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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 16 through 30 of 66 found.


Ecosmos: A 21st Century Fertile, Habitable, Solar-Bioplanet Lifescape

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Universal

Touil, Akram, et al. Branching States as the Emergent Structure of a Quantum Universe. arXiv:2208.05497. AT, Sebastian Deffner, University of Maryland, Fabio Anza, University of Washington and James Crutchfield, UC Davis seek to build on and advance the Wojciech Zurek’s collegial Darwinian version as it gains a depth, breadth and credence since the 1980s.. See a concurrent posting by Zurek as Quantum Theory of the Classical: Einselection, Envariance, Quantum Darwinism (2208.09019) where the LANL physicist continues to perceive, articulate, define, clarify and express a physical environ with its own broadly selective essence.

Quantum Darwinism builds on decoherence effects to explain the emergence of classical behavior within a quantum universe. Here we describe how the differential geometric underpinnings of quantum mechanics provide a unique informative window into the correlations which can validate these theories. We show that the branching structure of the joint system state is compatible with zero discord, find that the global structure of the pure state branches as expected. (Flavor excerpt)

Geometric Quantum Mechanics is a differential-geometric approach to quantum mechanics by way adding new tools and concepts. In this work, we exploited its ability to describe open quantum systems via classical probability measures. Part of the strength of using GQM is its ability to visualize the structure of the globally pure wave-function. We leveraged this to investigate the structures of quantum states compatible with the emergence of a classical phenomenology, as prescribed by Quantum Darwinism. By way of both geometric quantum mechanics and quantum information theory we established that classical phenomenology can emerge if the global wave-function is close to a branching form. The emergence of classicality is therefore understood as a self-organizing process occurring in the space of quantum states. (6)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Adhikari, Susmita, et al. Astrophysical Tests of Dark Matter Self-Interactions. arXiv:2207.10638. Fourteen scientists in India, the USA, the UK, Germany and Iceland post a 58 page study with 688 references about our latest worldwise collatorative engagement with this novel substantial phase. Our take is then meant to record these recent findings of its apparent tendency to interact and organize on its own. The copious entry is also a good instance of such 2020s Earthropocene era scientific frontiers, on the way it seems to a whole Ecosmos quantification. See also A Better Way to Define Dark Matter Haloes by this team at 2207.11827. (Whom are we Earthlings altogether to be able to do and learn these features? Whatever grand discovery might we begin imagine, if to allow the very thought?)

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) arises generically in physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model that have dark sectors with light mediators or strong dynamics. SIDM models provide a promising way to explain galactic rotation curves, and go onto form a versatile framework for interpreting astrophysical phenomena. This review provides a comprehensive explanation of the physical effects and structures of SIDM ranging from galactic satellites to clusters. The review then discusses the theoretical motivation for self-interactions, degeneracies with gravitational effects, extensions to the single-component elastic-interactions SIDM framework, and future prospects. (Excerpts)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Aluri, Pavan, et al. Is the Observable Universe Consistent with the Cosmological Principle?. arXiv:2207.05765. We continue to cite entries such as this 85 page, 555 reference paper by a 24 person team posted in India, Italy, China, the UK, Belgium, Korea, Poland, Germany, Portugal, the USA, Iran, and New Zealand as a prime example of 2020s global collaborations. In some four centuries since Galileo our human explorations and findings have gone from a moon to a Multiverse. An Earthropocene sapiensphere now proceeds apace to achieve breadth and depth quantifications of the whole ecosmic uniVerse. In a planatural philosophia, it could seem that these scientific missions may serve an intended, functional requirement of a cocreative self-description, comprehension, acknowledge and affirmation.

The Cosmological Principle (CP) is the notion that the Universe is spatially isotropic and homogeneous on large scales, which culminates in the highly predictive Λ-Cold-Dark-Matter (ΛCDM) model. Yet issues remain and here we review current observations that may deviate from the standard CP. Such as varying cosmological parameters, cosmic dipoles and galaxy spins. While it is possible that a host of observational systematics are impacting results, it is equally plausible that precision cosmology may have outgrown the FLRW paradigm, an extremely pragmatic but non-fundamental symmetry assumption. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Foster, Joshua, et al.. Dark Grand Unification in the Axiverse: Decaying Axion Dark Matter and Spontaneous Baryogenesis. arXiv:2208.10504. We cite this entry by MIT, UC Berkeley, and Israel Institute of Technology theorists among a growing flow about our ever expansive, engaging surround and how vast and deep our collective global intellects are able to reach. By a Planatural philoSophia vista, Earthuman peoples quite seem to be performing an ordained, functional role as universal quantifiers, describers, recorders, maybe acknowledgers, of some manner a cocreative existence which needs its own self-observance and recognition. See Detecting and Analyzing the Topology of the Cosmic Web with Spatial Clustering Algorithms by Dimitrios Kelesis, et al (2208.11393) for another example.

