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A Sourcebook for the Worldwide Discovery of a Creative Organic Universe
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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 91 through 105 of 114 found.


Earth Life Emergence: Development of Body, Brain, Selves and Societies

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Somatic

Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire, et al. Quantitative Immunology for Physicists. arXiv:1907:03891. G A-B, National Cancer Institute, USA, with Thierry Mora and Aleksandra Walczak, Sorbonne University, Paris post a 78 page, 328 reference advanced synthesis of life’s immune systems by way of generic complex network dynamics. Thus in one more candidate realm, nature’s universal nonlinear self-viabilities are found to be similarly in effect. Search Albert Tauber for prior glimpses of this manifest exemplar.

The adaptive immune system is a dynamical, self-organized multiscale system that protects vertebrates from both pathogens and internal irregularities, such as tumours. For these reason it fascinates physicists, yet the multitude of different cells, molecules and sub-systems is often also petrifying. Despite this complexity, as experiments on different scales of the adaptive immune system become more quantitative, many physicists have made both theoretical and experimental contributions that help predict the behaviour of ensembles of cells and molecules that participate in an immune response. Here we review some recent contributions with an emphasis on quantitative questions and methodologies. We also provide a more general methods section that presents some of the wide array of theoretical tools used in the field. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Somatic

Bonzanni, Mattia, et al. On the Generalization of Habituation. BioEssays. 41/7, 2019. With a Novel Model of Habituation that is Independent of any Biological System subtitle, Tufts University, Allen Discovery Center, biomedical engineers including Michael Levin offer notices and explanations of how an entity becomes accustomed to their daily environs is a common occurrence across nature and society. A commentary, Describing Atypical Instances of Intelligence by Fred Keijzer in the same issue, appreciates its content.

Habituation, a form of non‐associative learning, is no longer studied exclusively within psychology and neuroscience. Indeed, the same stimulus–response pattern has now been observed at the molecular, cellular, and organismal scales. Hence, a more inclusive theory is required to accommodate aneural forms. Here an abstraction of the habituation process that does not rely upon particular biological pathways or substrates is presented. Its formulation can be applied to interrogate systems as they respond to several stimulation paradigms, providing new insights and supporting existing behavioral data. The results suggest that habituation serves as a general biological strategy that any system can implement to adaptively respond to harmless, repetitive stimuli. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Somatic

Dahmen, David, et al. Second Type of Criticality in the Brain Uncovers Rich Multiple-Neuron Dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116/13051, 2019. Julich Research Center, Germany neuroresearchers at once confirm a cerebral tendency to settle at this optimum state, while teasing out another neural way that brains avail this productive balance.

Parallel recordings of motor cortex show weak pairwise correlations on average but a wide dispersion across cells. This observation runs counter to the prevailing notion that optimal information processing requires networks to operate at a critical point, entailing strong correlations. We here reconcile this apparent contradiction by showing that the observed structure of correlations is consistent with network models that operate close to a critical point of a different nature than previously considered: dynamics that is dominated by inhibition yet nearly unstable due to heterogeneous connectivity. Our findings provide a different perspective on criticality in neural systems: network topology and heterogeneity endow the brain with two complementary substrates for critical dynamics of largely different complexities. (Significance)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Bertolero, Max and Danielle Bassett. How Matter Becomes Mind. Scientific American. July, 2019. It is good sign that a research field has reached a robust, credible stage when an article appears in this popular publication, which is a credit to its University of Pennsylvania network neuroscientist authors and collaborators. It reports upon an array of advances over the past decade that altogether reveal and highlight multiplex connectivities (aka graph theory here) between nodal neurons, layered linkages, and modular communities as they give rise to informed thought and response. We log in this week similar evidence from physics (Nottale, Busch), cancer studies (D. Moore), cellular dynamics (Fuchling) and other areas. As a wealth of citations now convey, an iconic, natural system of infinitely iterated, generative node entities and link relations in a triune whole iconic does really seem to exist.

