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Recent Additions: New and Updated Entries in the Past 60 Days
Displaying entries 46 through 60 of 145 found.


An Organic, Conducive, Habitable MultiUniVerse

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > quant therm

Shah, Ruhi and Jonathan Gorard. Quantum Cellular Automata, Black Hole Thermodynamics and the Laws of Quantum Complexity. Complex Systems. 28/4, 2019. We cite this paper by University of Waterloo, Canada and Cambridge University theorists to illustrate the degree to mathematical sophistication that is now being readily applied to all manner of quantum and cosmic phenomena by our instant, collective human cerebral acumen.

This paper introduces a new formalism for quantum cellular automata (QCAs), based on evolving tensor products of qubits using local unitary operators. It then validates several conjectures stemming from a formal analogy between quantum computational complexity theory and classical thermodynamics that have arisen in the context of black hole physics. Finally, a rigorous explanation for this empirical relationship is provided by drawing an explicit connection with the mean ergodic theorem, and the ergodicity of k-local quantum systems. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat

Peng, Peng, Zhen, et al. An Ecological Framework for the Analysis of Prebiotic Chemical Reaction Networks. arXiv:2001.02533. Wisconsin Institute for Discovery investigators including David Baum describe detailed experimental results that evince the vital role played by primordial autocatalytic chemicals and reactions so that biocomplex systems could together and grow on their way to life’s evolutionary development.

It is becoming widely accepted that very early in the origin of life, even before the emergence of genetic encoding, reaction networks of diverse chemicals might have manifested key properties of life, namely self-propagation and adaptive evolution. Our experiments reveal that seeding an autocatalytic cycle (AC) with tiny amounts of one or more of its energy/food chemicals results in logistic growth of cyclical biochemicals. This finding justifies drawing an instructive analogy between an AC and the population of a biological species. This finding shows that pairs of ACs can have competitive, predator-prey, or mutualistic associations just like biological species. In a stochastic environment, chemical ecosystems with complex dynamics can resemble evolution. (Abstract excerpt, edits)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat

Wagner, Nathaniel, et al. Open Prebiotic Environments Drive Emergent Phenomena and Complex Behavior. Life. 9/2, 2019. Ben-Gurion University, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, and Williams College, MA researchers including Gonen Ashkenasy advance understandings of how intrinsic network topologies played a prime generative role to faciliatate the comings together of biomolecules on their way to evolution and us.

We have been studying simple prebiotic catalytic replicating networks as prototypes for modeling replication, complexification and Systems Chemistry. While living systems are always open and function far from equilibrium, these prebiotic networks may be open or closed, dynamic or static, divergent or convergent to a steady state. In this paper we review the properties of simple replicating networks, and show, via four working models, how even though closed systems exhibit a wide range of emergent phenomena, many of the more interesting phenomena leading to complexification and emergence indeed require open systems. (Abstract)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat

Wang, Qingpu and Oliver Steinbock. Materials Synthesis and Catalysis in Microfluidic Devices: Prebiotic Chemistry in Mineral Membranes. ChemCatChem. 12/1, 2020. In this ChemPubSoc Europe journal, Florida State University chemists (search OS) add further confirmation of auto-creative processes by which living systems bootstrapped themselves into biocomplex emergence. In this edition, “self-organized compositional gradients,” among other forces are seen in progressive evolutionary effect. See also in this journal Thermodynamically and Kinetically Controlled Reactions in Biocatalysis by Stefan Marsden, et al (12/2) and Nature is the Cure: Engineering Redox Cofactors for Biomimetic and Bioinspired Catalysts by Marine Desage El Murr (12/1).

