic table, even enable “alchemical extrapolation” to covalent bonding between elements not part of training. This point is demonstrated for the prediction of covalent binding in single, double, and triple bonds among main-group elements as well as for atomization energies in organic molecules. (Abstract excerpt)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Jorgensen, Mathias, et al. Atomistic Structure Learning. Journal of Chemical Physics. 151/054111, 2019. Interdisciplinary NanoScience Center, Aarhus University, Denmark researchers describe the conceptual formation of novel materials via a 2019 synthesis of deep neural nets, algorithmic computation, and an iterative elemental and (bio)molecular stereochemistry. A typical section is Atomistic Reinforcement Learning. Might we then witness and surmise the advent of collaborative humankinder take up and over of cosmic condensed matter formularies, quite as a self-creative genesis intends and requires?

One endeavor of modern physical chemistry is to use bottom-up approaches to design materials and drugs with desired properties. Here, we introduce an atomistic structure learning algorithm (ASLA) that utilizes a convolutional neural network to build 2D structures and planar compounds atom by atom. The algorithm takes no prior data or knowledge on atomic interactions but inquires a first-principles quantum mechanical program for thermodynamical stability. Using reinforcement learning, the algorithm accumulates knowledge of chemical compound space for a given number and type of atoms and stores this in the neural network, ultimately learning the blueprint for the optimal structural arrangement of the atoms. (Abstract)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Omidshafiei, Shayegan, et al. Alpha-Rank: Multi-Agent Evaluation by Evolution. Nature Scientific Reports. 9/9937, 2019. A ten person team from DeepMind Paris, London, and Edmonton, Singapore University and Columbia University achieve a frontier advance as our collective human acumen begins to intentionally take up life’s algorithome programs. While we would not consider cosmic genesis as a “game” as per the Abstract, what is being found is an open, natural procreativity whence an optimum or good enough result can be seen is reached by and accrues from a wide array of candidate options.

A ten person team from DeepMind Paris, London, and Edmonton, Singapore University and Columbia University achieve a frontier advance as our collective human acumen begins to intentionally take up life’s algorithome programs. While we would not consider cosmic genesis as a “game,” what is being found is an open, natural procreativity whence an optimum or good enough result can be seen is reached by and accrues from a wide array of candidate options.

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Hernandez-Espinosa, Nancy, et al. Stimulus-responsive Self-assembly of Protein-based Fractals by Computational Design. Nature Chemistry. 11/7, 2019. A team of nineteen Rutgers University biochemists provide a good example of an intentional avail of nature’s animate propensity to form fractional self-similarity topologies as its preferred topology. In addition to biomolecular compounds, these geometric features need be factored as a vital aspect of novel procreations. By way of late 2010s display graphics, fractal zooms are shown which course through many scalar dimensions.

Future > New Earth > second genesis

Rabinowitch, Ithai. What Would a Synthetic Connectome Look Like? Physics of Life Reviews. Online July 2, 2019. A Hebrew University of Jerusalem senior medical neurobiologist broaches an initial consideration of how collective human programs might carry forth the formative principles of our own brains, as we have just learned, into new, and improved cerebral procreations. The essay ranges from neural and genetic bases to ethical issues, within a sense that this endemic inter-relational quality is a distinctive feature.

A major challenge of contemporary neuroscience is to unravel the structure of the connectome, the ensemble of neural connections between different functional units of the brain, and to reveal how this structure relates to brain function. The synthetic biology approach comprises the assembly of new biological systems out of elementary biological parts, which is dubbed forward-engineering. The rationale is that building a system can be a good way to gain understandings of how that system works. As the fields of connectomics and synthetic biology are independently growing, I propose to beneficially combine them to create synthetic connectomics. This union could be a unifying platform for unraveling the complexities of brain operation and could provide an opportunity for empirically exploring theoretical predictions about network function. (Abstract excerpt)

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