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Pospelov, Nikita, et al. Spectral Peculiarity and Criticality of a Human Connectome. Physics of Life Reviews. Online June 16, 2019. Six Russian neurotheorists based at Lomonosov Moscow State University describe novel techniques and insights which adds more evidence that our hyperactive brains are truly situated at an optimum critically poised state.

We have performed the comparative spectral analysis of structural connectomes for various organisms using open-access data. We found that the spectral density of adjacency matrices of human connectome has maximal deviation from randomized networks, compared to other organisms. We discovered that for macaque and human connectomes the conservation of local clusterization is crucial, while for primitive organisms the conservation of averaged clusterization is sufficient. We found that the level spacing distribution of the spectrum of human connectome Laplacian matrix corresponds to the critical regime. This observation provides strong support for debated statement of the brain criticality. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Cerebral Form

Sporns, Olaf. Graph Theory Methods: Applications in Brain Networks. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 20/2, 2018. The Indiana University neuropsychologist (search) is a leading theorist in this enchanted field as it weaves through the 2010s toward epic achievements. This paper is notably cited as a basis for Max Bertolero and Danielle Bassett’s Scientific American (July 2019) popular review (above). As many other realms, mathematic findings of equally real interconnections between previously found discrete objects and entities are fostering a relational revolution from particles and galaxies to persons and societies. See also The Diverse Club by Max Bertolero, et al in Nature Communications (8/1277, 2017).

Network neuroscience is a thriving and rapidly expanding field. Empirical data on brain networks, from molecular to behavioral scales, are increasing in size and complexity. These developments require appropriate tools and methods that model and analyze brain network data, such as those provided by graph theory. This brief review surveys commonly used and neurobiologically apt graph measures and techniques. Among these, the detection of network communities or modules, and of central network elements that facilitate communication and signal transfer are particularly salient. We note a growing use of generative models, temporal and multilayer networks, as well as algebraic topology. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Complementary Brain

Elices, Irene, et al. Robust Dynamical Invariants in Sequential Neural Activity. Nature Scientific Reports. 9/9048, 2019. Autonomous University of Madrid neurocomputation researchers add another finesse of the cerebral presence of mutual conservative and creative complements across many network phases. Their active behavior then seeks and becomes poised at an optimum reciprocity.

By studying different sources of temporal variability in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits, we unveil fundamental aspects of the instantaneous balance between flexibility and robustness in sequential dynamics - a property that characterizes many systems that display neural rhythms. Our analysis of the triphasic rhythm of the pyloric CPG (Carcinus maenas) shows strong robustness of transient dynamics in keeping not only the activation sequences but also specific cycle-by-cycle temporal relationships in the form of strong linear correlations between pivotal time intervals, i.e. dynamical invariants. We suggest that invariant temporal sequence relationships could be present in other networks, including those shaping sequences of functional brain rhythms, and underlie rhythm programming and functionality. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Conscious Knowledge

Grindrod, Peter. On Human Consciousness. Network Neuroscience. 2/1, 2018. The Oxford University mathematician is an authoritative contributor to frontier explanations about why and how we individual and collective human beings are graced with a sentient, informed awareness. If such mindful imaginaries are indeed possible, they must somehow be associated with and arise from a similarly endowed cerebral cosmos.

We consider implications of the mathematical modeling and analysis of large modular neuron-to-neuron networks. We explain how the dynamical behavior of relatively small-scale strongly connected networks leads to nonbinary information processing and thus to multiple hypothesis decision-making. In turn we address some aspects of the hard problem of consciousness, We discuss how a proposed “dual hierarchy model,” made up from externally perceived, physical elements of increasing complexity, and internally experienced, mental elements (feelings), may support a learning and evolving consciousness. We argue that, within our model, the mental elements and thus internal modes (feelings) play a role akin to latent variables in processing and decision-making, and thus confer an evolutionary “fast-thinking” advantage. (Abstract excerpt)

Earth Life > Integral Persons > Gender

Goyal, Manu, et al. Persistent Metabolic Youth in the Aging Female Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116/3251, 2019. Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis neuroimage researchers report results about how women retain this neoteny feature of remaining in a younger state longer than male counterparts.

