VII. WumanKinder: An Emergent Earthomo Transition in Individuality
With reference to the Major Evolutionary Transitions Scale section, this 2020 chapter dedicated to ourselves will report and document how a human personal stage, homo sapiens, could rightly be seen as engaged in the further formation of a global spherical phase, by name an anthropo to Earthropo sapiens. And to properly represent both gender halves of the species, sky, and ecosmos, we take license to dub her/his as WumanKinder. By changing one letter, its full makeup of men and women, complementary archetypes of feminine anima and masculine animus, can compose a whole familial, sustainable wiseworld. We also capitalize K to identify the fulfillment of life’s evolutionary development which just now reaches a gravid geonatal moment.
Integral Microcosmic Persons and EarthKinder: A Personsphere Progeny will cover and convey prominent aspects as perceived in this developmental view. In the context of this documentary site, precious peoples may henceforth understand themselves, in addition, as iconic exemplars of the uniVerse to wumanVerse bigender procreation. The naturome source code influence once again becomes evident across the diverse subject modules, just as everywhere else.
An especial contribution might be made by the content of A Complementarity of Civilizations. As I write in late June, it grieves to see the nuclear Korean lands, arbitarilly divided after WW II as communist North and individualist South, locked in mortal conflict The South Korean flag is vividly graced with the Yin/Yang symbol meant to represent the belief that all things in the universe have two, opposite aspects that cannot exist without the other. It would be a grand resolve if a 2020 dispensation could reveal a universal, bigender reciprocity so these two halves with the same ethnic identity could unite in peaceable harmony.
A. Integral Microcosmic Persons
In this extensive survey and passage from life’s deep, intrinsic origins across an episodic developmental emergence we have seen so far how the universal complex network systems are manifestly evident in a genomic way at every prior stage and instance. This next section continues to report how the universal bigender complementarity in its iconic particulate, nodal (male) and relational, connected (feminine) modes are once more in procreative play in all aspects of our own phenomenal personification.
In Integral Human Persons will consider how human beings appear as a true microcosmic exemplar, now set in a temporal procreation. The seven subsections span our individual formation and growth from infancy of bodily self-organization, cerebral cognizance and behavioral mores and onto informed awareness, iconic gender identities, and a novel symbiotic selfhood. A final module will review a lifelong psychic course of individuation as we may realize ourselves as vital participants in an ecosmic self-realization.
1. Systems Physiology and Psychology: Somatic and Behavioral Development
In the 2000s and before, novel “developmental systems theory” by the Indiana University psychologists Esther Thelen and Linda Smith, with collegial others led to a growing perception that the same complex dynamics which self-organize ecosmos and evolution are necessarily in similar effect to guide infant’s and children as they advance in bodily maturation, visual perception, kinetic agility, self-other behaviors and sequential stages of cognitive education.
A companion instance then noted herein is to whole scale revision of our human anatomy and physiology. As select references introduce, it has been found that network phenomena plays an equally vital role’ As our section title notes. These organismic and medical fields are being reconceived as dynamically formed and poised metabolic and skeletal systems. We note the Bar-Nam University biophysicist Shlomo Havlin and Boston University polyscientist Plamen Ivanov as veteran contributors, see A Global Network for Network Medicine by Bradley Maron, et al in npj Systems Biology for the latest goings on.
2020: As the introduction surveys, here is another close to heart and home section which has reinvented itself to advantage by way of the dynamic complexity sciences.
Bartsch, Ronny, et al. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact. PLoS One. November 10, 2015.
Cangelosi, Angelo and Matthew Schlesinger. Developmental Robotics: From Babies to Robots. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.
Dehaene, Stanislav. How We Learn. New York: Viking, 2020.
Farris, Sarah. Evolution of Brain Elaboration Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Vol.370/Iss.1684, 2015.
Hartenstein, Volker and Angelika Stollewerk. The Evolution of Early Neurogenesis. Developmental Cell. 32/4, 2016.
Hollenstein, Tom. Twenty Years of Dynamic Systems Approaches to Development. Child Development Perspectives. 5/4, 2011.
Ivanov, Plamen, et al. Focus on the Emerging New Fields of Network Physiology and Network Medicine. New Journal of Physics. 18/100201, 2016.
Legerstee, Maria, et al. The Infant Mind: Origins of the Social Brain. New York: Guilford Press, 2012.
Liebeskind, Benjamin, et al. Complex Homology and the Evolution of Nervous Systems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Online December, 2015.
Overton, Willis. Life-span Development: Concepts and Issues. Lerner, Richard, editor-in-chief. The Handbook of Life-span Development. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010.
Rolls, Edmund. Cerebral Cortex: Principles of Operation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.
Van Den Heuvel, Martijn, et al. Comparative Connectomics. Trends in Cognitive Science. Online March, 2016.