The processes that led to the origins of life possibly occurred in the inorganic precipitate membranes of alkaline hydrothermal vents. These geochemical systems provide spatial confinement, cross‐membrane gradients, and catalytic surfaces. Their study is challenging due to the vast parameter space and the need to maintain nonequilibrium conditions for long times. Microfluidic approaches offer an efficient solution by allowing the formation of mineral membranes at the interface of flowing reactant solutions and the control of steep gradients. In this minireview, we summarize recent progress with this approach and discuss their catalytic properties in the context of prebiotic chemistry. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Thermodynamics > autocat

Xavier, Joana, et al. Autocatalytic Chemical Networks at the Origin of Metabolism. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. March, 2020. Early evolution theorists posted in Germany, Austria, the USA, New Zealand and Portugal including Stuart Kauffman continue to highlight the intrinsic significance of nature’s self-activation propensity to get life going. A graphic image of a global oxygen-independent prokaryotic metabolism displays many instances where biochemical catalysts are in effect. Might we at some point gain a wider appreciation of a autocatalytic ecosmos which organizes itself at each scale? Are we peoples now the intended selves as cosmic catalysts to begin its future genesis phase by our own initiative the next step by our own initiative?

Modern cells embody metabolic networks containing thousands of elements and form autocatalytic sets of molecules that produce copies of themselves. How these self-sustaining networks arose at life's origin is an open question. Here we identify reflexively autocatalytic food-generated networks (RAFs) as self-sustaining networks that collectively catalyse all their reaction. Our studies suggest that RAFs identify attributes of biochemical origins conserved in metabolic networks. RAFs are consistent with an autotrophic origin of metabolism and indicate that autocatalytic chemical networks preceded proteins and RNA in evolution. RAFs uncover intermediate stages in the emergence of metabolic networks, narrowing the gaps between early Earth chemistry and life. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Einasto, Jaan, et al. On Fractal Properties of the Cosmic Web. arXiv:2002.02813. When scientific research began to shift to a worldwide collaboration in the early 2000s, this section could only document sparse inklings of reliable geometric patterns as they suffuse the celestial raiment. Here and now, Tartu Observatory, Estonia astrophysicists quantify in much mathematical detail their presence at every self-similar instance and scale. See also Evolution of Superclusters in the Cosmic Web by this group at 1901.09378. Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei would be gratified. Our natural philoSophia view may finally be encountering and verifying the vital, recursive structurations that are there on their intrinsic own.

Animate Cosmos > Fractal

Maeder, Andre and Vesselio Gueorguiev. Scale-Invariant Dynamics of Galaxies, MOND, Dark Matter and Dwarf Spheriodals. arXiv:2001.04978. Geneva Observatory and Institute for Advanced Physical Studies, Sofia astrophysicists report further evidence for nature’s pervasive celestial self-similarity. In regard, when we first posted this section in the early 2000s, a detection of any fractal forms in space was spurious and patchy. At this new 2020 decade dawns, their presence in every feature across the spatial raiment and its temporal course are now well proven. By a natural philoSophia, might we contemplate where do these ordained, non-random mathematical regularities come from. Might we wonder and as whatever reality put them there in the first place.

The Scale-Invariant Vacuum (SIV) theory is based on (Herman) Weyl's Integrable Geometry, endowed with a gauge scalar field. The main difference between MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) and the SIV theory is that the first considers a global invariance of space and time, where the scale factor λ is constant, while the second considers λ as a function of time. The SIV theory shows an excellent agreement with observations and with MOND for baryonic gravities. These results support the view that there is no need for dark matter and that the RAR (Radial Acceleration Relation) and dynamical galaxies can be interpreted by a modification of gravitation. (Abstract excerpt)

A Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy is a term in astronomy applied to small, low-luminosity galaxies with very little dust and an older stellar population. They are found in the Local Group as companions to the Milky Way and to the Andromeda Galaxy. (Wikipedia)

Animate Cosmos > Astrobiology

Gusten, Rolf, et al. Astrophysical Detection of the Helium Hydride Ion HeH+. Nature. 568/357, 2019. MPI Radioastronomy and University of Cologne scientists report their novel findings of what is considered to be the earliest molecular form of cosmic nucleosynthesis. A popular article all about is First Molecule in the Universe by Ryan Fortenberry in Scientific American for February 2020.

During the dawn of chemistry, when the temperature of the young Universe had fallen below some 4,000 Kelvin, the ions of the light elements produced in Big Bang nucleosynthesis recombined in reverse order of their ionization potential. With their higher ionization potentials, the helium ions He2+ and He+ were the first to combine with free electrons, forming the first neutral atoms; the recombination of hydrogen followed. In this metal-free and low-density environment, neutral helium atoms formed the Universe’s first molecular bond in the helium hydride ion HeH+ through radiative association with protons.