Sex differences influence brain morphology and physiology during both development and aging. Here we apply a machine learning algorithm to a multiparametric brain PET imaging dataset acquired in a cohort of 20- to 82-year-old, cognitively normal adults (n = 205) to define their metabolic brain age. We find that throughout the adult life span the female brain has a persistently lower metabolic brain age—relative to their chronological age—compared with the male brain. The persistence of relatively younger metabolic brain age in females throughout adulthood suggests that development might in part influence sex differences in brain aging. (Abstract)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Physiology

Lugo, Igor and Martha Alatriste-Contreras. Nonlinearity and Distance of Ancient Routes in the Aztec Empire. PLoS One. July 17, 2019. National Autonomous University of Mexico system scientists cast back some 500 years to reconstruct these mobile activities with 21st century complexity theories. By this vista, an intrinsic mathematical dimension is newly evident even in the topologies of these trodden highways and byways. From our late vantage, might we ask whomever is this sapiensphere persona over the continental mantle which is just now altogether able to discern, learn, and maybe mediate?

This study explores the way in which traveling paths in ancient cultures are characterized by the relationship between nonlinear shapes and path lengths in terms of distances. In particular, we analyze the case of trade routes that connected Aztec settlements around 1521 CE in central Mexico. Based on the complex systems perspective, we used the least cost path approximation to reconstruct a large-scale map of routes reproducing physical connections among ancient places. Thus, the simple pattern of traveling in the Aztec region is fairly unlikely to be straight and short. (Abstract excerpts)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > Macrohistory

Crawford, Ian. Introduction to the Special Issue on Expanding Worldviews: Astrobiology, Big History, and the Social and Intellectual Benefits of the Cosmic Perspective. Journal of Big History. 3/3, 2019. This edition gathers papers from BH conferences and beyond as a collaborative Earthkinder stirs to a visionary sapience of our ancient heritage traced all the way to a singular cosmic origin. As a mainly male endeavor, the scenario remains bereft of any phenomenal nature and significance of its organic own which might explain and provide purpose. Among the entries are The Keen Longing for Unified, All-Embracing Knowledge by David Christian, Cosmic Perspectives and the Myths We Need to Survive by Charles Lineweaver (Abstract below), The Biological Overview Effect by CL and Aditya Chopra, Big History in its Cosmic Context by Joseph Voros, and Is the Universe Enough? by Mark Lupisella. See also a Life in the Universe 2019 conference (search Balbi) for more activities and vistas.

Big history can be defined as the attempt to understand the integrated timeline of the cosmos, Earth, life and humanity. The aim of this paper is to describe a dilemma that such a scientific, Darwinian big history must face: the inevitable incompatibility between an objective scientific search for truth and an evolutionary compulsion for brains to harbor useful fictions — the myths we need to survive. Science supports both sides of this dilemma. New and improved cosmic perspectives can’t just be scientifically accurate. To be of use they must leave room for the myths we humans need to survive. But, what are those myths? I discuss and question whether the following ideas qualify as such myths: a belief in an objective meaning for human life, humanism/speciesism, human free will and stewardship of the Earth. (Lineweaver Abstract)

Earth Life > Phenomenon > major

Rinkevich, Baruch. The Apex Set-up for the Major Transitions in Individuality. Evolutionary Biology. Online June, 2019. A senior Israeli marine biologist and educator agrees that life’s emergent development is well represented by this nested, sequential scale. Its repetition of mutual units within bounded wholes from unicellularity to organisms, colonies, and superorganic groupings is now affirmed as nature’s formative method, (as also present in neural architecture.) Into the 2010s, each regnant stage can be seen to relatively constitute a (semi)autonomous personal entity. As a contribution novel clarifications, instances, and expansions are suggested so to gain better sight of life’s ascendant zenith.

