IV. Ecosmomics: An Independent, UniVersal, Source Code-Script of Generative Complex Network Systems
Kauffman, Stuart. Investigations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. More conceptual insights into a view of Earth life that creates itself by means of intentional, autonomous agents which continually expand the niche of animate complexity. Kauffman’s frontier thinking offers glimpses of a “fourth law of thermodynamics,” a “general biology” for emergent life, autocatalytic biospheres, and a “coconstructing cosmos.”
Kauffman, Stuart. The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection on Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. A breakthrough work that reports on biologist and physician Kauffman’s decades of research studies on a deep theoretical basis for the innate self-organization of complex living systems which is in creative effect prior to the winnowing action of natural selection. (Also see Kauffman’s At Home in the Universe in Part III,An Organic Universe.)
Kelso, Scott and David Engstrom. The Complementary Nature. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006. This important work is mainly noted in Current Vistas and by an extensive review in Recent Writings.
Khelifi, Mounir, et al. A Relative Multifractal Analysis. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. Vol. 140, 2020. University of Monastir, Tunisia mathematicians provide a further finesse of nature’s infinite self-similar formulations. We also cite amongst a wide array of international 2020 papers such as Multifractal Analysis of Embryonic Eye Structures in Mice (Sijilmassi, Ouafa, et al, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 138), The Origin of Collective Phenomena in Firm Sizes (Ji, Guseon, et al, Graduate School of Future Strategy, KAIST, S. Korea, 136), Using Network Science to Unveil Badminton Performance Patterns (Gomez, Miguel-Angel, et al, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 135), A Symbiosis between Cellular Automata and Genetic Algorithms (Cerruti, Umberto, et al, University of Torino, 134), and The Fractal Description Model of Rock Fracture Networks (LiLi, Sui, et al, North China Institute of Science, 129). Our aim is to document in this consummate year how every manifest social, biologic and physical phase is deeply guided by common mathematic sources.
The University of Monastir is a Tunisian multidisciplinary university with its own financial and administrative autonomy located on the Gulf of Hammamet, south of Tunis. It was founded in 2004 following the reform of the university higher education system and is organized in 5 Faculties, 2 graduate schools and 9 institutes.
Kiel, L. Douglas. Knowledge Management, Organizational Intelligence and Learning, and Complexity. UNESCO-EOLSS Joint Committee. Knowledge for Sustainable Development. Volume 1. Paris: UNESCO Publishing; Oxford: EOLSS Publishers, 2002. A good primer on complexity sciences. As these become more familiar, they are motivating organizations to become dynamic, adaptive, ecologically sensitive and constantly learning.
These discoveries focus on both order and disorder in the universe and on the increasing complexity and similarities across universal process, and have led to a new paradigm in the sciences – the self-organizing paradigm that focuses on how form and structure are produced in a dynamic and creative universe. (854) There is a growing recognition that the same processes that lead to a self-organizing universe have also led to the tremendous complexity of human cultures and human affairs. (855)
Krakauer, David, ed.
Worlds Hidden in Plain Sight: The Evolving Idea of Complexity at the Santa Fe Institute 1984 – 2019.
Santa Fe, NM: Santa Fe Institute Press,
The SFI evolutionary biologist and current president gathers 35 years of contributions from events, seminars, projects, talks, and more which can well track the revolutionary discovery of a natural anatomy, physiology, cerebral, and cultural essence. A 1984 - 1999 section notes Mavericks such as John Holland, Murray Gell-Mann, and Simon Levin. 2000 - 2014 turns to Unifers like Harold Morowitz, Jessica Flack and Brian Arthur. 2015 and Beyond then completes 37 chapters with entries by Luis Bettencourt, Geoffrey West, Mirta Galesic, Simon DeDeo, Samuel Bowles, and Jennifer Dunne.
Ultimately, we can argue that it is the self-similarity of the structure of fundamental physical law that dictates the continuing usefulness of mathematics. At the modest level of earlier science, this sort of self-similarity is strikingly apparent. Electricity, gravitation, and magnetism all have the same force, and Newton suggested that there might be some short-range force. Now that scientists are paying attention to scaling phenomena, we see in the study of complex systems astonishing power laws extending over many orders of magnitude. The renormalization group turns out to apply not only to condensed matter but to numerous other subjects. The biological and social sciences are just as much involved in these discoveries of scaling behavior as the physical sciences. We are always dealing with nature consonant and conformable to herself. So the approximate self-similarity of the laws of nature runs the gamut from underlying laws of physics to the phenomenological laws of the most complex realms. (Murray Gell-Mann, 1992, 38-39)
Krishnagopal, Sanjukta, et al. Synchronization Patterns: From Network Motifs to Hierarchical Networks. arXiv:1607.08798. In this prepost of a paper to appear in Philosophical Transactions A, Technical University of Berlin physicists including Eckehard Scholl try to define these common characteristics of a universally nonlinear nature. Of special note is a choice of brain neural networks as a prime exemplar, as if a cerebral microcosm for all complex, self-organizing systems. In regard, as their presence becomes evident from quantum to cultural realms, an analogous macrocosm may once again well accord with human qualities
We investigate complex synchronization patterns such as cluster synchronization and partial amplitude death in networks of coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with fractal connectivities. The study of fractal or self-similar topology is motivated by the network of neurons in the brain. This fractal property is well represented in hierarchical networks, for which we present three different models. In addition, we introduce an analytical eigensolution method and provide a comprehensive picture of the interplay of network topology and the corresponding network dynamics, thus allowing us to predict the dynamics of arbitrarily large hierarchical networks simply by analyzing small network motifs. We also show that oscillation death can be induced in these networks, even if the coupling is symmetric, contrary to previous understanding of oscillation death. Our results show that there is a direct correlation between topology and dynamics: Hierarchical networks exhibit the corresponding hierarchical dynamics. This helps bridging the gap between mesoscale motifs and macroscopic networks. (Abstract)
Kulkarni, Suman, et al. Information Content of Note Transitions in the Music of J. S. Bach.. arXiv:2301.00783. University of Pennsylvania and CCNY interdisciplinary theorists including Danielle Bassett open with an appreciation of our human social love of tuneful melodic compositions, as they now become amenable to 21st mathematical sciences of network forms, linguistics, and so on. It is noted that these findings hold to the same scale and metre as everywhere else in nature. See also Fractal Patterns in Music by John McDonough and Andrzej Herczyhski at arXiv:2221.12497, and The Song of the Cell by Siddhartha Mukherjee (Scribner, 2022).