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Adams, Fred, et al. Energy Optimization in Extrasolar Planetary Systems. arXiv:2002.10661. The growing flow of research findings about a planet forming ecosmos now allows University of Michigan, CalTech and Yale University astrophysicists to observe and develop a sense of the role and importance of an energetic factor.

Motivated by the trends found in the observed sample of extrasolar planets, this paper determines tidal equilibrium states for forming planetary systems which are subject to conservation of angular momentum, constant total mass, and fixed orbital spacing. The present treatment generalizes previous results by including the self-gravity of the planetary bodies. For systems with sufficiently large total mass in planets, the optimized energy state switches over from the case of nearly equal mass planets to a configuration where one planet contains most of the material. These considerations of energy optimization apply over a wide range of mass scales, from binary stars to planetary systems to the collection of moons orbiting the giant planets in our solar system. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Gilbert, Gregory and Daniel Fabrycky. An Information Theoretic Framework for Classifying Exoplanetary System Architectures. arXiv:2003.11098. University of Chicago astronomers contribute to a growing sense that planetary arrays can be seen to exhibit innate mathematic patterns and regularities. By a novel application of nonlinear dynamics it is proposed that a sunny star with its orbital members could make up an active, composite system. Rather than looking at individual globes, the full orrery gains priority as a basic unit. In so doing they pose algorithmic, deterministic and aggregate modes of complexity drawn from disparate areas such as bird flocking, epidemic spreading, and message transmission. As this infinite frontier beckons, it would be a grand resolve of inklings from Kepler to Hubble that visible, audible harmonics and rhythms grace the celestial heavens.

We propose descriptive measures to characterize the arrangements of planetary masses, periods, and mutual inclinations within exoplanetary systems. They are based in complexity theory so to discern global, system-level trends of each architecture. Our approach considers all planets in a system simultaneously, facilitating both intra-system and inter-system analysis. We find that Kepler's high-multiplicity systems can be explained if most systems belong to a single intrinsic population. We confirm prior findings that planets within a system tend to be roughly the same size and coplanar. We apply this classification scheme to (1) quantify the similarity between systems, (2) resolve observational biases from physical trends, and (3) identify which systems to search for additional planets and where to look for these planets. (Abstract excerpt)

We look forward to putting the Solar System in a wider context - not only with regard to its planets system but also in relation to its giant moon systems. Our method provides a statistical target for planet formation models, no longer requiring the tuning of models to match just one system, e.g., the Solar System, TRAPPIST-1, or some other peculiar system of interest. Just as Galileo used the Jovian satellite system as a conceptual model for the Copernican Solar System, by looking at a much larger sample of exoplanetary systems, we can begin to see the system-level trends and whether such an identification has strong foundations. (17)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Raymond, Sean and Alessandro Morbidelli. Planet Formation: Key Mechanisms and Global Models. arXiv:2002.05756. As global capabilities to explore and quantify a increasing array of eclectic orbital worlds and to reconstruct how they came to form, veteran astrophysicists (search) at the University of Bordeaux and the Cote d’Azur Observatory, Nice post a 103 page, 372 reference copious paper upon the latest findings. It opens with a graphic about Earth and Jupiter which cites dust coagulation, pebble accretion, planetismals, giant impacts, moon making and more and goes on about the masses and orbits of super-Earths, cosmo-chemical growth factors, asteroid compositions, and every other aspect. An impression grows of how wildly stochastic the long, dramatic course of solar systems actually is, which then highlights our own Earth whence a collaborative species is able to achieve its consciously perceived description.