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Ji, Zhiyuan and Mauro Giavalisco. Reconstructing the Assembly of Massive Galaxies. II. Galaxies Develop Dense Stellar Cores as They Evolve toward Quiescence at Cosmic Noon. arXiv:2208.04325. We choose this entry by UM Amherst astronomers among many studies across the 21st century universe frontier for its exemplary content as worldwise explorers go forward with a seemingly innate, unlimited capability. Again how fantastic is it that we peoples can explore, reconstruct and quantify such wide and deep celestial realms, as if performing, unawares as yet, some intended Ecosmic sapiens function of self-description and realization. See also for example Galaxy Clustering from the Bottom Up by Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro, et al at 2208.05218.

I also wish to record that living a few miles away, for many years I have attended the Astronomy department weekly lecture symposium with presenters such as Debra Fischer (Yale), Fred Adams (U. Michigan), Tom Arny (UM), Anna Frebel (MIT), Nick Cowan (McGill) and many more.

We use the SED-fitting code Prospector to reconstruct the nonparametric star formation history (SFH) of massive star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and quiescent galaxies (QGs) at redshift to investigate the joint evolution of galactic star-formation activity and structural properties. We find significant correlations between the SFH and their morphology. We discuss possible physical scenarios for the observed evolution and find that our empirical constraints are in good quantitative agreement with the model predictions. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Linder, Eric. Isogrowth Cosmology (How to Map the Universe). arXiv:2204.09071. The UC Berkeley astrophysicist casts back to 20th century findings about galactic, supernova, dark energy phenomena so to now view an ever-unfolding state of the Universe as an Earthuman intellect achieves such scientific perceptions and spacescape explorations. While Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) and Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594) once set out to circle and depict our round planet, some five centuries later our global sapiensphere continues this innate endeavor across the celestial raiment.

While general relativity ties together the cosmic expansion history and growth history of large scale structure, beyond the standard model these can have independent behaviors. We derive expressions for cosmologies with identical growth histories but different expansion histories, or other deviations. This provides a relation for isogrowth cosmologies, but also highlights in general the need for observations to measure each of the growth, expansion, gravity, and dark matter property histories. (Abstract)

In Section II (Cosmic Growth History) we derive the relations for isogrowth cosmology, and in Section III investigate three subcases where certain aspects of the physics have freedom while fixing others (i.e. the matter, gravity, and expansion behaviors). We discuss the use of isogrowth cosmology as a clear demonstration of freedoms and connections, and conclude with the general vision of mapping all four histories, in Section IV. (1) The mapping of all these histories through cosmological observations should be a central part of the vision for understanding our universe in the next two decades. (4)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Urbanowski, K.. A Universe Born in a Metastable False Vacuum State Need Not Die. arXiv:2207.10965. We enter this far-ranging contribution by a University of Zielona Gora, Poland physicist among a flow of recent studies to register that our historic Earthuman, person/planet, scientific endeavors have just now gained abilities to hypothetically contemplate an entire ecosmos as a unitary whole. See also Quintessential Cosmological Tensions by Arslan Adil and Andreas Albrecht (UC Davis) at 2207.10235. Our planatural view is note how fantastic it is that over 400 moon to multiverse years a most minute but novice Earthwise knowsphere can achieve such vast vistas. While brave Poland persists, it is again eyed by a nuclear enemy. However into the 2020s can our phenomenal Ecosmo sapiens capacity, role and significance become known in time?

We try to find astro-parameters which can allow a universe born in a certain condition to survive and not collapse. Our findings involve inequalities linking the depending on time t instantaneous decay rate Γ(t) of the false vacuum and the Hubble value H(t). Our analysis shows that the instability of the electroweak vacuum does not have to result in the tragic fate of our Universe leading to its death. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos

Vidotto, Francesca. Time, Space and Matter in the Primordial Universe. arXiv:2207.13722. We note this essay by a University of Western Ontario philosopher with a physics PhD from the University of Pavia so to witness and record the awesome abilities of a human person within a learned Earthwide sapiensphere to cast visionary, intellectual considerations across such cosmic reaches and substantial depths. We exemplary Earthuman beings might be well seen as participant quantifiers, describers, explainers that such a spacescape reality needs in order to re-present and acknowledge itself.