Morphological and functional hierarchies occurring in contemporary biological entities are amalgamated via a small number of progressive key-steps termed as Major Transition in Evolution (MTE) that encompass steps of Major Transition in Individuality (MTI). Literature views MTE/MTI in nature as a sequential increase in complexity, and has contributed insights into the emergence of genuine MTI candidates that actually build higher order individuals from simpler entities. By considering a novel MTI trajectory termed the ‘MTI continuum’, I found no literature consensus for this continuum’s apex. Next, I consider the properties of biological entities termed as ‘superorganism’ (eusocial insects, humans), also considered as highly-developed MTIs. Then I assign the emergence of three new MTI diachronic-classes, the colonial-organisms, chimerism and multi-chimerism, suggesting that they represent highly complex MTIs. These novel MTIs yet still generate genuine and distinct libertarian entities. (Abstract excerpt)

Chimera means an organism or tissue that contains at least two different sets of genetic DNA, often originating from the fusion of as many different zygotes (fertilized eggs). (WikiPedia) (We here note that the same term is used for complex dynamic systems poised at a critical state, such a neural activity.)

Pedia Sapiens: A Genesis Future on Earth and in the Heavens

Future > Old Earth > anthropocene

Lewis, Simon and Mark Maslin. The Human Planet: How We Created the Anthropocene. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018. University College London environmentalists track this accelerant Earthsphere phase as industrial technologies take over, unawares, at once to construct better habitats, which now trash land, sea and air. Our interest is a closing section A New Way of Life? for it alludes at this global apocalyptic or transfiguration moment, that only a whole scale, intentional, agreed reconception of our human abide in balanced harmony with natural ecologies can save and foster us.

Future > Old Earth > anthropocene

Zalasiewicz, Jan, et al, eds. The Anthropocene as a Geological Time Unit: A Guide to the Scientific Evidence and Current Debate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019. Into the 21st century, this concept of a late historic era due to the populous industrial, technological, citified, resource-consuming, energy-burning human species has gained common use. The collection gathers many Earth system studies by which to certify a true evolutionary stage beyond the Holocene (12,000 years ago to circa 1950). Among its seven sections are History and Development as a Stratigraphic Concept, Biostratigraphic Signatures, The Technosphere and its Physical Record, and Climate Change, with authoritative entries by Will Steffen, Colin Waters, Naomi Oreskes, Mark Williams, Jacques Grinevald, and many more. We note The Technosphere and its Relation to the Anthropocene by Peter Haff which argues that a common, willful intention will be vital to mitigate and sustain.

The anthroposphere encompasses the total human presence throughout the Earth system including our culture, technology, built environment, and associated activities. The anthroposphere complements the term anthropocene – the age within which the anthroposphere developed. Some mark this age as beginning with the advent of agriculture, others with the industrial revolution. A growing movement within the geological community is considering establishing the anthropocene as a new geologic era, possibly starting around 1950. In physical terms, the anthroposphere is comprised of the cities, villages, energy and transportation networks, farms, mines, and ports. It also encompasses books, software, blueprints, and communication systems - the mark of civilization. (Aspen Global Change Institute)

Future > New Earth > Mind Over Matter

Omidshafiei, Shayegan, et al. Alpha-Rank: Multi-Agent Evaluation by Evolution. Nature Scientific Reports. 9/9937, 2019. A ten person team from DeepMind Paris, London, and Edmonton, Singapore University and Columbia University achieve a frontier advance as our collective human acumen begins to intentionally take up life’s algorithome programs. While we would not consider cosmic genesis as a “game” as per the Abstract, what is being found is an open, natural procreativity whence an optimum or good enough result can be seen is reached by and accrues from a wide array of candidate options.

A ten person team from DeepMind Paris, London, and Edmonton, Singapore University and Columbia University achieve a frontier advance as our collective human acumen begins to intentionally take up life’s algorithome programs. While we would not consider cosmic genesis as a “game,” what is being found is an open, natural procreativity whence an optimum or good enough result can be seen is reached by and accrues from a wide array of candidate options.

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