View the 95 Bibliographic Entries
2. Systems Neuroscience: Multiplex Networks and Critical Function
W When this certain section to document 21st century findings about every aspect of our brain anatomy and cognitive performance was first posted in 2004, neuroimaging techniques, computational abilities, along with theories of scale-free networks, self-organizing complexities, genetic architectural influences and more were at an early stage. But by 2020, due to thousands of researchers in globally collaborative universities, institutes and brain projects, a broad and deep knowledge has been achieved of how we think, learn, remember, speak, experience, feel, respond, cooperate and be creative. Our intent, as elsewhere, in this resource site is to helf bring this salutary accomplishment into public awareness and beneficial avail.
A brain’s maturation and active cognizance is now seen to arise from a dynamic sequence of multiplex intracies, modules, communities, hubs, linkages which then tend to a self-organized critical poise. As Universality Affirmations also documents, we wish to enter the worldwise discovery that our mental capabilities have been found toseek and perform best at a dynamic balance of more and less coherence (don’t we all know). Another take cites a “chimera” process which goes on in the two states at the same time. In regard, this sensory system has been dubbed a “connectome” akin to other -omic phases.
2020: After intensive research over the past ten years by way of novel, advancing neuroimage techniques together with nonlinear complexity integrations, our human cerebral faculty and cognitive function have become a truly iconic microcosm. In parallel fashion, artificial intelligence AI has set aside a machine basis for neural network topologies and processes as they gain wide application from quantum to cultural phases.
Ariswalla, Xerxes and Paul Verschure. The Global Dynamical Complexity of the Human Brain. Applied Network Science. Online December, 2016.
Ascoli, Giorgio. Trees of the Brain, Roots of the Mind. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.
Bassett, Danielle and Olaf Sporns. Network Neuroscience. Nature Neuroscience. 20/3, 2017.
Betzel, Richard. Organizing Principles of Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Zebrafish Larvae. Network Neuroscience. 4/1, 2020.
Baumgarten, Lorenz and Stefan Bornholdt. Critical Excitation-Inhibition Balance in Dense Neural Networks. arXiv:1903.12632.
Cocchi, Luca, et al. Criticality in the Brain. arXiv:1707.05952.
Fornito, Alex, et al. Bridging the Gap between Connectome and Transcriptome. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 23/1, 2019.
Kirchhoff, Michael. Predictive Brains and Embodied, Enactive Cognition. Synthese. 195/6, 2018.
Majhi, Soumen, et al. Chimera States in Neuronal Networks. Physics of Life Reviews. September, 2018.
Seung, Sebastian. Connectome: How the Brain’s Wiring Makes us Who We Are. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012.
Vazquez-Rodriguez, Bertha, et al. Stochastic Resonance at Criticality in a Network Model of the Human Cortex. Nature Scientific Reports. 7/13020, 2017.
Wang, Jilin, et al. Non-equilibrium Critical Dynamics of Bursts in θ and δ Rhythms as Fundamental Characteristic of Sleep and Wake Micro-architecture. PLoS Computational Biology. November, 2019.
View the 179 Bibliographic Entries
3. A Complementary Brain and Thought Process
While Emergent Bicameral Brain above reported a consistent presence of bilateral faculties across evolutionary animal lineages, this section records their developmental fulfillment in human beings with distinctive left and right hemisphere qualities. While long intimated, scientific proof began in the 1960s by way of the CalTech neuroscientist Roger Sperry. Into the 2010s, after decades of clinical and neuroimaging studies, an actual double, reciprocal asymmetry has been well quantified, as these citations convey. In general, the left side focuses on finer, discrete objects out of context, with the right half complement connecting the dots within a holistic field of view.
In recent years, additional takes upon alternative, cerebral archetypes have come into play. A “dual process” model due to Jonathan Evans, Daniel Kahneman, and others has conceived a slow (right) and fast (left) thinking version. These phases proceed in our daily cognizance, as they alsooccur in an evolutionary and historic train of wider image perception first with later quick detail attention. Another neural model is based on dorsal and ventral cognitive streams, see Marianne Wolf, Stephen Grossberg, Tara McHugh, Randall O’Reilly and others. Again the ventral component attends to What aspects such as words or events, while the dorsal path is contributes vital Where, Why contexts and meanings.
As another feature and corollary, conversational language is likewise facilitated by dual script and score modes. Along with literal speech and alphabetic text, a left brain specialty, a right side rythmic prosody is crucial for full communicative discourse. For example see Tecumseh Fitch, Nicola Clayton, Kevin Laland and others whence bodily hand gestures and dance movements are needed to convey for an overall message. And once more, these modes appear in a melodic to linguistic evolutionary sequence. In sum once again, a One Code litany of agent and relation, entity and empathy, network node and link, physical particle and wave, political conservative or liberal and so ever on continues to be just now affirmed across a procreative ecosmos.