Time, space, and matter are categories of our reasoning, whose properties appear to be fundamental. However, these require a scrutiny as in the extreme regime of the primordial universe these present quantum properties. What does it mean for time to be quantum? What does it mean for space? Concepts such as the superposition of causal structures or the quantum granularity of space should be clarified to understand these cosmological physics. The answers to these questions, that touch the very concepts with which we organize our understanding of reality, require that we confront ourselves with empirical data, whence the universe itself is the best of possible laboratories. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

Kallosh, Renata and Andrei Linde. Hybrid Cosmological Attractors. arXiv:2204.02425.. We record this latest post from the esteemed Stanford University wife and husband physicists who have continued for four decades to study how the universe seems to have begun in an explosive instant. In regard, in September 1983 I attended at Harvard the first public lecture (overhead slides) that Andrei Linde gave since coming to the USA from Russia.

We construct α-attractor versions of hybrid inflation models. In these models, the potential of the inflation field φ is uplifted by the potential of the second field χ. This uplifting ends due to a tachyonic instability with respect to the field χ, which appears when φ becomes smaller than some critical value φc. In the large N limit, these models have the standard universal α-attractor predictions. This provides significant flexibility, which can be very welcome in view of the rapidly growing amount and precision of the cosmological data. Our main result is not specific to the hybrid inflation models. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > Quantum Cosmology

McCormick, Katie. Particle Physicists Puzzle Over a New Duality. Quanta. August 1, 2022. A science journalist describes a confluence of recent empirical physics findings that infer a certain code-like relation in a gluon phase. A prime investigator Lance Dixon, a Stanford University astro-particle physicist, whose collegial paper is Folding Amplitudes into Form Factors: An Antipodal Duality in Physical Review Letters (128/111602, 2022). Dixon was joined by Anastasia Volovich and others which led to a “letters” identity for a particle’s energy and momentum. Our interest is how readily a genetic view is adopted so to consider that some similar correspondence might be going on.

A hidden link has been found between two seemingly unrelated particle collision outcomes. It’s the latest example of a mysterious web of mathematical connections between disparate theories of physics.

Dixon compares this new antipodal phenomena to the genetic code, in which four chemical building blocks combine to form the genes in a strand of DNA. Like the genetic code, the “DNA of particle scattering,” as he calls it, has rules about which combinations of words are allowed. Some of these rules follow from known physical or mathematical principles, but others seem arbitrary. In Dixon’s DNA analogy, the duality is like reading a genetic sequence backward and realizing that it encodes a totally new protein unrelated to the one encoded by the original sequence.

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

Fontaine, Quentin, et al.. Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Universality in a One-Dimensional Polariton Condensate. Nature. August 24, 2022. Sixteen physicists in France, Belgium and Italy mainly at the University of Paris-Saclay cite experimental instances of consistent, reliable formations that occur across many “physical” occasions. (a reason why we added Statistical Organics to the section title). See a review A New Phase for the Universal Growth of Interfaces by Sebastian Diehl in the same issue which lauds the quality and wider significance of these findings.

Revealing universal behaviours is a hallmark of statistical physics. Phenomena such as the stochastic growth of crystalline surfaces and of interfaces in bacterial colonies, and spin transport in quantum magnets all belong to the same universality class, despite wide microscopic differences. In each systems, space–time correlations show power-law scalings with similar critical exponents, a dynamic commonality governed by the nonlinear stochastic Kardar–Parisi–Zhang (KPZ) equation (see Wikipedia, G. Parisi is a 2021 Nobel winner). Our empirical studies show that phase evolutions in a driven-dissipative one-dimensional polariton condensate indeed holds to the KPZ universality class. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > cosmos > physics

Rovelli, Carlo. The Relational Interpretation of Quantum Physics. arXiv:2109.09170. The Aix Marseille University and Perimeter Institute polyphysicist provides a latest finesse of his theoretical perception since the 1990s that interactivities between objects have their own existence which may be more vital that the pieces themselves. As a general validity of this concept has come to most subject fields, this insight also gains credence for this deepest, substantial realm. See also Information is Physical: Cross Perspective Links in Relational Quantum Mechanics by CR and Emily Adlam at arXiv:2203.13342, For a popular article see The Big Idea: Why Relationships are the Key to Existence in the Manchester Guardian for September 5, 2022.