In order to make sense of the origin of the planets we must first understand the origin of their building blocks. The first part presents a detailed description of six key mechanisms of planet formation: 1) The structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, 2) The formation of planetesimals, 3) Accretion of protoplanets, 4) Orbital migration of growing planets, 5) Gas accretion and giant planet migration, and 6) Resonance trapping during planet migration. The second part of this review shows how global models are built out of planet formation processes by explaining different populations of known planetary systems, including close-in small/low-mass planets (i.e., super-Earths), giant exoplanets, and the Solar System's planets. We discuss the different sources of water on rocky exoplanets, and use cosmochemical measurements to quantify the origin of Earth's water. (Abstract excerpt)

Animate Cosmos > exoearths

Vedantham, H. K., et al. Coherent Radio Emission from a Quiescent Red Dwarf Indicative of Star-Planet Interaction. arXiv:2002.08727. We cite this entry by fourteen astronomers from the Netherlands, France, the USA, Scotland, Germany, and Ireland to record how a sunny star and its orbital worlds altogether compose a dynamic system as if, to take license, as a solar incubator.

Cosmomics: A Genomic Source Code in Procreative Effect

Cosmic Code

Plamen Ch. Ivanov website. physics.bu.edu/people/show/plamen. We cite this home page of the Bulgarian-American, Boston University research professor as an example of the creative, worldwide frontiers of nonlinear, self-organizing complex network theories. From this site, the Keck Laboratory for Network Physiology which Ivanov directs, can be accessed with its rich array of projects, people, and publications. A recent contribution is the discovery of non-equilibrium critical dynamics in bursts of cortical dynamics in sleep/wake cycles (search for 2019 paper). His collegial research across a wide range from condensed matter to cardiac, neural, somatic onto societies well attests to nature’s universally recurrent manifestation of the same mathematical dynamics everywhere.

My research group has introduced several innovative approaches to analyze physiologic data by adapting concepts from modern statistical physics, nonlinear dynamics, and applied mathematics. These methods have been successfully applied to cardiac, respiratory, locomotion, and brain systems, along with sleep-stage transitions and circadian rhythms. Those data-driven approaches enabled us to discover basic laws of physiologic regulation of individual systems whose results were published in leading journals such as Nature, PNAS and Physical Review Letters. Our overall research objective is to develop a new interdisciplinary field, Network Physiology, integrating efforts across statistical and computational physics, biomedical engineering, human physiology, and medicine.

Cosmic Code

Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire, et al. Quantitative Immunology for Physicists. Physics Reports. Online January, 2020. Veteran complexity theorists G A-B, National Cancer Institute, USA, with Thierry Mora Aleksandra Walczak, CNRS Sorbonne University, Paris post a 70 page tutorial which reviews the latest perceptions of this important biological process. It then shows how much the immune system has become understood as another vital manifestation of nature’s universal complexities. Some sections are Ligand-Receptor Interaction, Antigen Diiscrimination, Cel to Cell Communication, and Populations Dynamics of Pathogens and Hosts.

The adaptive immune system is a dynamical, self-organized multiscale system that protects vertebrates from both pathogens and internal irregularities, such as tumours. For these reason it fascinates physicists, yet the multitude of different cells, molecules and sub-systems is often also petrifying. Despite this complexity, as experiments on different scales of the adaptive immune system become more quantitative, many physicists have made both theoretical and experimental contributions that help predict the behaviour of ensembles of cells and molecules that participate in an immune response. Here we review some recent contributions with an emphasis on quantitative questions and methodologies. We also provide a more general methods section that presents some of the wide array of theoretical tools used in the field. (Abstract)

Cosmic Code > Algorithms

Woods, Damian, et al. Diverse and Robust Molecular Algorithms Using Reprogrammable DNA Self-Assembly. Nature. 567/366, 2019. Seven CalTech and Harvard bioinformatic researchers including Erik Winfree and David Doty (search each) advance understandings of how nature’s helical nucleotides can be availed for many more chemical, structural, data storage uses beyond replication. Who then are we cosmic curators to learn all about and intentionally take up life’s organic procreativity?

Molecular biology provides a proof-of-principle that chemical systems can store and process information to direct molecular activities such as the fabrication of complex structures from molecular components. Mathematical tiling and statistical–mechanical models of molecular crystallization have shown that algorithmic behaviour can be embedded within molecular self-assembly processes by DNA nanotechnology. Here we report the design and validation of a DNA tile set that contains 355 single-stranded tiles and can be reprogrammed to implement a wide variety of 6-bit algorithms. These findings suggest that molecular self-assembly could be a reliable algorithmic component within programmable chemical systems. (Abstract excerpt)

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