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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 16 through 30 of 59 found.


An Organic Habitable Zone UniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Chemistry

Azevedo, Helena, et al. Complexity Emerges from Chemistry. Nature Chemistry. 12/9, 2020. As the quote describes, this entry reports the current international frontiers of Systems Chemistry as it takes off on its own. Representative speakers included Phillipe Nghe, Daphne Klotsa, Sarah Perry, Stephen Mann, and Petra Schwille.

Systems chemistry is an active frontier focusing on (multi-)functional reactions from ensembles of molecular components. The most striking example of such emerging behavior is life itself, and unravelling the rules involves decreasing the gap between ‘dead’ molecules and living matter. This Virtual Symposium on Systems Chemistry was hosted by the CUNY Advanced Science Research Center from 18–20 May 2020. Discussions covered supramolecular assembly, out-of-equilibrium processes, chemical networks, and compartmentalization as they translate into phenomena from self-organization to motion, functional (bio)materials, new insights into the origins of life, to interventions with the SARS-CoV-2.

Animate Cosmos > Organic > Chemistry

Schwerdtfeger, Peter, et al. The Periodic Table and the Physics that Drives It. Nature Reviews Chemistry. 4/7, 2020. Massey University, New Zealand and University of Helsinki (Pekka Pyykko) theorists consider how the formation of chemical elements can necessarily be traced in an analogic way to deep physical forces such as relativistic electronic-structure theory, nuclear-structure theory and the astrophysical origins.

The periodic table can be seen as parallel to the Standard Model in particle physics, in which elementary particles can be ordered according to their intrinsic properties. The underlying theory to describe the interactions between particles comes from quantum field theory and its inherent symmetries. In the periodic table, the elements are placed into a certain period and group based on electronic configurations that originate from principles for the electrons surrounding a positively charged nucleus. In this Perspective, we critically analyse the periodic table of elements and the current status of theoretical predictions and origins for the heaviest elements, which combine both quantum chemistry and physics. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics

Haddad, Wassim. A Dynamical Systems Theory of Thermodynamics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019. The Georgia Tech engineering professor (search here and his website) continues into the 21st century to advance the field of scientific articulations for nature’s generative energies and forces.

This book merges thermodynamics and dynamical systems theory into a single compendium, with the latter providing an ideal language for the former, so to develop a new dynamical thermodynamics. This combined format expresses the key aspects and laws of thermodynamics so to provide a mathematical basis for systems out of equilibrium. Topics include nonequilibrium thermodynamics, mass-action kinetics and chemical reactions, finite-time thermodynamics, critical phenomena with phase transitions, information theory, along with stochastic thermodynamics. In this way the book joins thermodynamic irreversibility, the second law, and the arrow of time to unify discreteness and continuity, indeterminism and determinism, quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat

Adamski, Paul, et al. From Self-Replication to Replicator Systems en Route to de Novo Life. Nature Reviews Chemistry. 4/8, 2020. Centre for Systems Chemistry, Stratingh Institute, University of Groningen, Institute of Evolution, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary including Eors Szathmary and Sijbren Otto provide a latest exercise with regard to how the Darwinian evolution model might be reconciled and joined with increasing scientific evidence that an array of self-generative systems are in effect prior to selections. It is now recognized that a common cellular formation can be defined (see Abstract), which is here seen as due to a self-replicative process, aka collective autocatalysis. Life’s natural emergence is further traced to far-from-equilibrium energies and nonlinear complex dynamics. In so many words and ways, these original agencies are well known to be at work to impel and guide life’s oriented development before winnowings take place.

The process by which chemistry can give rise to biology remains one of the biggest mysteries in contemporary science. Both the de novo synthesis and origin of life require the functional integration of three key characteristics — replication, metabolism and compartmentalization — into a system that is out of equilibrium and is capable of open-ended Darwinian evolution. This Review takes systems of self-replicating molecules as starting points and describes the steps necessary to integrate these vital aspects. We analyse how far experimental self-replicators have come in terms of Darwinian evolution and also cover models of replicator communities. Successful models rely on a collective metabolism and the formation of compartments suggesting that the invention and integration of these two features is driven by evolution. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Kobayashi, Chiaki, et al. The Origin of Elements from Carbon to Uranium. arXiv:2008.04660. Three woman astrophysicists, CK, University of Hertfordshire, UK, Amanda Karakas, Monash University, Australia and Maria Lugaro, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, intricately quantify over 40 pages a unique atomic and galactic scenario of how nature’s elemental materiality came to form, arrange and complexify. In closing they acknowledge the eminent astronomer Margaret Burbidge (1919-2020) for encouraging women to enter and proceed in this field of nuclear and astrological science. The second quote, which could well describe a woman’s ecosmos, is from Chiaki’s website, see also home sites for Amanda and Maria about their international careers.