The relational interpretation (or RQM, for Relational Quantum Mechanics) solves the measurement problem by considering an ontology of sparse relative events, or "facts". Facts are realized in interactions between any two physical systems and are relative to these systems. RQM's technical core is the realisation that quantum transition amplitudes determine physical probabilities only when their arguments are facts relative to the same system. The relativity of facts can be neglected in the approximation where decoherence hides interference, thus making facts approximately stable. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm

Dann, Roie and Ronnie Kosloff. Unification of the First Law of Quantum Thermodynamics. arXiv:2208.10561. Hebrew University of Jerusalem provide an array of latest clarifications as studies of nature’s energies from the 19th century now become expansively integrated with this deep physical basis.

Underlying the classical thermodynamic principles are analogous microscopic laws, arising from the fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics. These define thermodynamic variables such as quantum work and heat and the transformations of open quantum systems. Yet an ambiguity and disagreement exists regarding such features. By treating quantum mechanics as a comprehensive theory, along with dynamical symmetries, we sort our several versions of the first law such as semi-classical formulations, which define work in terms of an ensemble average, as well as the single shot paradigm, where work is defined as a deterministic quantity. (Excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat

Peng, Zhen, et al. What Wilhelm Ostwald meant by “Autokatalyse” and its Significance to Origins of Life Research. BioEssays. 44/9, 2022. ZP, Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, Klaus Paschek, MPI Astronomy, and Joana Xavier. University College London consider initial, century old views of how a biocreative nature seems to avail and draw upon endemic self-making processes and circuits as life evolves on its development and metabolic course. See also Translation of a 1971 Paper by Otto Rossler and a Commentary by Walter Fontana and Phillpp Honegger. At arXiv:2209.04731 for a similar contribution to 2020s realizations of intrinsic cocreative vitality.

A closer look at Wilhelm Ostwald's articles reveals that he proposed to view reactants not just as products, but as autocatalysts. A process activated by its own results is what Ostwald meant by “Autokatalyse.” With regard to origins-of-life research, autocatalysis provides an abiotic mechanism that yields reproduction-like dynamics. Here, we review key publications by Ostwald and the concept expansive autocatalysis. Then we discuss a current revival by way candidate processes underlying the origins of life, and an update of autocatalytic complex metabolic reaction networks. (Abstract)

Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (1853 – 1932) was a Baltic German chemist and philosopher. He is credited as a founder of the field of physical chemistry. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for contributions to catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities. (Wikipedia)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

De Marzo, Giordani, et al. Zipf’s Law for Cosmic Structures. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 651/A114, 2021. The collegial authors, GDM, Francesco Sylos Labini and Luciano Pietronero, Centro Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Rome, have been pioneer researchers of galactic geometries since the early 2000s, as noted in this section. But back then, only initial, spurious inklings could be found. In the two decades since, an actual reality of an innate, harmonic lawfulness across the celestial parsecs has become robustly evident. By this latest posting, into the 2020s an independent, fractal-like self-similarity is considered to take on a distinct textual-like quality. See also Dynamical Approach to Zipf’s Law by this group in Physical Review Research (3/013084, 2021) for a further descriptions, and applications to a far removed urban universe.

The statistical characterization of the distribution of visible matter in the universe is a central problem in modern cosmology. In this respect, a crucial question concerns how large are the greatest structures in the universe. This point is related to whether or not such a distribution can be approximated as being homogeneous on large enough scales. Here we consider the size distribution of superclusters of galaxies and leverage the Zipf-Mandelbrot law to complement an analysis based on correlation functions. We find that galaxy superclusters are described by a pure Zipf's law which implies that the current catalogs are not large enough to spot a truncation in the power-law behavior. (Abstract excerpt)

Exploiting the same methodology we also analyzed the distribution of matter on smaller scales, considering the distribution of clusters rather that that of superclusters. In this case strong deviations from Zipf's law are observed and therefore, on scales of few Mpc, the distribution of matter is self-averaging, confirming previous findings which have also shown this distribution to be fractal on such scales. (6)

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