Albouy, Philippe, et al. Distinct Sensitivity to Spectrotemporal Modulation Supports Brain Asymmetry for Speech and Melody. Science. 367/1043, 2020.
Chai, Lucy, et al. Functional Dynamics of the Language System. Cerebral Cortex. 26/11, 2016.
Crespi, Bernard, et al. Imagination in Human Social Cognition, Autism, and Psychotic-Affective Conditions. Cognition. 150/181, 2016.
De Haan, Edward, et al. Where are We Now with ‘What” and ‘How’? Cortex. 98/1, 2018.
Evans, Jonathan. Thinking Twice: Two Minds in One Brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Friederici, Angela. Language in Our Brain: The Origins of a Uniquely Human Capacity.Cambridge: MIT Press, 2017.
Grossberg, Stephen. Towards Solving the Hard Problem of Consciousness. Neural Networks. 87/38, 2017.
Hickok, Gregory and Steven Small, eds. Neurobiology of Language. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press, 2015.
McGilchrist, Iain. The Master and His Emissary. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019.
McHugh, Tara and Lori Buchanan. Pun Processing from a Psycholinguistic Perspective. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition. 21/4-6, 2016.
O’Reilly, Randall, et al. Deep Predictive Learning: A Comprehensive Model of Three Visual Streams. arXiv:1709.04654.
Rowson, Jonathan and Iain McGilchrist. Divided Brain, Divided World. iainmcgilchrist.com.
Schore, Allan. The Development of the Unconscious Mind. New York: Norton, 2019.
View the 117 Bibliographic Entries
4. Conscious Integrated Information Knowledge
Circa 2010, Giulio Tononi, Larissa Albantakis, Christoph Koch, Bernard Baars, Tim Palmer and others have engaged theoretical and experimental reasons that have since given knowing consciousness a physical essence. (An Intrinsic Consciousness has more about how a natural ecosmic source is evident.) The Integrated Information phrase was added to the title to represent this popular mathematic explanation for how our daily noosphere arises by way of a parallel, episodic reinforcement of complexity and consciousness. In a broad view this tandem interaction graces both our own senses, and distinguishes an evolutionary ascent to our worldwide moment. Another main model is known as the Global Workspace Theory whence thoughts are collected so as to enter aware notice.
2020: For this bidecadal review, a definitive progress from fleeting, sideline glimpses to knowledgable senticence accepted as a respectable international endeavor is well in place. By a 2020 revolution, a natural genesis comes alive and personal. A once and future sense of an actual ecosmic consciousness which finds its self-recognition in phenomenal human beings is at last affirmed.
Chalmers, David. Constructing the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Dehaene, Stanislas. Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts. New York: Viking, 2014.
Esteban, Francisco, et al. Informational Structures: A Dynamical System Approach for Integrated Information. PLoS Computational Biology. September, 2018.
Feinberg, Todd and Jon Mallatt. The Evolutionary and Genetic Origins of Consciousness in the Cambrian Period Over 500 Million Years Ago. Frontiers in Psychology. 4/667, 2013.
Ginsburg, Simona and Eva Jablonka. The Evolution of the Sensitive Soul: Learning and the Origins of Consciousness. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2019.
Mashour, George, et al. Conscious Processing and the Global Neuronal Workspace Hypothesis. Neuron. 105/5, 2020.
Mateos, D. M., et al. Consciousness as a Global Property of Brain Dynamic Activity. arXiv:1710.08384.
Palmer, Tim. Human Creativity and Consciousness. arXiv:2002.03738.
Popiel, Nicholas, et al. The Emergence of Integrated Information, Complexity, and “Consciousness” at Criticality. Entropy. 22/3, 2020.
Tononi, Giulio. Consciousness as Integrated Information. Biological Bulletin. 215/3, 2008.
Tononi, Giulio and Christof Koch. Consciousness: Here, There but Not Everywhere. arXiv:1405.7089.
View the 91 Bibliographic Entries
5. Half the UniVerse: A Woman's 2020 Wisdome
As we consider individual persons, the most significant feature of anyone’s life is surely their gender. As well known, feminine and masculine identity roles have long been burdened with tribal and cultural agendas, academic distortions, male definitions and resultant abusive injustice. We are aware of the September 2017 Scientific American Gender issue and do not wish to add another opinion on the contentious subject. Rather, into these later 2010s, via an emergent, bicameral humankinder it might be finally possible to reach an innate phenomenal basis for egalitarian complementarities. As this resource tries to document, the worldwise discovery of a greater organic genesis which exists on its own (a woman’s ecosmos) can illuminate natural bigender principles, an ecosmic complementarity, as they array across, distinguish and inform a familial procreation.