To reach a deeper understanding of the origin of elements in the periodic table, we construct Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models for all stable elements from C (A=12) to U (A=238) from theoretical nucleosynthesis yields and event rates of all chemical enrichment sources. Neutron star mergers can produce rapid neutron-capture process elements up to Th and U, but the timescales are too long to explain observations at low metallicities. The observed evolutionary trends, such as for Eu, can well be explained if ~3% of 25-50 M hypernovae are magneto-rotational supernovae. Along with the solar neighborhood, we also predict the evolutionary trends in the halo, bulge, and thick disk for future comparison with galactic archaeology surveys. (Abstract excerpt)

I am an astronomer, because I love stars, galaxies, and the Universe. I might be rather a theorist, I am making my own galaxies in my computer based on physics and compareing with the observed galaxies in the real Universe, in order to investigate how galaxies form and evolve. My favorites are aurora, seas, drama plays, and rock music. In summer, I enjoy looking at the sea, swimming, and scuba diving. I'm looking for something special, something beautiful, tender, absolute, and eternal. (Chiaki Kobayashi)

Ecosmomics: A Survey of Animate Complex Network Systems

Cosmic Code

Bizzarri, Mariano, et al. Complexity in Biological Organization: Key Concepts. Entropy. Online August 12, 2020. In a special Biological Statistical Mechanics issue, systems scientists from Italy, Russia and Cuba, surely a global online faculty, post a 21st century retrospective of advance, emphasis, clarification and convergence in this wide ranging study of nature’s nonlinear essence. The paper first reviews etymology origins of key concepts and terms within this organic revolution – complexity, systems, self-organization, emergence, hierarchy and so on. Renormalization theory, critical transitions and more also receive notice as a revolutionary organic universe to human genesis gains witness, articulation and credence.

The “magic” word complexity evokes a multitude of meanings that obscure its real sense. Here we try and generate a bottom-up reconstruction of the deep sense of complexity by looking at the convergence of different features shared by complex systems. We specifically focus on complexity in biology but stressing the similarities with analogous features encountered in inanimate and artifactual systems in order to track an integrative path toward a new “mainstream” of science overcoming the actual fragmentation of scientific culture. (Abstract)

This statement introduces some very relevant questions given that emergent phenomena share some common—universal traits that are largely insensitive to changes in their microphysical base, as pointed out by studies of the Renormalization Group. “Universality” refers to the fact that phase transitions arising in different systems often possess the same set of critical exponents, while the thermodynamic properties of a system near a phase transition depend only on a small number of features, such as dimensionality and symmetry, and are insensitive to the underlying microphysics. Conclusively, emergence is not an epistemic construct. Instead, it reflects a true ontological reality shared by complex systems of very different nature. (4)

Cosmic Code

Deutsch, Andreas amd Sabine Dormann. Cellular Automaton Modeling of Biological Pattern Formation. International: Springer, 2018. Technical University of Dresden complexity bioscientists provide a latest tutorial about nature’s essential propensity to iteratively organize her/his self into viable, universal scales of emergent genesis. Some chapter and section titles are On the Origin of Patterns, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, and Physical Analogues, Morphogenesis.

The book introduces pattern-forming principles in biology and the various mathematical modeling techniques used to analyze them. Cellular automaton models are discussed for different types of cellular processes and interactions, such as random movement, cell migration, adhesive cell interaction, alignment and cellular swarming, growth processes, pigment cell pattern formation, tumor growth, and Turing-type patterns. The final chapter discusses potentials and limits of the cellular automaton approach in modeling various biological applications, along with future research directions. (Publisher)

Cosmic Code

Khelifi, Mounir, et al. A Relative Multifractal Analysis. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. Vol. 140, 2020. University of Monastir, Tunisia mathematicians provide a further finesse of nature’s infinite self-similar formulations. We also cite amongst a wide array of international 2020 papers such as Multifractal Analysis of Embryonic Eye Structures in Mice (Sijilmassi, Ouafa, et al, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 138), The Origin of Collective Phenomena in Firm Sizes (Ji, Guseon, et al, Graduate School of Future Strategy, KAIST, S. Korea, 136), Using Network Science to Unveil Badminton Performance Patterns (Gomez, Miguel-Angel, et al, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 135), A Symbiosis between Cellular Automata and Genetic Algorithms (Cerruti, Umberto, et al, University of Torino, 134), and The Fractal Description Model of Rock Fracture Networks (LiLi, Sui, et al, North China Institute of Science, 129). Our aim is to document in this consummate year how every manifest social, biologic and physical phase is deeply guided by common mathematic sources.