Music has a complex structure that expresses emotion and conveys information, which people process through an imperfect cognitive gestalt version of reality. To address and analyze this wide issue, we study J. S. Bach's music by way of network science and information theory. Bach's work is highly structured over wide range of fugues and choral pieces that we view as a network of note transitions to quantify the information in each piece and how they can be grouped together. Our findings shed new light network properties of Bach's music and gain insight into features that make networks of information effective for communication. (Excerpt)
Lee, Deokjae, et al. Universal Mechanism for Hybrid Percolation Transitions. Nature Scientific Reports. 7/5723, 2017. A Korean - Hungarian collaboration of Seoul National University and Central European University systems physicists cites another example whence physical materiality can be seen to innately possess generic, commonly repetitive, formative features.
Hybrid percolation transitions (HPTs) induced by cascading processes have been observed in diverse complex systems such as k-core percolation, breakdown on interdependent networks and cooperative epidemic spreading models. Here we present the microscopic universal mechanism underlying those HPTs. We show that the discontinuity in the order parameter results from two steps: a durable critical branching (CB) and an explosive, supercritical (SC) process, the latter resulting from large loops inevitably present in finite size samples. This crossover mechanism and scaling behavior are universal for different HPT systems. Our result implies that the crossover time O(N1/3) is a golden time, during which one needs to take actions to control and prevent the formation of a macroscopic cascade, e.g., a pandemic outbreak. (Abstract)
Lehn, Jean-Marie. Toward Self-Organization and Complex Matter. Science. 295/2400, 2002. A cross-fertilization between complex systems, biological evolution, and chemistry leads to a synthesis of self-organization and selection as a science of dynamically adaptive “informed matter.”
Self-organization is the driving force that led to the evolution of the biological world from inanimate matter. The inclusion of dissipative nonequilibrium processes, like those present in the living world, constitutes a major goal and challenge for supramolecular chemistry. (2400) Multilevel hierarchical self-organization enables the progressive buildup of more and more complex systems in a sequential temporal ordered fashion. (2401)
Lesne, Annick and Michel Lagues. Scale Invariance: From Phase Transitions to Turbulence. Germany: Springer, 2012. Parisian physicists achieve a dedicated volume to express current realizations of nature’s own propensity to reliably repeat in kind the same structures and dynamics across universe to human scales, indeed from physics to people. By way of mathematic theories, albeit in abstractions as self-organized criticality, a robust veracity of a fractal-like “universality” is described from cosmic condensed matter to chemical, polymeric realms, biological systems, and onto somatic physiologies. See also From Newton to Mandelbrot by D. Stauffer, E. Stanley, and A. Lesne (Springer 2017) for a further excursion.
During a century from the Van der Waals mean field description of gases in the 1870s until the introduction of the renormalization group (RG) in the 1970s, thermodynamics and statistical physics were unable to account for the incredible universality observed in critical phenomena. The success of RG techniques is not only to solve this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce useful tools across a wide field where a system exhibits scale invariance. Since then, a new physics of scaling laws and critical exponents allows quantitative descriptions of numerous occasions, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos and turbulence. The chapters are jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist.
Lin, Yi, et al.
Boca Raton: CRC Press,
Yi Lin is a mathematican with academic appointments across China and the USA, and several texts on nonlinear theories to his credit. Coauthor Xiaojun Duan, with a Chinese PhD in systems engineering, professes at the National University of Defense Technology, Changsha. She drew upon her course material for the book’s topical range from historical backgrounds and nonlinear dynamics to self-organization, complex adaptive systems, synergetics, nonequilibrium thermodynamics, fractals, chaotic behavior, nested networks, emergence, and onto “open complex giant systems” of global and cosmic scale. The extraordinary volume is of such merit we offer an exemplary array of quotes.
In short, the characteristics of systems science require scholars of different backgrounds to talk and to conduct research together so that they can potentially discover implicit connections underlying the artificially separated disciplines. Through integrations of multiple fields, commonalities of systems can be discovered so that practical problems can be resolved. (16)
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