This radical difference can be viewed from a number of once and future areas. As noted in Cosmome Code and throughout, an independent generative source which repeats in kind everywhere is now known as a dynamic interplay of two prime modes of relational linkages and nodal agents. As the nonlinear sciences of self-organizing complex adaptive networks abstractly express, each scale and instance from cosmos to culture is composed of dual dot, particle, entity component and relational, communicative, modular, associative modes, roles or phases. One may cite particle and wave, neuron and axon, DNA nucleotides and AND regulation, an Ubuntu me + We = US, and so on over an infinite recurrence.
From another aspect, an evolutionary radiation across creaturely forms from earliest rudiments of a double neural faculty is now well proven, see Emergent Bicameral Brain. Moreover, the same left side specific detail focus and right contextual field holds from invertebrates to our sapiens. We next record a perennial philosophy with a core essence of an anima/animus reciprocity from microcosm to macrocosm. Yin + yang = Tao, each with a modicum of the other, may be the most familiar. Another emergent manifestation seem in effect on a civilizational scale by the quantified presence east and west, south and north archetypal hemispheres. Moving on, confluence of studies and accounts contribute more evidence. On average male brains are larger than females, but their left and right hemispheres are less connected. Women, however, have a larger corpus callosum and are found to avail both sides in concert. As a result, women’s brains have a superior composite faculty since they need to take in both trees and the whole forest. Might one suggest a contrast phrase of Warrior and Worrier?
2020: Again, we do not seek to define or categorize, rather to offer a novel basis and guide by way of a natural universe to human archetypal complementarity. As yin/yang well depicts, the roles or modes are ever dynamically malleable. A sensitive bicameral unity of women and men can return and fulfill both halves of the world, sky and a maternal genesis ecosmos, for the Children’s sake. One could go on with matter/symbol, particle/wave, me/We = US identities, a suggestion is warrior/worrier.
Adenzato, Mauro, et al. Gender Differences in Cognitive Theory of Mind. Nature Scientific Reports. 7/41219, 2017.
Cahill, Larry. An Issue Whose Time Has Come. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 95/1-2, 2017.
Cochran, Tracy, ed. The Divine Feminine. Parabola: The Search for Meaning. 41/1, Spring, 2016.
Feminist, Alternatives. My Dream is to be Bold: Our Work to End Patriarchy. Cape Town, RSA: Pambazuka Press, 2011.
Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, ed. Societies of Peace: Matriarchies Past, Present and Future. Toronto: Inanna Publications, 2009.
Grosz, Elizabeth. The Incorporeal: Ontology, Ethics, and the Limits of Materialism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2017.
Gur, Ruben and Raquel Gur. Complementarity of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 95/1-2, 2017.
Keresztes, Laszlo, et al. Identifying Super-Feminine, Super-Masculine and Sex-Defining Connections in the Human Braingraph. arXiv:1912.02291.
MacGregor, Sherilyn, ed. Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment. London: Routledge, 2017.
Orrell, David. Truth or Beauty: Science and the Quest for Order. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
Tadic, Bosiljka, et al. Functional Geometry of Human Connectome and Robustness of Gender Differences. arXiv:1904.03399.
Wang, Robin. Yinyang: The Way of Heaven and Earth in Chinese Thought and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
View the 100 Bibliographic Entries
6. Our Holosymbiotic Personal Selves
As evolutionary life stirs to self-awareness, the broad field of human psychology sought to understand our human mental milieu, behaviors, emotions, and more with reference to anatomical, biochemical and genetic substrates. A first concern was to identify and mitigate the psychic maladies that inflict night and day. In the 1980s a confluence of neuroscience, linguistics, comprehension, artificial intelligence, and philosophy became known as cognitive science. Humanistic and transpersonal versions began shift the focus from deficits to positive enhancement.
This project often divided into camps of nature vs. nurture. One side, under rubrics of nativism, essentialism or rationalism, argues that preset programs govern. The other, variously as behaviorism, constructivism or empiricism, contends people hold to external influences and make life up as they go along. In the 1990s and 2000s an “evolutionary psychology” traced Darwinian roots for paternal investment, mate choice, altruism, rank, prejudice and so on. Another take conceived mental capacity as a congress of “modules” or “mental organs,” so to solve adaptive problems or deal with new experience. And as observers note, knowledge of ourselves does not determine but can in fact liberate.
Into the 2010s, a rising integration within a genesis cosmology draws upon the sciences of complex systems which promises deeper understandings of myriad human mores. The integral psyche is seen to mature and be sustained by the same self-organized, fractal, network dynamics as the development of the living universe. Ones selfhood is likened to an autopoietic process which refers to, maintains and creates its own, personal identity. As 2020 nears, an integral image of a symbiotic, holobiont, microcosmic selfhood is coming into view.
Cosmides, Leda and John Tooby. Evolutionary Psychology: New Perspectives on Cognition and Motivation. Annual Review of Psychology. 64/201, 2013.
Damasio, Antonio. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. New York: Pantheon Books, 2010.
Feinberg, Todd. From Axons to Identity: Neurological Explorations of the Nature of the Self. New York: Norton, 2009.