The University of Monastir is a Tunisian multidisciplinary university with its own financial and administrative autonomy located on the Gulf of Hammamet, south of Tunis. It was founded in 2004 following the reform of the university higher education system and is organized in 5 Faculties, 2 graduate schools and 9 institutes.

Cosmic Code

Wieczorek, Michal, et al. Neural Network Powered COVID-19 Spread Forecasting Model. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals. Online August, 2020. We cite this entry by Silesian University of Technology, Poland mathematicians for itself and as an example amidst an intense worldwide effort to quantify the actual network dynamics that underlie viral epidemics. It is part of a journal collection Modeling and Forecasting of Epidemic Spreading: The Case of COVID-19 and Beyond edited by Stefano Boccalletti, et al. In regard, it needs to be emphasized that an independent, universal topology does exist which constrains its course, and if it is well defined, this common knowledge can guide palliative management and future preventions.

Virus spread prediction is very important to effectively plan actions. Invasive viruses not easy to control, since their speed and reach depends on many factors from environmental to social ones. Here, we present research results on the development of a Neural Network model for COVID-19 spread prediction. It is based on a classic deep architecture which learns by using the NAdam training model. Results of prediction are done for countries but also regions to provide a wide spectrum of values about predicted COVID-19 spread. (Abstract)

Cosmic Code > nonlinear > networks

Bianconi, Ginestra. Welcome to JPhys Complexity. Journal of Physics: Complexity. 1/010201, 2020. The Queen Mary University of London systems mathematician and author (search) introduces this inaugural Institute of Physics IOP journal. Actually its occasion is a bit overdue within the 21st century shift in physical studies from inorganic parts and energies to nature’s constant, intricate topologies and lively dynamics as they rise from statistical phenomena to genomic, physiology, neural and national phases. As the quote cites, once again this advance is about moving from separate pieces to their equally real inter-linkages in a genesis uniVerse.

Typical papers in the first two issues are Simplicial Complexes, Road Network Development, Classical Information Theory of Networks and Observables in Complex Quantum Networks. In addition, Guido Caldarelli offers A Perspective on Complexity and Networks Science, with an emphasis on financial phases.

Complex systems are ubiquitous in both natural and man-made contexts; with examples including the brain, the climate, the economy, and society. All of these systems are formed by many elements, and their complex interactions can give rise to unexpected emergent properties. Borrowing the famous title of PW Anderson’s 1972 paper we can say that for complex systems ‘more is different’ because they display collective phenomena that cannot be understood by studying their constituents in isolation. For instance, brain function cannot be understood by studying a single neuron in isolation and human culture cannot be explained if interactions and influences between individuals are not taken into account. (1)

Cosmic Code > nonlinear > networks

Liu, Xueming, et al. Network Resilience. arXiv:2007.14464. Six theorists from Chinese Universities and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute including Jianxi Gao and Boleslaw Szymanski post a 113 page, 859 reference 2020 tutorial about this pervasive ability of natural node/link complexities to restore and maintain themselves. Typical sections are Tipping Points in Ecological Networks, Phase Transitions in Biological Networks, Behavior Transitions in Animal and Human Networks and Resilience, Robustness and Stability. In the midst of epochal perils, this entry reports a concurrent worldwise finding of a revolutionary genesis ecosmos with its own bigender genomic code.

