Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 16 through 22 of 22 found.
wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology
Arthur,, W. Brian.
Foundations of Complexity Economics.
Nature Review Physics.
The veteran systems economist, author and speaker is now at the Santa Fe Institute after a long career at Stanford University. This latest paper is a succinct survey of his pioneer, revolutionary reconception of commercial and financial behaviors by way of their real basis in nonlinear active agent dynamics. Some 150 references provide a good review in support.
Conventional, neoclassical economics assumes agents (firms, consumers, investors) who face well-defined problems and arrive at consistent equilibrium behaviours. This rational system produces an elegant economics, but is restrictive and often unrealistic. Complexity economics relaxes these assumptions. It assumes that agents differ, that they have imperfect information and must try to make sense of the situation they face. The resulting outcome may not be in equilibrium and may display novel patterns and emergent phenomena. The economy becomes something not given but constantly forming from a developing set of actions, strategies and beliefs — something not mechanistic, static, timeless and perfect but organic, always creating itself, alive and full of messy vitality. (Abstract excerpt)
wumanomics > Phenomenon > Physiology
Schlapfer, Markus, et al.
The Hidden Universality of Movement in Cities.
In their analytical studies, SFI, MIT, and ETH Zurich researchers including Geoffrey West report coming upon what seems to be a widely evident mathematical pattern which appears to orient and constrain all manner of urban movements. Our interest then extends to such a finding itself whence “universal, recurrent laws” seem exist at all on their independent own.
The interaction of all mobile species with their environment hinges on movement patterns: the places they visit and how often they go there. For urban areas the dynamic and diverse movement of people affects every aspect of social interactions, disease spreading, infrastructure, productivity, innovation and technology. However, the laws that govern the spatio-temporal structure of movement in cities, and various population flows to specific locations have remained elusive. Here we show that behind the apparent complexity, a simple universal scaling relation drives the flow of individuals to any location based on frequency of visitation and distance travelled. We demonstrate that population flows obey this theoretical prediction from Europe and America to Asia and Africa. (Abstract excerpt)
wumanomics > Phenomenon > Macrohistory
A History of Possible Futures.
Cliodynamics: Journal of Quantative History and Cultural Evolution.
The University of Connecticut systems historian joins with nine coauthors such as Sergey Vavrilets, Nina Witoszek and Stefan Thurner to scope out ways to quantify Multipath Forecasting of Social Breakdown, Recovery and Resilience methods going forward.
Future > Old World > anthropocene
From Anthropocene to Noosphere: The Great Acceleration..
After a survey of both these models including original sources such as V. Vernadsky and P. Teilhard for global reason, a UC Berkeley postdoc anthropologist defines a novel, helpful contrast between them. In clear relief, an emphasis on matter and forces leads to despair without a common mindfulness of cooperation and mitigation.
The complex set of human‐driven global, social, technological, and environmental changes intensifying dramatically since 1950 has been identified as the “Great Acceleration.” This period of time represents a radical shift in our collective relationship to each other as well as to the Earth system as a whole. In this article I consider two major paradigms now taking shape to offer different perspectives on the Great Acceleration: The Anthropocene and the Noosphere. I explore the scientific‐intellectual traditions from which each paradigm derives and contrast their nearly opposite evaluations of global transformation. The Anthropocene has emerged as the paradigm of rupture, materiality, and warning; the Noosphere is about development, mind/culture, and hope. I also attempt to bringing the two divergent views closer together into a more unified and balanced vision of planetary change. (Abstract)
Future > New Earth > Viable Gaia
Lenton, Timothy, et al.
Survival of the Systems.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
Seven senior environmentalists including TL, University of Exeter, Marten Scheffer, Wageningen University, and Pablo Marquet, Santa Fe Institute propose to extend the class of evolutionary, autopoietic dynamics which are now applied to simpler, molecular phases on up to organisms, groups and active ecological environs. See also Non-Genetic Inheritance: Evolution above the Organismal Level by Anton Sukhoverhov and Nathalie Gontier in Biosystems (December, 2020) for a companion approach.
Since Darwin, individuals and more recently genes, have been the focus of evolutionary thinking. The idea that selection operates on nonreproducing, higher-level systems including ecosystems or societies, has met with scepticism. But research emphasising that natural selection can be based solely on differential persistence invites reconsideration of their evolution. Self-perpetuating feedback cycles involving biotic as well as abiotic components are critical to determining persistence. Evolution of autocatalytic networks of molecules is well studied, but the principles hold for any ‘self-perpetuating’ system. Ecosystem examples include coral reefs, rainforests, and savannahs. Societal examples include agricultural systems, dominant belief systems, and economies. (Abstract)
Future > Self-Selection
Canup, Robin, et al.
Origin of the Moon.
Eleven astro-researchers based in Colorado, Texas, California, Illinois, New York and the Czech Republic gather and discuss the latest global findings about how the especially suitable satellite that graces our night skies came to form so neatly where it best belongs. Its presence has been a vital part of early conditions which helped get life going on its way to our curious selves.
The Earth-Moon system is unusual in several respects. The Moon is roughly 1/4 the radius of the Earth - a larger satellite-to-planet size ratio than all known satellites other than Pluto's Charon. The Moon has a tiny core, perhaps with only ~1% of its mass, in contrast to Earth whose core contains nearly 30% of its mass. The Earth-Moon system has a high total angular momentum, implying a rapidly spinning Earth when the Moon formed. In addition, the early Moon was hot and at least partially molten with a deep magma ocean. Identification of a model for lunar origin that can satisfactorily explain all of these features has been the focus of decades of research. (Abstract excerpt)
Future > Self-Selection
Pacetti,, Elenia, et al.
The Impact of Tidal Disruption Events on Galactic Habitability.
University of Rome and Florida Institute of Technology astroresearchers including Amedeo Balbi and Manasvi Lingam add another impediment to planetary habitations by pointing out that perilous radiations which seem to suffuse far interstellar reaches will be deleterious in various ways to living systems. See also The Habitability of the Galactic Bulge at 2008.07586.
Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) are characterized by the emission of a short burst of high-energy radiation. We analyze the cumulative impact of TDEs on galactic habitability using the Milky Way as a proxy. We show that X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation emitted during TDEs can cause hydrodynamic escape and instigate biological damage. In particular, we show that planets within distances of ∼0.1-1 kpc could lose Earth-like atmospheres over the age of the Earth. We conclude by highlighting potential ramifications of TDEs and argue that they should be factored into analyses of inner galactic habitability. (Abstract)
To summarize, two broad conclusions emerge from this work. First, the cumulative negative impact of TDEs on habitability is comparable to that of Active Galactic Nuclei. Second, some fraction of planetary systems closer to the central black hole of the Milky Way may have been adversely affected. Our analysis suggests that TDEs might exert a substantive influence on planetary habitability. (5)