Gergen, Kenneth. Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Harter, Susan. The Construction of the Self. New York: Guilford Press, 2012.
Markus, Hazel and Shinobu Kitayama. Cultures and Selves: A Cycle of Mutual Constitution. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 5/4, 2010.
Moura, Joelson, et al. Theoretical Insights of Evolutionary Psychology. Evolutionary Biology. January, 2020.
Prinz, Wolfgang. Open Minds: The Social Making of Agency and Intentionality. Cambridge: MIT Press,, 2012.
Thagard, Paul. The Self as a System of Multilevel Interacting Mechanisms. Philosophical Psychology. 27/2, 2014.
View the 100 Bibliographic Entries
7. Archetypal Psychology
This Integral Human review has shown how somatic and neural net development, a gender mutuality, and self-organized personality arise from and exemplify the phenomenal naturome code. This final section will consider our arduous, lifelong struggly for psychic unity. In regard (to gloss a vast literature) we enlist the archetypal psychology of Sigmund Freud’s younger contemporary Carl Jung (1875-1961). Drawing upon a rich corpus of mythic, alchemical, shamanic and religious wisdom, a life passage can be traced from a maternal embrace which must be parted with so to enter a treacherous external world in search of a ones own distinct persona. Phases of experiment, test and loss, in symbolism a cathartic disintegration, eventually leads to palliative reunification. Opposites of feminine anima and masculine animus separate in allegorical death and rebirth on the way to sacred marriage as a whole person.
Mythic dimensions bring illustrative value. A male “hero” is more involved with aspects of conflict and quest, the female “heroine” evokes beneficent synthesis. Masculine phases align more with a transit between levels while the feminine resides at origins and futures. And there is a crucial point for a natural genesis narrative. In their classic essence, Buddha, the Grail Knight, Dante, pilgrim, shaman, and each candidate must ultimately come to their own witness and discovery. The guides retire, the task cannot be done for them. In order to attain new being the seeker need realize for themselves a reception of wisdom. As Carl Jung, Pierre Teilhard, Freya Mathews and others have proposed, human, earthly and cosmic psychogenesis are, as they must be, one and the same.
Berzonsky, Carol and Susanne Moser. Becoming Homo Sapiens Sapiens: Mapping the Psycho-Cultural Transformation in the Anthropocene. Anthropocene. Online November, 2017
Cambray, Joseph and Leslie Sawin, eds. Research in Analytical Psychology: Applications from Scientific, Historical, and Cross-Cultural Research. London: Routledge, 2018.
Drob, Sanford. Kabbalistic Visions: C. G. Jung and Jewish Mysticism. New Orleans: Spring Journal Books, 2010.
Horowitz, Mardi. Identity and the New Psychoanalytic Explorations of Self-Organization. London: Routledge, 2014.
Nicolaus, Georg. C. G. Jung and Nikolai Berdyaev: Individuation and the Person. London: Routledge, 2011.
Skar, Patricia. Chaos and Self-Organization: Emergent Patterns at Critical Life Transitions. Journal of Analytical Psychology. 49/2, 2004.
View the 46 Bibliographic Entries
B. EarthKinder: A Personsphere Progeny
The first four sections of Part VI, Earth Life Emergence, documented how common, genome-like self-organizing forms and functions underlie, impel and distinguish a nested evolution from original conceptions to a viable biosphere. New parallels were then noted between our species phylogeny and individual ontogeny. Integral Persons contained much evidence for bigender persons as active exemplars of and participants in a self-making Earthly and cosmic genesis.
A further, sequential transition seems to be going on to an integral super-organic phase as if a planetary progeny. Earth is a finite globe and niche which serves to compress our hyper-interconnected humanity into a whole somatic and cerebral physiosphere, along with a collaborative knowledge, and fledgling self-identity. This multipart section covers aspects of a linguistic cultural code, human societies as complex adaptive systems, a worldwide anatomy and metabolism, east/west and south/north bicameral civilizations, as also evident in world religions. The stage is then set to consider, in retrospect, how the long travail of world macrohistory may appear as a relative psychic individuation.
1. A Cultural (Geonome) Code
This is an eclectic section much about human language and communication across many aspects and versions. A companion resource is Rosetta Complex Literary Systems above. The significant import is that even this far removed domain can yet be seen to manifest the universal dynamic, self-organizing, genetic-like system. Its influential presence is noticed in the evolution of human language, with regard to constructive grammar and syntax, along with informational content, and on to script and speech complements. Personal conversation and even a historic literary corpus are also found to have a congruent heritage. And within this website compass, one is prompted to add a “Systems Linguistics” phrase.
And within this website compass, one is prompted to add a “Systems Linguistics” phrase. We also seek to broach an emergent transition to a global “geonome” identity for the sum repository and content of our homo to anthropo sapience.