Many systems on our planet are known to shift abruptly and irreversibly from one state to another when they are forced across a "tipping point," such as mass extinctions in ecological networks, cascading failures in infrastructure systems, and social convention changes in human and animal networks. Such a regime shift demonstrates a system's ability to adjust activities so to retain its basic functionality in the face of internal or external changes. Only in recent years by way of network theory and lavish data sets, have complexity scientists been able to study real-world multidimensional systems, early warning indicators and resilient responses. This report reviews resilience function and regime shift of complex systems in domains such as ecology, biology, social systems and infrastructure. (Abstract excerpt)

The nature and the world in which we live are filled with changes and crises. Examples are the global pandemic of the novel coronavirus, the catastrophe in east Africa caused by the infestation by desert locusts, and the 2019 bushfire in Australia that burned through some 10 million hectares of land. In addition, these threats and crisises are not independent but related with one another. For example, the Australia bushfire and locust swarms are linked to the oscillations of the Indian Ocean Dipole, which is one aspect of the growing of the global climate change. How the nature or societies response to such threats and crises is defined by their resilience, which characterizes the ability of a system to adjust its activity to retain its basic functionality in the face of internal disturbances or external changes. (2)

Cosmic Code > nonlinear > Rosetta Cosmos

Ramirez-Arellano, Aldo. Classification of Literary Works: Fractality and Complexity of the Narrative, Essay, and Research Article. Entropy. 22/8, 2020. We cite this entry by a National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico interdisciplinary theorist as another example of how even our written, textual reports and stories are similarly suffused by the same nonlinear intricate forms and net dynamics as all other phases. A further substantial depth is then noticed by affinities to mathematical physics.

Linguistic typological research using quantitative measures is a current research topic based on the complex network approach. This project aims at showing the node degree, betweenness, shortest path length, clustering coefficient, and nearest neighborhood degree, as well as the fractal dimension, the complexity of a given network, the Area Under Box-covering, and the Area Under the Robustness Curve. The literary works of Mexican writers were classified according to their genre. Almost 90% of the full word co-occurrence networks were classified as a fractal. Empirical evidence is presented also finds that lemmatisation of the original text is a renormalisation network process that preserves their fractal property and reveals stylistic attributes by genre. (Abstract)

Cosmic Code > nonlinear > 2015 universal

Berezutskii, Aleksandr, et al. Probing Criticality in Quantum Spin Chains with Neural Networks. Journal of Physics: Complexity. 1/3, 2020. We cite entry this by an international team based in Canada, Russia, and Hungary including Jacob Biamonte as an example of how even quantum phenomena can and does exhibit nature’s independent preference for this widely prevalent state of dynamic balance.

The numerical emulation of quantum systems often requires an exponential number of degrees of freedom which translates to a computational bottleneck. Methods of machine learning have been used in adjacent fields for effective feature extraction and high-dimensional datasets. Recent studies have revealed that neural networks are suitable for the determination of macroscopic phases of matter as well as efficient quantum state representation. In this work, we address phase transitions in quantum spin chains and show that even neural networks with no hidden layers can be effectively trained to distinguish between magnetically ordered and disordered phases. Our results extend to a wide class of interacting quantum many-body systems and illustrate the wide applicability of neural networks to many-body quantum physics. (Abstract excerpt)

Cosmic Code > nonlinear > 2015 universal

Friston, Karl, et al. Parcels and Particles: Markov Blankets in the Brain. arXiv:2007.09704. We cite this entry from researchers based at University College London Wellcome Centre along with a companion posting Is the Free-energy Principle a Formal Theory of Semantics? by Maxwell Ramstead, et al (2007.09291). While cast in technical jargon they emphasize an active complementarity of neuronal parts and modular wholes, aka reciprocal segregation and integration, or separate and come together dynamic phases. As these cerebral processes empower a predictive brain, they are seen to reside in a far-from-equilibrium, self-organized critical state.

Cosmic Code > nonlinear > 2015 universal

Goblot, Valentin, et al. Emergence of Criticality through a Cascade of Delocalization Transitions in Quasiperiodic Chains. Nature Physics. August, 2020. We cite this entry by thirteen Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS and ETH Zurich nanotechnologists to report and convey that even nature’s complex materiality seems to adopt and exhibit this common dynamic duality of more or less orderly phases.

Conduction through materials crucially depends on how ordered the materials are. Periodically ordered systems exhibit extended Bloch waves that generate metallic bands, whereas disorder is known to limit conduction and localize the motion of particles in a medium. In this context, quasiperiodic systems, which are neither periodic nor disordered, demonstrate exotic conduction properties, self-similar wavefunctions and critical phenomena. Here, we explore the localization properties of waves in a novel family of quasiperiodic chains obtained when continuously interpolating between two paradigmatic limits: the Aubry–André model, and the Fibonacci chain, known for its critical nature. We discover that the Aubry–André model evolves into criticality through a cascade of band-selective localization/delocalization transitions that iteratively shape the self-similar critical wavefunctions of the Fibonacci chain. (Abstract excerpts)

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