2020: As this section content, and elsewhere from quantum organics to fractal-like recursive programs, an innate textual narrative seems to suffuse uniVerse and humanVerse. We also seek to broach an emergent transition to a global “geonome” identity for the sum repository and content of our homo to anthropo sapience.
Atkinson, Quentin. The Descent of Words. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110/4159, 2013.
Beckner, Clay, et al. Language as a Complex Adaptive System. Language Learning. 59/Supp. 1, 2009.
Blythe, Richard. Symmetry and Universality in Language Change. arXiv:1508.05297.
Diessel, Holger. The Grammar Network: How Linguistic Structure is Shaped by Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Hurford, James. The Origins of Grammar: Language in the Light of Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Kirby, Simon. Culture and Biology in the Origins of Linguistic Structure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 24/1, 2017.
Loreto, Vittorio, et al. Statistical Physics of Language Dynamics. Journal of Statistical Mechanics. 4/P04006, 2011.
MacWhinney, Brian and William O’Grady, eds. The Handbook of Language Emergence. New York: Wiley, 2015.
Progovac, Ljiljana. Evolutionary Syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Steels, Luc. Agent-Based Models for the Emergence and Evolution of Grammar. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 371/20150447, 2016.
Youn, Hyejin, et al. On the Universal Structure of Human Lexical Semantics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113/1766, 2016.
View the 112 Bibliographic Entries
2. Complex Local to Global Network Biosocieties
This is an umbrella section for many exemplary aspects of smaller and larger human habitations. As the case with psychologies noted above, the growing application of nonlinear science to the multi-faceted field of sociology has also led to a notice of a common, innate mathematical basis. Rather than one thing after another sans any deeper context, a global vista can retrospectfully perceive how complex dynamic systems likewise self-organize into an exemplary shape and interaction of groups, assemblies, settlements and cities. A steady, nested scale then ranges from a few members to a metropolis. As introduced in Organic Societies earlier, bounded communities again seem to evolve toward a composite organism-like cognitive coherence. As various papers report, from political elections, sporting events, social media, financial commerce, to migrations, and even battlefield chaos, can yet be found a constant mathematical format.
2020: Two decades into the 21st century, most aspects of our multiplex, linguistic local and global cultures been reinterpreted by way of nonlinear dynamic self-organizing systems, along with algorithmic programs and onto a statistical physics influence. As Frank Schweitzer, Matjaz Perc, Poleminia Amazeen and others advise, by a proper, respectful understanding of these forces and formations, a much better neighborhood and national might then be achieved.
Amazeen, Poleminia. From Physics to Social Interactions: Scientific Unifications via Dynamics. Cognitive Systems Research. 52/640, 2018.
Blanton, Richard and Lane Fargher. How Humans Cooperate. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 2016.
Drozdz, Stanislaw, et al. Complexity in Economic and Social Systems. Entropy. April, 2020.
Hall, Gavin and William Bialek. The Statistical Mechanics of Twitter. arXiv:1812.07029.
Kesebir, Selin. The Superorganism Account of Human Sociality. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 16/3, 2012.
Mesoudi, Alex. Prospects for a Science of Cultural Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114/7853, 2017.
Muthukrishna, Michael, et al. The Cultural Brain Hypothesis. PLoS Computational Biology. November, 2018.
Perc, Matjaz, et al. Statistical Physics of Human Cooperation. Physics Reports. Online May, 2017.
Schweitzer, Frank. Sociophysics. Physics Today. February, 2018.
Thurner, Stefan. Virtual Social Science. arXiv:1811.08156.
Whiten, Andrew, et al. The Extension of Biology Through Culture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114/7775, 2017.
View the 140 Bibliographic Entries
3. Planetary Physiosphere: Anatomics, Economics, Urbanomics
Historians, architects, and writers have often noted that our composite human societies, especially in urban settings, might be seen in their material circulations, skeletal infrastructure, and cognitive cultures to take on a likeness of the anatomy, metabolism and nervous system of a developing organism. As the title cites, into the 21st century settlements from villages to cities have equally been described dynamic exemplars of nature’s complex, fractal, cellular, network self-organization. A corollary is then their intentional recreation in an organic way (car arteries, speed limits as blood pressure), but seems inhibited by older mechanistic models. So once more in our homo to anthropo sapiens emergent transition, our abidances are vibrant manifestations of life and mind writ larger. This section also reports a shift in finance and commerce from equilibrium models as another dynamic complexity revision, aka econophysics.
2020: As metropolises swell and fester, suburban sprawl consumes, along with war and climate driven migrations, an occasion of natural geonomics guidance so that we may heal and reconceive ourselves in organic, bigender, communal ways is so vital. As the pandemia may wane, we have an historic and imperative opportunity to altogether sustain and save our Earthmost abide.
Baccini, Peter and Paul Brunner. Metabolism of the Anthroposphere. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012.
Bardoscia, Marco, et al. Statistical Mechanics of Complex Economies. Journal of Statistical Mechanics. Online April, 2017.
Batty, Michael. Inventing Future Cities. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018.
Cogdell, Christina. Toward a Living Architecture?: Complexism and Biology in Generative Design. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2019.
D’Acci, Luce, ed. The Mathematics of Urban Morphology. Springer: Birkhauser, 2019.
Helbing, Dirk, et al. Saving Human Lives: What Complexity Science and Information Systems can Contribute. Journal of Statistical Physics. Online June, 2014.
Netto, Vincius, et al. Cities, from Information to Interaction. Entropy. 20/11, 2018.
Pumain, Denise and Juste Raimbault. Perspectives on Urban Theories. arXiv:1911.02854.
White, Roger, et al. Modeling Cities and Regions as Complex Systems. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2015.
View the 134 Bibliographic Entries
4. A Complementarity of Civilizations
“East is east and west is west, and never the twain shall meet” wrote Rudhyar Kipling long ago. Nowadays many research studies in comparative social psychology report that western and eastern cultures do indeed generally reflect polar autonomous individual or communal group attributes. This website module serves to document how the universal archetypes are manifestly evident even on a global stage. But these reciprocal phases are rarely appreciated and often set in opposition with strife and injustice. If civilizations that are long bent on “clashing” could be seen as natural complements, a path to their salutary mutual reconciliation might result.
And another, equal area of continental contrast with much violence and strife is post-colonial Africa, along with South America. A lesser known but crucial finding is that the same complements seem hold for Southern and Northern hemispheres (Stephanie De Oliveira, Richard Nisbett). A resolve might also accrue here, with an especial avail for better racial understandings (see World Philosophy, Molefi Kete Asante, Maulana Karenga, Messay Kebede, et al). Such instances among many cry out for a dispensation and promise of a nascent worldwide wumankinder knowledge.
2020: We write in September when a diametric nuclear standoff between the USA versus China and/or Russia, maybe also Iran, North Korea, intensifies. Seventy-five years after World War II barbarian warlords, are ready to go it at once more. Yet as these 100+ entries attest, just as our cerebral brains come with bicameral hemispheres, so to the same reciprocal archetypes are in real effect across east and west, south and north cultures.
Bao, Yan, et al. Complementarity as Generative Principle. Frontiers in Psychology. Online May, 2017.
De Oliveira, Stephanie and Richard Nisbett. Beyond East and West: Cognitive Style in Latin America. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 48/10, 2017.
Han, Shihui. The Sociocultural Brain: A Cultural Neuroscience Approach to Human. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Hwang, Kwang-kuo. Foundations of Chinese Psychology: Confucian Social Relations. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.
Kessler, Klaus, et al. A Cross-Culture, Cross-Gender Comparison of Perspective Taking Mechanisms. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 281/20140388, 2014.
Nisbett, Richard. Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking. New York: Farrar, Strauss, Giroux, 2015.
Oyserman, Daphna. Culture as Situated Cognition: Cultural Mindsets, Cultural Fluency, and Meaning Making. European Review of Social Psychology. 22/1, 2011.
Pattberg, Thorsten. The East-West Dichotomy. Peking: Pattberg, 2009.
Poppel, Ernst. East of West, West of East: A Matter of Global and Local Identity. Cognitive Processing. 19/S.1, 2018.
Targowski, Andrew. The Limits of Civilization. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Scientific, 2016.
View the 103 Bibliographic Entries
5. Bicameral World Religions
The great Asian and Abrahamic world faiths arose in a first “axial period” circa 500 B.C. to 700 A.D. Within the website theme, it is offered that a worldwide complementarity might also occur between Western and Eastern belief and doctrine. As scholars note, these spiritual hemispheres align with basic responses or dichotomies of God and the human, heaven or earth, linear or cyclical time, and so on. For Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism, in broad survey, the numinous cosmos is animate in kind, a viable organism. A quintessence is original and ascendant mind, harmony and balance exist on their phenomenal own. As noted above, Eastern cultures are more communal or wave-like with an emphasis on group vaues.
In our broad gloss, Western values and creeds mostly take to an opposite, particulate, material mode. A person is separate, apart from God, the earth somehow flawed, fallen. To equate oneself with God is heretical. For Judaism, Christianity and Islam, the Divine is transcendent but remote; one is a sinful mendicant, the world has little value in itself. At the Western pole, an extroverted individual supersedes social concerns. A unique instance may be the Muslim milieu, which although an Abrahamic faith sees itself as ‘neither east nor west’ (William Chittick, Tu Weiming). If we might extend the brain hemisphere analogy, Islam’s geographical location from Morocco to Indonesia is somewhat where an interbridging ‘corpus callosum’ would be. And such speculations are respectfully offered as an example of what might be gained from a humankind vista.
In addition, this outline section for global belief systems also records a 21st century theological resolution known as Pan-en-theism. Rather than older Pantheism for an encompassing divine essence, it is being realized that numinosity must abide both in paternal transcendence and maternal procreative immanence. Prime works in regard are Panentheism by John Cooper, and Panentheism Across the World's Traditions, edited by Loriliai Biernacki and Philip Clayton.
Biernacki, Loriliai and Philip Clayton, eds. Panentheism Across the World's Traditions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Choi, Kwang Sun. Ecozoic Spirituality. New York: Peter Lang, 2015.
Cohen, Adam, et al. Religion and Culture: Individualism and Collectivism in the East and West. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Online August, 2016.
Jaeshik, Shin. Mapping One World: Religion and Science from an East Asian Perspective. Zygon. 51/1, 2016.
Knysh, Alexander. Sufism: A New History of Islamic Mysticism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.
McGilchrist, Iain. God, Metaphor, and the Language of the Hemispheres. Chilton, Paul and Monika Kopytowska, eds. Religion, Language, and the Human Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.
Shanta, Bhakti Niskama. Life and Consciousness: The Vedantic View. Communicative & Integrative Biology. 8/5, 2015.
View the 42 Bibliographic Entries
6. Contrasts of Religion and Science
An historic reconvergence of scientific and religious encounters has been underway but the project is daunted because a current materialist, Ptolemaic verdict cannot be reconciled with belief in and proof of a Divine creator and Earthly purpose. Signs of an ordained design by way of the “anthropic principle” are a prime endeavor. Glimpses of an innately self-organizing cosmos occur but the waxing realization of a genesis universe whereof Earth and human have their own intrinsic value has not yet registered.
Conradie, Ernst, ed. Creation and Salvation. Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2012.
Conway Morris, Simon. Darwin’s Compass: How Evolution Discovers the Song of Creation. Manning, Russell Re and Michael Bryne, eds. Science and Religion in the Twenty-First Century. London: SCM Press, 2013.
Gilbert, Scott. Wonder and the Necessary Alliances of Science and Religion. Euresis Journal. Volume 4, 2013.
Pruett, Dave. Reason and Wonder: A Copernican Revolution in Science and Spirit. New York: Praeger, 2012.
Rutman, Joel Yehudah. Why Evolution Matters: A Jewish Approach. London: Valentine Mitchell, 2014.
Sacks, Jonathan. The Great Partnership: Science, Religion, and the Search for Meaning. New York: Schocken Books, 2012.
Sloan, Phillip, et al, eds. Darwin in the Twenty First Century: Nature, Humanity, and God. Norte Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2015.
View the 93 Bibliographic Entries
7. Systems History: Personal and Planetary Individuation
Historians and philosophers have often sought to discern forces and trends, if any at all, that might underlie, impel and trace the arduous course of peoples, cultures, nations, migrations and civilizations. Because these efforts are fraught with issues, baggage, sparse signs and more, such a “metanarrative” has been abandoned. But as global complex self-organization theories reveal a phenomenal genesis universe, the project may at last be possible. A prime guide has been the University of Connecticut scholar Peter Turchin and colleagues through writings and a Cliodynamics: Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History journal.
This eclectic section is also a home for the popular Big History vista founded in the 2000s by the Australian historian David Christian to naturally join and root our momentary human phase rightly into the cosmic evolutionary processes it arose from. See also Universal Evolution in Chapter III for contributions by Russian scholars to this necessary perspective.
And for another view, over our history/herstory abidance might even be seen as a mythic quest for personal and planetary individuation. Wumanity’s ephocal traverse rises from a prehistoric animate, mostly maternal milieu onto millennia of patriarchal cast as anima and animus interact, separate and conflict. As well known, male mentalities rule to this day with war-obsessed competitions, vitally in need of feminine mediation. As Richard Tarnas, Suzanne Kirschner, Freya Mathews, Arne Naess, and ancient wisdom illume, individual selves, whole earth life and maybe an eosmos seem to be engaged in a temporal struggle toward self-witness, realization, and empowerment.
Bohan, Elise, et al, eds. Big History. New York: DK Publishing, 2016.
Boyer, Pascal. Minds Make Societies: How Cognition Explains the World Humans Create. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018.
Christian, David. Origin Story: A Big History of Everything. New York: Little Brown, 2018.
Clemens, Walter. Complexity Science and World Affairs. Albany: SUNY Press, 2014.
Hornborg, Alf and Carole Crumley, eds. The World System and the Earth System. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2007.
Krakauer, David, et al. An Inquiry into History, Big History, and Metahistory. Cliodynamics: Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History. 2/1, 2011.
Shryock, Andrew and Daniel Lord Smail, eds. Deep History: The Architecture of Past and Present. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.
Spier, Fred. Big History and the Future of Humanity. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015.
Turchin, Peter. Secular Cycles. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.
View the 78 Bibliographic Entries